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[经济学人] [2007.03.05]It's the business风水宝地

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发表于 2010-4-28 22:19 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Surveys

SURVEY: THE AMERICAN SOUTH

It's the business
风水宝地
Mar 1st 2007
From The Economist print edition
Why the South is a great place to work
为何美国南部是理想工作地

VISITING Disney World without your children is risky. What if they find out? Your happy home will become an inferno of tantrums and broken crockery. Nonetheless, gambling that five-year-olds do not read The Economist closely, your correspondent went to Orlando, strictly for research, on a warm day in January.


如果您忍受不了孩子怒气冲天和砸锅碎碗的样子,那就千万不要一个人去逛迪斯尼乐园。但是,由于5岁的孩子对《经济学人》没什么阅读兴趣,在一月温暖的一天,我们的记者将只身前往迪斯尼乐园,为您做一番深入调查。
Corbis


Mesmerised by the Mouse
“米粉”(米奇粉丝)

The park is overwhelming. The queue for the “Pirates of the Caribbean” ride is nearly an hour long, according to the helpful warning sign at the entrance. The yowl of the Yeti echoes from the newly completed Mount Everest. The crowds throng as densely as pilgrims in Mecca, only they do it all year round and in brighter shirts. People seem to like the place.

迪斯尼乐园的魅力简直无人可挡。在入口的温馨提示中我们得知,“加勒比海盗船”游乐项目的等待时间要将近一个小时。新近建成的珠穆朗玛峰上不时传来雪人的吼叫。人潮涌动,仿佛置身麦加朝圣的队伍中一般,但这里确是全年无休,五彩斑斓的衣服提醒您这里是人们的旅游胜地-------迪斯尼乐园。


Walt Disney could have built his biggest theme park anywhere. He chose Florida. The weather is balmy, and when it gets too hot there are lots of pools to cool off in, says Meg Crofton, Walt Disney World's CEO. Florida also offers plenty of space to expand. Disney World, which was first carved out of wild woodland in 1971, has swollen to four parks covering 40 square miles (104 sq km) and employing 60,000 “cast members”. Contrary to the stereotype of rapid churn in the service sector, the average full-time employee sticks around for nine years.

沃特迪斯尼有能力在世界的任何地方修建他超大的主题公园,但最终他选择了佛罗里达,迪斯尼乐园总裁Meg Crofton认为这里气候温和,就是在最热的季节里,这里会有很多游泳池来消暑。佛罗里达当然也为迪斯尼乐园的发展提供了足够的空间,从1971年里地上建起的老迪斯尼乐园开始,至今已发展成占地40 平方英里(104 平方公里),涵盖4个主题园区,拥有6万名“演员”的庞然大物。比起传统服务业人员流动快的特点来,这里的全职员工的工作时间为9年左右。


Florida's business climate is sunny, too. The Milken Institute, a think-tank in California, compiles an index of “best-performing cities” in America, a composite measure of such things as job creation, wage growth and whether businesses are thriving. In the most recent index, six of the top ten metropolitan areas are in Florida. (Orlando-Kissimmee is sixth.) And 18 of the top 30 are in the South.

佛罗里达也是商业活动的风水宝地。在最近一期加利福尼亚智库梅肯研究院(Milken Institute)发布的以诸如创造就业机会,企业工资增长和商业繁荣程度的多重标准而衡量的“最佳商业城市”指标中,十强中的六个都是位于佛罗里达的。(奥兰多和基西米并列第六),并且前30名中的18个也都是位于南方。


For a long time the South's weather got in the way of its development. Richard Pillsbury, a geography professor at Georgia State University, describes traditional life in the lowland South, a region stretching from northern Virginia down to the Gulf coast of Texas: “Smallish hardscrabble farms almost lost in the white heat of a sweltering summer sun as the owners and their help fought swarms of mosquitoes to plant, cultivate and harvest the meagre cotton crop for market.”

南方的气候长久以来妨碍了南方的发展。乔治亚大学地理学教授Richard Pillsbury认为,传统的南部低地生活区,应该指的是在从弗吉尼亚北部一直向南延伸到到德克萨斯的港湾附近。“炎热的气候无情的摧残者贫瘠的小农场,农场主和雇工忍受着黑压压的蚊子的困扰,辛勤劳作,为市场提供微薄的收成。”


Then came air-conditioning. As it spread after the second world war, the South became suddenly more comfortable to live and work in. From the 1940s until the 1980s the region boomed. In his book “Old South, New South”, Gavin Wright lists four reasons why. Federal defence spending stimulated growth. Sunshine attracted skilled professionals. The South, having developed so little in the past, was a “clean slate”, without strong labour unions, entrenched bureaucracies, restrictive laws or outdated machinery. Lastly, given how much catching up the South had to do, the potential returns were higher than in the north.

