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[经济学人] [2007.04.26] TELECOMS: Wireless incorporated

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发表于 2010-4-28 23:02 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
TELECOMS

Wireless incorporated
无线公司

Apr 26th 2007
From The Economist print edition


Gizmos are starting to be slipped inside people
装置开始滑入人们的皮肤


                                                            Belle Mellor


THE Baja Beach Club in Barcelona is an unlikely demonstration model for wireless technology. Bikini-clad waitresses serve drinks to guests as a DJ mixes music from a motorboat perched above the dance floor. But the club made headlines three years ago when it introduced a unique form of entry ticket to its VIP area: a microchip implanted in the patron's arm.
巴塞罗那的巴哈海滩俱乐部以一种不可思议的形式成为无线技术的展厅。穿比基尼的女服务员为客人送上饮料,停在舞厅上的摩托艇中传出DJ混乐。但这家俱乐部3年前爆出头条,它为VIP区准备了独一无二的出场券:在他们的手臂上植入微芯片。

Slightly larger than a grain of rice and enrobed in glass and silicon, the chip is used to identify people when they enter and pay for drinks. It is injected by a nurse with an intimidating syringe under a local anaesthetic. In essence, it is an RFID tag. If a special tag-reader is waved near the arm, a radio signal prompts the chip to transmit an identification number which is used to call up information about the wearer in a computer database. Otherwise the chip is dormant. The “intelligence” of the system is in the computer, not the capsule.
这种芯片之比米粒稍大,外层为玻璃和矽。它用于验证客人到场及饮料付费。在局部麻醉下,它由护士进行直接注射。事实上,这就是一个射频识别标签(REID)。当专用标记阅读器在手臂附近晃动,无线电信号就会激活微芯片传送识别码,从而调出电脑数据库中该客户信息。如有其他情况,则芯片不工作。系统的“情报信息”存于电脑而非芯片中。

It is the first time that chips have been placed in humans as a means of identification and payment, gushes Conrad Chase, the club's co-owner, who came up with the idea and was the first volunteer to be “tagged”. “I know a lot of people have fears about it,” he says. But he points out that many people already have piercings and tattoos. “Having a radio-transmitting chip under your skin makes you very unique,” he says wryly.
这种想法的提出者,亦是第一个志愿被标记者,俱乐部合伙人康德拉.蔡斯滔滔不绝,这是首次此类芯片作为身份确认及付款确认植入人体。“我知道很多人害怕注射。”他说。但他同时提出有许多人都做过穿刺和纹身。他幽默地说:“在皮肤下植入无线传导芯片会让你与众不同!”

All this for a mojito might seem a bit extreme—which for a night club is precisely the point. Even so, take-up has been low: only 94 people have been tagged in Barcelona and 70 at another Baja club in Rotterdam. But as go the bohemians, so, eventually, go the rest of us.
仅仅为了一杯莫吉托而植入芯片似乎有些极端,但对于夜总会来说却再合适不过。即使如此,真正注射的人很少:在巴塞罗那只有94人,在鹿特丹的   俱乐部只有70人。但这仍会推广到波希米亚,推向全球。

CityWatcher.com, an American firm that provides video surveillance in cities, has experimented with tagging two employees to give them access to areas where sensitive data are stored. VeriChip, another American company that sells chips and readers, provides it to hospitals to manage patients (though only around 200 people have so far raised their arm to get one). The idea of tagging immigrant workers in the United States has been brought up in Congress.
美国公司City Watcher.com为城市提供视频监视器。该公司对2名被标记雇员进行实验,准许其进入机要数据储存地。另一家美国公司VeriChip向医院提供芯片记阅读器,用以管理病人(尽管到目前为止只有200多人进行了皮下植入)。在美国,为工人进行标记植入的观点已提交国会。

There is much more to come. As wireless technology improves, it is not only getting attached to machinery and embedded in the environment, but slipping under people's skin as well. And RFID capsules are small fry. There are far more advanced wireless medical devices that measure body functions and transmit the information from the skin surface or from inside the body. As the huge cohort of baby-boomers grows older and becomes more interested in preventive medicine, people now aged 50 or younger are quite likely to have some form of wireless gizmo attached or implanted in their lifetime.
不仅仅如此。随着无线技术的不断进步,芯片装置不仅能够附着与机器设备或仅存在于我们周围,而且会划入我们的皮肤。射频识别标签已无足轻重。越来越多的先进的医用无线装置用来监测人体各项功能指数,并将信息从皮肤表面或从人体内部传递出去。当那一大群“婴潮者”渐向中年,他们变得对预防医学更感兴趣,50岁以下甚至更年轻的人们十分可能植入终生无线装置。

