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[经济学人] [2007.03.02] [SURVEYS]THE AMERICAN SOUTH:The art of the possible

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发表于 2010-4-28 15:49 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
SURVEY

THE AMERICAN SOUTH
美国南部

The art of the possible
选举技巧之无限可能

Mar 1st 2007
From The Economist print edition

Southern politics are a deep, complex shade of red
南方政治一片红 深红 浅红

THE conventional wisdom about southern politics is that it all comes down to race. When the Democrats were the party of segregation, southern whites voted Democrat and blacks did not vote at all. From 1903 until 1961 the states of the old Confederacy elected no Republicans to the United States Senate. Not one. Then a Democratic president, Lyndon Johnson, signed the Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act in 1964 and 1965. Unscrupulous Republicans saw an opportunity to woo disgruntled southern whites with coded racial appeals. Gradually the Democratic monopoly on power in the South was replaced by Republican dominance. In the presidential elections of 2000 and 2004, George Bush carried every southern state, even beating Al Gore on his home turf of Tennessee.
    根据一般常识,南部地区政治归根结底与种族有关。当民主党支持种族隔离时,南部的白人全投民主党人的票,而黑人却根本不投。从1903年到1961年,旧邦联的各州所选联邦议员中无一共和党。然后,一位民主党总统林登 詹森分别于1964年和1965年签属了《民权法案》和《选举权法》。这时,肆无忌惮的共和党人看到了一个劝诱不满的南方白人的机会,就是顺应他们隐藏的种族诉求。渐渐的,民主党在南方的垄断地位被共和党人取代了。在2000年和2004年的总统大选中,乔治 布什赢得了南部所有的州,甚至包括了阿尔 戈尔家乡所在的田纳西州。
AP美联社



Sanford and friends Sanford和朋友们

This explanation obscures as much as it illuminates. Race may colour many southerners' view of the world, but so do other considerations. Religion is one. Republicans are expert at wooing socially conservative Christians. The national Democratic Party is skilled at repelling them.
    这个解释隐晦但简单易懂。种族问题使得南方人带着有色眼镜看世界,但是还是有其它因素存在的。宗教就是其中之一。共和党很擅长劝诱在社会立场很保守的基督教徒,而国家共和党则是基督教徒的眼中钉。


Economics is another. In “The End of Southern Exceptionalism”, Byron Shafer and Richard Johnston, two political scientists, observe that southern whites voted Democratic for racial reasons until the 1960s, but thereafter split along class lines. As in the rest of America, better-off whites were more likely to vote Republican, poorer ones to vote Democrat or not at all. Black southerners, who are socially conservative but more inclined than whites to believe that government should give people a leg up, now fall solidly in the Democratic camp.
    经济是另一因素。在“南方例外主义的终结”中,两个政治学者Byron Shafer和Richard Johnston注意到,在二十世纪六十年代之前,南方的白人投民主党的票是出于种族原因,在那之后,投哪个党派的票就随着阶级的不同而分化了。在美国其它地方,境况好一点的白人更加倾向投票给共和党,穷一点的会选民主党,或者谁的票也不投。南方的黑人,社会立场很保守,会比白人更加倾向于相信政府,相信政府会给予人民帮助。现在,他们已经完全地站在了民主党的阵营。

Southern white culture is very individualistic, says Merle Black, a professor of politics at Emory University. “Most voters make more than $30,000 a year. And that's about the level at which white southern voters start complaining about how much tax they pay.” Mr Black recalls workers in Texas in the 1960s earning $3 an hour and complaining loudly about the deductions from their pay packets. These are the kind of people who voted for Barry Goldwater, Ronald Reagan and Mr Bush, he says.
    一位埃默里大学的政治学教授Merle Black说,南方的白人文化是非常个人主义。“大多数选民的年收入超过三万美元。而该收入水平线恰恰吻合征税起点,南方白人因此怨声载道。”布莱克先生回想起,在二十世纪六十年代德克萨斯工人每小时收入为三美元,并且高声抱怨对他们的征税。他说,正是这些人投票选举巴里 戈德华特、罗那德 里根和布什先生。
   
One of the fiercest southern budget hawks is Mark Sanford, the (Republican) governor of South Carolina. Facing an unconstitutional budget deficit in 2004, he vetoed 106 pork-barrel spending items in the state budget. The Republican-controlled state House overrode 105 of his vetoes, so he marched into the Capitol with a pair of piglets in his arms. The public loved the stunt. State senators restored some of the cuts, and the budget balanced.
    南方地区最极端的财政预算强硬派是南卡罗莱娜州州长Mark Sanford(共和党人)。2004年,面对着违宪的预算赤字,他否决了州财政预算中的106项分肥拨款。共和党控制的州众议院推翻了其中的105项。因此他抱着两只小猪闯进了州议会大厦。公众喜欢这样的噱头,于是州议员对预算做了一些调整,预算平衡了。
   