随着二战后空调的普及,南方一夜之间变成了生活和工作的风水宝地。上世纪40年代到80年代,是南方黄金时代。Gavin Wright在他的《新旧南方》一书中列举了促成南方发展的四种原因,联邦防卫开支增长刺激了经济发展,阳光政策吸引了大批人才的到来。过去几乎没开发的南方,如同一块白板,没有强有力的工会,也没有深蒂固的官僚体系,更没有制约的法律或陈腐的机制。但最终因为有了南方一系列赶超举动之后,它的发展潜力一跃超过了北方。


During the Jim Crow era, the South struck a “Devil's bargain” with the north, providing cheap white labour for northern-owned factories as the north turned a blind eye to segregation, says Jim Clinton, director of the Southern Growth Policies Board (SPGB), a think-tank. That strategy stopped working in the 1970s, as southern wages crept up towards the American norm. Now, with Chinese and Indian workers undercutting them by an order of magnitude, southerners must produce more or starve.

南方发展政策委员会的Jim Clinton认为,在种族歧视的时代,南方与北方签订了“浮士德契约”,以向北方工厂提供廉价的白人劳动力来换取其对奴隶制的纵容。随着南方的工资水平接近全国标准,这项政策在上世纪70年代才被废止。现在随着大量中国和印度廉价劳动力的影响,南方必须加紧努力才不致挨饿。



As any visitor can see, southerners are not starving (see article). The region's economy has grown by 31% since 1997, whereas America's has grown by a slightly more leisurely 28%. The number of jobs in the South has risen by a third since 1990, from 33m to 44m, whereas the number for the United States as a whole has risen by only a quarter.

在任何一个人看来,南方都不再是贫困之地。自1997年以来,南方地区经济都保持平均每年31%的增长率,与此同时,全国的年均增长率才28%多一点。就业机会增长比起自1990年南方上涨的三分之一,全国平均的四分之一相形见秽。


Southerners have prospered in part by playing to their traditional strengths. The fame of southern hospitality has bolstered the region's hotel chains, such as Holiday Inn. That of southern cuisine helps local restaurants, such as Waffle House, Cracker Barrel and KFC. Arkansas-based Wal-Mart, the world's largest retailer, has kept costs low by refusing to recognise unions. And Coca-Cola owes at least some of its success to its southern origins.

南方传统对地区经济繁荣也起到了一定的作用。南方的热情好客极大的支撑了像是假日酒店这种酒店连锁业的发展。独特的南方烹调方法也是窝夫, 快客芭箩店和肯德基受到极大欢迎的秘诀。因为没有工会而使得阿肯色州的沃尔玛能保持低价销售。可口可乐的成功也少不了它的南方血统的原因。

Adding sparkle
万事俱备,只欠东风


The weather, again, has been crucial. In the late 19th century, hot southern summers hastened the invention of three fizzy drinks: Coke in Atlanta, Pepsi in North Carolina and Dr Pepper in Texas. All three were developed by pharmacists and sold from soda fountains. Southerners like sweet things, says Philip Mooney, Coke's chief archivist. And as the firm expanded, Atlanta proved a congenial base because it is a transport hub. “That's why the Union burned it to the ground,” he notes. Today, Coke has staff of 58 nationalities at its global headquarters, so Atlanta's huge airport is handy. Good air links, cheap homes and a vibrant cultural life make it easy to attract footloose talent, says Cynthia McCague, Coke's personnel chief.

气候是一个至关重要的因素。19世纪末炎热的南方气候催生了3大冷饮:亚特兰大的可口可乐,北卡洛莱纳的百事可乐和德克萨斯的帕伯。这三种医疗都是由药剂师发明,并且当作苏打饮料来销售的。可口可乐的首席档案官Philip Mooney认为南方人都爱吃甜食。他说在南北战争时期由于亚特兰大交通枢纽的地位,北方将此地一度焚为平地,但现在却促使了可口可乐公司的发展。如今在可口可乐的全球总部中有来自58个国家的不同员工,只要归因于亚特兰大空中交通枢纽的便利。良好的气候,低廉的房价和活跃的文化氛围吸引了大批的流动人才。可口可乐的人力资源主管Cynthia McCague如是说。


Famous firms attract less well-known ones to set up nearby. Newell Rubbermaid, an office- and home-supplies company with sales of $6.2 billion last year, moved its headquarters from Illinois to Atlanta in 2003. Mark Ketchum, the CEO, says it helps having so many other corporate headquarters in the city, because managers will often relocate only if their spouses can also find suitable work. Atlanta's racial diversity also helps, he says, and he appears to mean it. To sell power tools to construction workers these days, you need Spanish-speakers, he says; to market black hair products, you want African-American staff. And Georgia offers “inducements” to firms for moving there.