Wireless technology has been used in medicine for decades. Pacemakers rely on a basic wireless system to set a stable heartbeat. Ultrasound and X-ray technologies are wireless. But as microchips become more powerful, devices shrink and battery life is extended, a host of companies are vying to take wireless technology deep into the human body.
几十年来,无线装置一直用于医学。起搏器就是基于无线系统维持稳定心跳,超声波与X-光都用到了无线技术。随着芯片技术越发重要,装置则越发小巧,电池寿命也延长了。多家公司在无线技术深入人体方面竞争激烈。

Some wireless devices are ingested. Others are implanted. Some are attached to the body and linked to a network. It is still early days, but the systems are improving fast. “The basic technology to make these things happen exists; the big issue is how to make this economically viable,” says Maarten Barmentlo, the chief technology officer of Philips's consumer health-care division.
某些无线装置可被吞下,某些需被植入,另有些依附人体并与网络相连。虽然现在仍处于发展初期,但该系统发展很快。飞利浦用户健康保健部首席技术官Maarten Barmentlo称,这些装置基于基础技术,关键是如何使之具有经济可行性。

Inside story
内幕

Already a gaggle of gadgets is available for specialised uses. Take the PillCam, developed by Given Imaging in Israel, a tiny two-sided camera the size of a very large pill which patients swallow. It has been used in more than half a million gastro-intestinal endoscopy tests since 2001. One version is used to diagnose disorders of the oesophagus and another for those of the small intestine. It snaps a pre-set number of pictures per second and sends them wirelessly to a data recorder worn on the patient's waist. The images are downloaded to a computer for diagnosis. The $450 capsule passes through the bowel naturally and is flushed down the toilet.
许多精密器件都有其特殊用途。以以色列Given Imaging公司的PillCam 为例,它是一种可供患者吞下的大药片状的双面照相机。从2001年来,他已被用在了50多万例肠胃炎内窥镜检查中。PillCam有一款用于诊断食管紊乱症,另一款用于小肠内检查。它每秒钟快速拍摄预先设定好的一系列图片,并将图片无线传送到患者手腕上的数据阅读器中,在电脑中可下载这些图像用于诊断。这种450$的药片可自然穿出肠道,最终消失于卫生间。

This method lets people go about their normal business for most of the eight-hour test, during which up to 50,000 images are generated. It marks a vast improvement on an older technique that involves pushing a long tube through a patient's digestive tract. Although that procedure allows doctors to take tissue samples, it is uncomfortable and risks irritating the tract. Now Given Imaging is in clinical trials with a wireless camera for inspecting the colon, and is developing another for the stomach. The company faces competition from Olympus, a Japanese camera-maker, which is using similar technology.
这种方法能人们在这8小时的5万张拍照检查中大部分时间做自己的工作,相对于以前那种“下胃管”的技术,这标志着巨大的进步。虽然在这项技术运用过程中需要采集患者的组织样本,但这部不会让患者太痛苦也不会过分刺激他们的食道。目前,Given Imaging 公司的无线照相机已在临床试验阶段用于对结肠的检查,他们正在研制另一款对胃进行检查的照相机。该公司面临来自日本的一家相关技术照相机生产公司Olympus的竞争。

Other wireless systems are implanted in the body. Medtronic, a large medical-device-maker, is developing many products that use wireless communications. Last year it won regulatory approval for an implantable defibrillator that links up with hospital equipment or a home monitoring device. Along with three other companies—CardioMEMS, St Jude Medical and Remon Medical Technologies—Medtronic is racing to market a device for congestive heart failure, which afflicts many millions of people worldwide. Once implanted, the device will measure pressure and fluid inside a patient's heart and wirelessly send the data to an external unit. With regular monitoring, patients will be alerted to abnormalities at an early stage.
其他无线系统也被植入人体。大型医药器材制造商Medtronic正在研制许多利用无线交流的产品。去年,该公司已为它的可植入除颤器获得相关部门许可,这种装置与医院设备或家庭监控装置相联系。由其他三家竞争公司CardioMEMS, St Jude Medical, Remon Medical Techonologies相陪,Medtronic公司马不停蹄的为其监测充血性心力衰竭的装置打开市场,这种病症折磨着全世界成千上万名患者。该装置一旦被植入,便会监测患者心脏内压及其血液流量,并将数据无线传到外部设备。通过规律性监测,患者可在早期对异常病情提高警觉。

There are two ways of making the wireless work, marking a division in the industry about the future of wireless technology in health care. Medtronic and St Jude currently make large-matchbox-sized devices—in essence, miniaturised computers—that are implanted in the chest and connected to the heart with leads, but can be interrogated wirelessly from outside the body by a reader at close quarters.
无线技术发展有两种途径。未来,无线技术将是工业的又一分支。Medtronic与St Jude 公司最近生产出一种火柴盒大小的装置,这实际上是小型电脑。该装置植入患者胸腔,以各种管道与病患心脏相连,但却可于体外近处阅读器无线交流。