Mr Sanford is thoughtful as well as fierce. He quotes Alexander Tytler's warning that a democracy can survive only until voters discover that they can vote themselves largesse out of the public treasury. “Empires can fall. We're not exempt,” he says. His sombre view of history explains why he tries to block pork of any kind. He even vetoed cash for the Special Olympics, arguing that government should not pick favourites among charities.
    Sanford先生既深思熟虑又思想尖锐。他引用亚利山大 泰勒的警告:民主只有在一种情况下可以存在,那就是选民们发现他们的投票能使他们从公共财富中受益。“帝国会衰败。我们也不例外。”他说。他消极的历史观解释了为什么他会试图阻止任何一种政治恩惠。他甚至否决给特殊奥林匹克的拨款,并为此争辩到,政府不应该在各种慈善团体差别待遇。


Many southerners, however, prefer the have-your-cake-and-eat-it approach to fiscal policy. “People here think they are overtaxed,” says Mr Black, but they “tend to take Medicare [government-funded health care for the elderly] and Social Security [public pensions] for granted.” In recent years, politics in Washington, DC, have been dominated by southern Republicans, with a Texan president, Senate majority leaders from Mississippi and Tennessee and a House majority leader from Texas. Yet federal spending has ballooned and nothing has been done to restrain the growth of entitlements that could bust the budget when the baby-boomers retire.
    但是许多南方人在财政政策上有着鱼与熊掌不可兼得的矛盾心态。“人们认为税收过高了,”布莱克先生说,但是“他们倾向于把医疗卫生[政府资助的专为老年人的医疗服务]和社会保障[公共退休金]认为是理所应当的。”近些年来,华盛顿特区的政治由南方的共和党统治,这里有来自德克萨斯的总统,来自密西西比和田纳西州的参议院多数党的领袖们,以及来自德克萨斯的众议院多数党领袖。但是联邦开支却在不断膨胀,政府津贴也水涨船高。但是政府没有采取任何措施以限制津贴的增长。当“婴儿潮”的一代退休时,联邦预算会爆炸的。
   
A choice of new southern strategies
新南方策略的选择


Both parties have a problem with the South. The Democrats' problem is that not many southerners vote for them. Even after the Democratic triumph at last year's mid-term elections, only five out of 26 southern members of the United States Senate and 57 of 141 southern House members are Democrats. The Republicans' problem is the opposite. There are so many southern Republicans in Congress that they pretty much call the shots in the national Republican Party, making it more socially conservative than many non-southerners can stomach. Southern Baptists浸礼会教友 applauded when Mr Bush vetoed federal funding for most stem-cell research, but voters in western swing states cringed.
    两党在南方地区都有问题。民主党的问题是南方人中投票给他们的不多。甚至在去年民主党赢得了中期选举后,联邦参议院的每26个南方成员中只有五个是民主党,在南方各州众议院中,每141个中只有57个。共和党的问题正相反。在国会中,南方来的共和党人太多了,以至于他们几乎控制了国家共和党,这就使得共和党变得很保守,这种保守是许多非南方人不能忍受的。当布什先生否决联邦对大多数干细胞研究的资助时,南方的浸礼会教友们为之鼓掌,但是西部一些摇摆不定的州却畏缩不语。

The Republicans could tackle their problem by picking a presidential candidate who is either socially liberal by Republican standards, such as Rudy Giuliani, or conservative but quiet about it, such as John McCain, but that might depress turnout among the Republican faithful.
    共和党人可以通过挑选一位这样的总统候选人来解决问题:以共和党人的标准来看是他是开放的,比如鲁迪 朱利安尼,或者虽然保守但是对此保持沉默,例如约翰 麦凯恩,但是这种态度会挫伤共和党人忠实选民的积极性。

   
The Democrats' problem is more complex. Steve Jarding and Dave “Mudcat” Saunders, two Democratic strategists, urge their party to reach out to southern white males by fielding candidates who understand hunting, stock-car racing and country music and (more important) also sound Christian and unpatronising. It worked for Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton. But Hillary Clinton may find it harder.
    民主党的问题更加复杂。两个民主党的战略家史蒂夫 扎丁和“鲶鱼”桑德斯极力主张民主党通过一位这样的候选人来进入南部地区。这个候选人要懂得打猎,牲口车比赛,乡村音乐还要是(更难的)虔诚的基督徒而且不能够一副居高临下的姿态。这招对吉米 卡特和比尔 克林顿来说很有效。但是希拉里 克林顿会发现它很难。
   