大公司也吸引了许多名不见经传的小公司落户于此。在2003年办公用品与居家用品提供商Newell Rubbermaid公司(2006年销售收入达62亿美元)总部从伊利诺斯迁往亚特兰大。公司首席执行官Mark Ketchum表示他们帮了在这个城市的公司总部的许多忙,因为许多经理由于其配偶寻找合适工作的原因,会不断变换住处。亚特兰大的种族多样性也是个有利条件。在卖电动工具给建筑工人的那些日子,就需要会西班牙语的雇员;在卖黑发产品时,就需要非裔美国人。乔治牙的地利极大的诱惑着公司移居此地。


Most other southern states do likewise, sometimes on a lavish scale. In 1993 Alabama gave Mercedes a $253m subsidy to build a car plant, which worked out at $169,000 per job created. (There were 63,000 applicants for 1,500 openings.) Mississippi wooed Nissan in the same way; South Carolina lured BMW; the list goes on. Jim Cobb, a professor of history at the University of Georgia, thinks this “peculiarly southern hospitality to industry” is a poor use of public money. Rather than bribing individual firms to attend the party, it would be more efficient to make the region equally inviting for all.

大多数的南部各州也都是如此,甚至更加大方。1993年阿拉巴马州政府为梅赛德斯的新汽车工厂提供了两万五千三百万美元的补贴,平均每个就业机会可以享受到十六万九千美元的资金支持(共有63000份申请来争夺1500个岗位)。用同样的方法,密西西比吸引了尼桑公司的到来;南卡洛莱纳迎来了宝马公司;这种大好态势还继续进行。乔治亚大学的历史学教授Jim Cobb认为这种所谓的“南方工业热情”其实是对公共财政的滥用。与其这样,还不如用这笔钱来营造一个公平的商业环境来引资。


The South's prosperity is unevenly spread. An oilman in Houston or a lobbyist in northern Virginia lives a life of abundance and choice. But the South has a wide swathe of rural stagnation and some depressed cities: New Orleans, for example, was in trouble even before Hurricane Katrina hit it in 2005. In the Mississippi Delta, some 27% of families live below the poverty line, making it one of the densest concentrations of relative deprivation in the country. In the Delta town of Rome (population: not listed on the census website; churches: four), homes are modest, sometimes tumbledown, cars rust in backyards and the steadiest jobs are at a nearby jail.

发展不均衡是南方的一个特点。在休斯敦的石油商和北弗吉尼亚的说客都过着舒适的生活。但南部却存在着大批的贫困乡村和凋敝城市:比如,在遭受2005年卡特里纳飓风袭击前,新奥尔良就已经陷入困境。在密西西比三角洲,27%的家庭生活在贫困线以下,这也使得此地成为我国相对贫困集中的地区之一。在三角洲地区的罗玛(人口未被统计,共有四所教堂),这里住户生活困难,有时甚至面临破败危险,通常汽车都会在后院生锈,而对于当地人来说,最稳定的工作就是附近的一所监狱。


Materially, life is easier than it was. Before the second world war 90% of rural southern homes lacked running water. Now nearly everyone has it. But good jobs are hard to come by in the Delta. Whereas in the 1950s 90% of the cotton was picked by hand, now none is. Farmers employ far fewer workers. Mike Wagner, who grows rice, predicts that satellite technology will allow the use of unmanned tractors before long. But even with galloping mechanisation, he guesses that most local farmers would go bust without federal subsidies.