Another idea, espoused by Thomas Schaller in his book “Whistling Past Dixie”, is for the Democrats to ignore the South and try to build a majority in less reflexively hostile parts of the country. But winning without the South would require 73% of non-southern electoral-college votes. Mr Black thinks the Democrats should seek votes where they can, perhaps venturing out of their north-eastern stronghold to pick off Florida and Virginia.
    另一个观点,为汤马斯 沙勒在他的书《Whistling Past Dixie》中所拥护。这个观点就是民主党应该忽略掉南方地区,转而试着在其它本能性敌对情绪较轻的地区寻求多数。但是要想抛弃南方地区同时赢得选举,需要在其它非南方地区的选举团中取得73%的支持。布莱克先生认为民主党应该在任何有可能的地区寻求选票,也许应该勇敢得走出东北大本营,拿下佛罗里达和弗吉尼亚。

In any case, with American politics so evenly divided, fears of the “Dixification of America”—that southerners will impose their God-fearing, low-tax ways on everyone else—are overblown. And the new Republican South will never be as politically monolithic as the old Democratic South, says Mr Black, because the Republicans let their opponents vote.
    不管怎样,由于美国的政治势力如此均衡,对于“美国南方化”—即南方人会把他们对上帝的敬畏,低税政策强加给每个人—的恐惧有点鼓吹过度。布莱克先生说,新的共和党的南方再不像以前的民主党南方一样,在政治上如此单一,因为,共和党让反对者投票。


   
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发表于 2010-4-28 16:29 | 显示全部楼层
最后一句 the new Republican South will never be as politically monolithic as the old Democratic South中的never be as politically monolithic as和副标题a deep, complex shade of red对应,因为2004年大选结果公布中,媒体就用红色表示共和党,蓝色表示民主。当时的美国南方是一片红色,都是共和党的地盘。所以我觉得这句话意译的话就采用最后一句的概括意思,诸如“美国南部的政治生态并不单一”之类……但是直译也很棒……

话说这篇TE……正文的逻辑读不懂…………
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发表于 2010-4-28 17:09 | 显示全部楼层
我看看能不能发
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发表于 2010-4-28 17:49 | 显示全部楼层
关于题目,你说得太对了
不过,正文不逻辑不通,你是指英文呢?还是说我翻的?
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发表于 2010-4-28 18:29 | 显示全部楼层
第一段:
1、THE conventional wisdom about southern politics is that it all comes down to race.
根据一般常识,南方政治归根结底就是种族问题。     conventional wisdom “一般常识”
2、Civil Rights Act  民权法案
3、Unscrupulous Republicans saw an opportunity to woo disgruntled southern whites with coded racial appeals.
不讲道德的共和党人借机拉拢心存不满南方白人,顺应他们带有鲜明种族色彩的诉求

第二段:
1、This explanation obscures as much as it illuminates.
这个解释虽然隐讳,但是简单易懂
2、Republicans are expert at wooing socially conservative Christians. The national Democratic Party is skilled at repelling them.
共和党极易获得社会立场偏保守的基督徒的喜爱,而民主党则是他们的憎恶对象/眼中钉

第三段:
1、The End of Southern Exceptionalism 南方例外主义的终结
     thereafter split along class lines  之后随阶级不同而开始分化
2、“穷一点的会选共和党,或者谁的票也不投” 楼主几处笔误,将“民主党”作“共和党”   
3、Black southerners, who are socially conservative but more inclined than whites to believe that government should give people a leg up,
南方黑人社会立场趋保守,但他们比白人更倾向政府:相信政府应当给予人民必要的帮助

第四段:
1、individualistic  利己主义
2、And that's about the level at which white southern voters start complaining about how much tax they pay  而该收入水平线恰恰吻合征税起点,南方白人因此怨声载道

第五段:
1、One of the fiercest southern budget hawks is Mark Sanford  南方最极端的预算强硬派之一是...
2、unconstitutional budget deficit  违宪的预算赤字
3、pork-barrel  分肥拨款(议员等为了争取选票而促使政府拨款给所属地区的发展项目)
     Capitol  州议会大厦
4、State senators restored some of the cuts  州议员对其中的部分削减项目做出调整

第六段:
1、a democracy can survive only until voters discover that they can vote themselves largesse out of the public treasury  只有当选民能够投票使自己从公共财富中充分获益,真正意义的民主才可能存在——仅供参考  
(本句原文:“A democracy cannot exist as a permanent form of government. It can only exist until the voters discover that they can vote themselves largesse from the public treasury. From that moment on, the majority always votes for the candidates promising the most benefits from the public treasury, with the result that a democracy always collapses over loose fiscal policy, always followed by a dictatorship. -Scottish historian Alexander Tyler,)
2、sombre view of history  消极的历史观
     pork  政治恩惠
3、government should not pick favourites among charities
政府不应当对于不同慈善团体给予差别待遇

第七段:
1、Many southerners, however, prefer the have-your-cake-and-eat-it approach to fiscal policy. 尽管如此,多数南方人在财政政策上总是怀揣一种“鱼和熊掌不可兼得”的矛盾想法
have-your-cake-and-eat-it 的英文解释是to have or do two things at the same time that are impossible to have or do at the same time,个人理解为“鱼和熊掌不可兼得”
2、Yet federal spending has ballooned and nothing has been done to restrain the growth of entitlements that could bust the budget when the baby-boomers retire.
联邦开支不断膨胀的同时,政府津贴也正水涨船高,而政府却没有采取任何措施对其加以控制;这意味着,当“婴儿潮”的一代步入退休期时,美国将遭遇预算爆炸。

第八段:
1、southern House members 南方众议院成员中
2、Congress 这里译作“国会”以与前文的“州议会”区别,两党的麻烦一个在地方、一个在中央

第九段:
1、前两句楼主有点重复,或许可以就两个“这样”调整一下
2、but that might depress turnout among the Republican faithful  但这也有可能挫伤共和党忠实选民的积极性

第十一段:
1、Whistling Past Dixie 浮光掠影:落伍的南方  (猜的)
2、venturing out of their north-eastern stronghold to pick off Florida and Virginia
勇敢地走出东北大本营

第十二段:
1、overblown  “对...的恐惧有点鼓吹过度”

The art of the possible  读过文章后觉得题目的意思是:选举(技巧)之无限可能
Southern politics are a deep, complex shade of red 个人的译法有点搞笑,楼主勿怪:南方政坛一片红——深红、浅红


PS:以上修改仅供参考——这篇文章应该拉美国版的斑竹们来改,他们对此类事务更加熟悉,呵呵
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发表于 2010-4-28 19:09 | 显示全部楼层
太谢谢你了FUFU,热泪盈眶啊。。。。
真的改了很多地方,对我的启发很大。
谢谢FUFU。
有几个地方和你探讨一下:
第一段:coded racial appeals. 那个CODED你是怎么考虑的?

第三段:”Black southerners, who are socially conservative but more inclined than whites to believe that government should give people a leg up,
南方黑人社会立场趋保守,但他们比白人更倾向政府:相信政府应当给予人民必要的帮助“
因为THAT 在GOVERNMENT前面,所以我觉得应该是相信政府会做那种事情才对。

第五段:State senators restored some of the cuts  州议员对其中的部分削减项目做出调整
里面那个RESTOREED 因为前面有说已经没通过他的否决,所以后面看到RESTORED的时候我就觉得应该是又支持了他的否决的意思。

这些地方我得再想想。
不过,尤其是第七八段改得太好了。。。。惊喜中。
还有题目,就像前面  梅比乌斯宇宙  说的,直译也很棒啊。你译得真的很棒。我喜欢。。。
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发表于 2010-4-28 19:49 | 显示全部楼层
南方政治呈现深浅不一的多样红色。
coded我也想了很久啊,米结果…………
PS:说的是英文原文………………
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发表于 2010-4-28 20:29 | 显示全部楼层
coded应该是“编成法典”的意思。
coded racial appeals 是不是转指上面所说的Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act这两部法案。
整句的意思是不是共和党利用白人对对这两部提升黑人权力的法案的不满,作为racial appeals来拉拢白人。
racial appeals 确切含义不太清楚,好像是选举中利用种族问题攻击对手。
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发表于 2010-4-28 21:09 | 显示全部楼层
The national Democratic Party is skilled at repelling them.
而国家共和党则擅长与他们对抗。
-错了

那句红颜色标出的句子,我放在这里。很多仍帮你讨论。
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发表于 2010-4-28 21:49 | 显示全部楼层
1、coded racial appeals
coded在牛津中的英文解释是expressed in an indirect way,appeal应该是指一种“呼声、诉求”,个人以为因为美国人对种族问题较为敏感,他们既不愿意被称作种族主义者,而其内心却实实在在带有某种种族心理,因此此处应当解释作“顺应他们内心潜在的种族主义诉求”,我昨晚的“鲜明”是错的,不好意思

2、Black southerners, who are socially conservative but more inclined than whites to believe that government should give people a leg up
个人对此句的理解是:Black southerners are  socially conservative, but compared to whites they are more iinclined to believe that government should give people a leg to.
没有太理解elle的问题是什么

3、State senators restored some of the cuts  州议员对其中的部分削减项目做出调整
这里我的理解是,Mark Stanford先生虽然身为共和党,但其态度在其同僚中亦属激进。他为控制预算赤字,否决了预算中106项不必要的分肥拨款,但是被他本州共和党控制的众议院推翻了105项(这个程序你可以询问下美国版的斑竹们,我自己对美国相关法律不太确定),他一怒之下带着小猪前去抗议,于是众议院迫于压力修改了有关分肥拨款的相关项目以保证预算平衡,此事才算了结。

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