但实质上,这里的生活已经比以前好多了。在二战前,90%的乡村居民得不到自来水供应。但是现在自来水都普及了。但是在三角洲地区,想找一份好工作还是很困难。但是不同于上世纪50年代的手工采棉,这里已实现机械化。农民几乎不雇用帮工。种植水稻的Mike Wagner预计长久以后,卫星技术可以让他使用无人驾驶的拖拉机。但是即使对高科技寄予希望,他还是说如果没有联邦政府的补贴,他们还是无法继续支撑下去。


For the unskilled, options are sparse. If they don't mind breaking the law, they could set up a crystal-meth lab on Mr Wagner's land, perhaps after pinching some of his fertiliser. (He has chased away several drugmakers at gunpoint, and once watched them driving off with their heads out of the car window to avoid the fumes from their half-made product.) The law-abiding can cut each other's hair, fix each other's cars or draw assistance from the state. Bill Pearson, a retired Delta farmer, laments that those with get-up-and-go—“all the bright people and the crooks”—have gone. The SGPB interviewed more than 1,000 rural southerners and found that most wanted better economic opportunities, but few would countenance much change to the rhythm of their rural lives.

因为没有什么本领,所以选择的机会就很少。如果他们不在乎触犯法律的话,在收集原料之后,就可以在Wagner先生的土地上建立冰毒实验室(他持枪追捕过毒品制造者,并且看到他们在逃走时为了防止冰毒半成品的烟雾,将头伸出车外。)在这里,遵纪守法的公民只得从理发,修车,或是领取政府补助来度日。三角洲地区的退休农民Bill Pearson悲叹人才流失的严重“天使和魔鬼都离我们而去。”SGPB采访的超过1000位南方农民都表示希望获得更好的工作机会,但却几乎没有人愿对他们的乡村生活的节奏作大改变。


Mr Clinton thinks the only way for the South to catch up with the rest of America is to embrace technology. He longs for a day when “you might be a redneck if...” jokes have punchlines like: “You hold six patents and each used the term ‘hunting dog' in the disclosure documents.” Such jokes have yet to catch on, but southern high-tech industries are growing briskly.

Clinton先生认为依托科技是南方赶上美国其它地区的关键所在。他渴望着有一天,会有这样一个“你肯定是一个农民”的笑话,笑话的包袱在于“如果你在‘猎犬’项下具有6项专利,那你一定是个农民。”虽然还没有这样的笑话出现,但是南方高科技产业的飞速发展不可小视。

North Carolina is home to 88 biotech and 100 biotech-related firms, mostly in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill “research triangle”. That makes the state America's third-biggest biotech cluster, after California and Massachusetts. Georgia is seventh, and Texas and Florida are also in the top ten. The South's nanotechnology industry is no longer tiny. The region hosts some big federal research projects, such as the Department of Energy's $1.4 billion Spallation Neutron Source project in Tennessee. It has fine research universities, too, which Mr Clinton would like to see collaborate more with private firms. He notes with approval that Georgia, Kentucky and North Carolina give technology firms vouchers to spend at local universities.

在北卡洛莱纳的88家生物科技公司和100家与生物科技相关的公司,大多数都位于罗利-达勒姆-教堂山“研发三角地”。这使得该州成为继加利福尼亚和马萨诸塞之后的第三大生物技术基地。乔治亚排在第7位,德克萨斯和佛罗里达也都在十强之中。南方的生物技术也获得了极大的发展,该地区担负着像能源部在田纳西投资14亿美元的散裂中子源项目这样的许多联邦研究项目。这一地区拥有许多优良的研究型大学,Clinton先生认为如果能和私人公司展开合作就会发挥极大的优势。他对乔治亚,肯塔基和北卡洛莱纳给与科技公司与大学合作的资金担保表示赞同。


Several of the blessings that attract low-tech firms to the South also attract high-tech ones: the weather, business-friendly state governments and the fact that a techie moving to Raleigh can buy four houses for what one cost him in San Francisco. But California still generates more patents than the South, even though its population is under two-fifths the size. The main bottleneck, says nearly everyone interviewed for this report, is what Georgia's governor, echoing Britain's Tony Blair, calls “education, education, education”.

宜人的气候,亲商的政府和低廉的房价(一个技师只需花费在旧金山购买一栋房子的钱,就可再雷格获得四套住房),使得南方成为了科技公司和非科技公司的青睐之地。虽然人口不及南方的五分之二,但是加利福尼亚的专利量却远远多于南方。在本报告所采访的所有人中,一致认为南方的发展瓶颈,正如呼应英国首相布莱尔的乔治亚政府所说得那样“教育是关键。”
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发表于 2010-4-28 22:29 | 显示全部楼层
关于密西西比的罗玛(Rome)
Rome is a village in northern Sunflower County, in the Mississippi Delta. It is one of the Delta towns that has been "left behind."  It is not incorporated and has no formal government.  There are about 250 residents in and around Rome.  Eighty-eight percent of the population lives within a quarter-mile radius.  Seventy-six percent of the population is African American, twenty-three percent is white, and less than one percent is biracial.  A little more than fifty percent of the population is under the ago of 18.  Sixty-two percent of the adults are employed.
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发表于 2010-4-28 22:39 | 显示全部楼层
providing cheap white labour for northern-owned factories as the north turned a blind eye to segregation
中的“white labour ”我认为是“black labour ”,遂向TE发信,今天收到回信“Thank you for your email",内容很短,所以我不确定这里是否是个笔误。
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发表于 2010-4-28 22:49 | 显示全部楼层
Disney World, which was first carved out of wild woodland in 1971, has swollen to four parks covering 40 square miles (104 sq km) and employing 60,000 “cast members”.
1971年,迪斯尼乐园在一片原始森林中破土兴建,如今已扩展为4个主题园区,占地40 平方英里(104 平方公里),并雇用了6万名“演员职员”。
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发表于 2010-4-28 22:59 | 显示全部楼层
For a long time the South's weather got in the way of its development. 长期以来,宜人的气候使南方发展中的重要因素。
我的理解:“长期以来,南方的气候正如南方的开发一样保持高温。” 与后面的sweltering summer sun呼应
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发表于 2010-4-28 23:09 | 显示全部楼层
The South, having developed so little in the past, was a “clean slate”, without strong labour unions, entrenched bureaucracies, restrictive laws or outdated machinery. Lastly, given how much catching up the South had to do, the potential returns were higher than in the north.
过去在南方由于缺少强有力的工会,加之根深蒂固的官僚体制,限制性的法律和成就不堪的机器设备,发展缓慢,简直就是白板一块。但最终因为有了南方奋起直追的有利政策,它的发展潜力一跃超过了北方。

意思拧了。
南方在过去没怎么被开发,如同一块白板,没有强有力的工会,没有深蒂固的官僚,也没有制约的法律或陈腐的机制。(后面一句译文与原意也不大相符,但我也翻不好)
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发表于 2010-4-28 23:19 | 显示全部楼层
1. an office- and home-supplies company with sales of $6.2 billion last year
漏了。

2. The law-abiding can cut each other's hair, fix each other's cars or draw assistance from the state. Bill Pearson, a retired Delta farmer, laments that those with get-up-and-go—“all the bright people and the crooks”—have gone. The SGPB interviewed more than 1,000 rural southerners and found that most wanted better economic opportunities, but few would countenance much change to the rhythm of their rural lives.
在这里,遵纪守法只会招致更多的犯罪,带来更多的贫困和促使人才流失。三角洲地区的退休农民Bill Pearson悲叹人才流失的严重“天使和魔鬼都离我们而去。”SGPB采访的超过1000位南方农民都表示希望获得更好的工作机会,但却几乎没有人愿对他们的乡村生活的节奏作大改变。

守法者(与之前的they don't mind breaking the law相对)可以去干理发,修车,或者从政府获得救济。
SGPB采访了1000多位南方农民,大多数都表示希望获得更好的工作机会,但却几乎没有人愿对他们的乡村生活的节奏作大改变。

3. billion是十亿,有算错的地方。
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发表于 2010-4-28 23:29 | 显示全部楼层
Disney World, which was first carved out of wild woodland in 1971, has swollen to four parks covering 40 square miles (104 sq km) and employing 60,000 “cast members”.
1971年,迪斯尼乐园在一片 ...
The South, having developed so little in the past, was a “clean slate”, without strong labour unions, entrenched bureaucracies, restrictive laws or outdated machinery. Lastly, given how much catching up the South had to do, the potential returns were higher than in the north.
过去在南方由于缺少强...

译者文章翻译的很流畅 省去些内容 这也是他的风格 值得学习!
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发表于 2010-4-28 23:39 | 显示全部楼层
非常感谢Vale和丁锋的点评,我已经根据二位的建议进行了部分修改。

关于“For a long time the South's weather got in the way of its development. 长期以来,宜人的气候使南方发展中的重要因素。
我的理解:“长期以来,南方的气候正如南方的开发一样保持高温。” 与后面的sweltering summer sun呼应 “

我查了一下“get in the way“ 是“妨碍”的意思。


关于“Lastly, given how much catching up the South had to do, the potential returns were higher than in the north. ”
我改译为“但最终因为有了南方一系列赶超举动之后,它的发展潜力一跃超过了北方。”

不知妥当否?
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发表于 2010-4-28 23:49 | 显示全部楼层
不好意思,in the way居然没看出来,当时是觉得怎么这么别扭呢。土啊
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