A more novel approach involves either radio waves or ultrasound technology. CardioMEMS uses radio-frequency technology, activating the chip in the implanted device by a reader that sends a burst of energy (like an RFID tag) to which the device responds with the heart-pressure information. Remon relies on a form of ultrasound that transmits energy to power the chip and prompt it to send back its pressure readings. Because the electromagnetic frequencies it uses are low, the reader can be farther away.
较新的无线即使包括无线电波及超声波技术。CardioMEMS运用无线电频率技术,利用阅读器传送一阵阵强烈能量(类似射频识别标签)来刺激植入装置的芯片,使装置传回患者心脏压力信息。Remon公司依靠一种传送能量的超声波制造芯片,使其传回压力读数。因为该装置使用的电磁频率较低,体外阅读器可距其较远。

All four companies' heart-failure devices are still at the trial stage. In March Medtronic suffered a setback when a panel at America's Food and Drug Administration rejected its device, called Chronicle, because the trial data showed it to be insufficiently effective. Meanwhile, Remon is applying its technology to what it calls “intra-body wireless communications”. By dividing up the signal, this allows several devices inside the body to relay information to each other or to a receiver without interference, just as a radio can be tuned to different stations. So an implanted glucose-level reader in one part of the body could communicate with an implanted insulin-pump elsewhere, says Hezi Himelfarb, the boss of Remon.
这四个公司的监测心脏衰竭装置仍都处在试验阶段。今年三月份,由于实验数据显示器不够有效,Metronic公司的Chronicle遭到美国食品与药物管理协会的拒绝。与此同时,Remon公司也已“体内无线交流”为名为其新技术提出申请。为将信号清楚分开,人体内需几种相互依赖彼此信息的装置,或使用一种防干扰接收器,就像不同电台可接收同种无线电信号。Romen的总裁Hezi Himelfarb称,因此在人体某处植入的“葡萄糖水平”阅读器可与另一植入装置“胰岛素泵”相互交流。

Such scenarios are not so far from being realised. Sensors for Medicine and Science (SMSI) is developing a glucose sensor to be placed just under the skin of the forearm that connects to a watch-like wireless reader. This will probably become the most common way of deploying the technology: not by surgery deep into the body, but by inserting a sensor below the skin that can last for months or years, and having a wireless reader nearby.
这种情况不难理解。医学与科学传感器公司(SMSI)正在研制一种植入手臂皮下的葡萄糖传感器,该装置与类似手表的无线吴旋阅读器相连。这可能成为运用该技术最普遍的方法:传统的深入人体的外科手术被植入皮下的传感器所取代。这种装置与人体附近阅读器相联系,可使用数月甚至数年。

This is the method used by Thomas Ferrell of the University of Tennessee, who has developed an implantable capsule that measures ethanol concentration in the blood. He says it could be used by alcoholics who volunteer for monitoring as an alternative to prison. The technology, funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, is currently being tested in animals. Dr Ferrell expects it to become available commercially within two years.
田纳西大学的Thomas Ferell使用上述方法,以研制出一种可植入装置检测人体乙醇浓度。他说,这种装置可用于那些资源在监控室被监控的酗酒者。该技术由全国酗酒和酗酒者研究所赞助,目前已在动物身上进行测试。Ferrel博士希望该装置可在两年内拥有商业利用价值。

Listen to me
听我说

Earlier Dr Ferrell spearheaded a DARPA initiative to create a tiny chip that would fit into a person's ear and monitor vital signs such as body temperature, pulse and blood pressure. The work was put on ice five years ago because of the huge cost of developing the technology that was available at the time. But now that the cost has fallen and the technology improved, the project is becoming feasible. Later this year the work is due to be resurrected by a start-up, Senior Vitals, to produce sensors for monitoring elderly people.
前几年,Ferrel 博士作为DARPA的创始先锋,发明了一种可放入人耳的小芯片,检测比如体温,脉搏,血压等重要指标。因为在当时技术条件下,这项技术所需的巨额研究经费使其在5年前搁浅。今年,该装置Senior Vitals的研究复又启动,专研制老年人监测传感器。

The technology to monitor people's vital signs already exists: NASA does it for astronauts in flight. But for the moment there is no business model for applying it on the ground, no IT system to manage it and no company that could carry out the work. As with M2M communications, any system would have to be tailor-made, which would make it very expensive. And as with other wireless devices, powering the electronics is a problem.
监测人体重要指标的技术并非新发明:NASA已将其用于宇航员飞行。但到目前为止还没有将该技术用于商业的先例,没有IT系统的规划,没有公司着手执行。通过M2M信息交换,这项技术所需的每种系统都要为其量身定做,导致花费惊人。但如果利用其他无线装置,为电子提供动力又成了问题。

                                                            Belle Mellor


But companies are beginning to show interest in the sector. Adi Gan of Evergreen Venture Partners, a venture-capital fund in Israel, says that numerous business plans in this area have crossed his desk in recent months. He sees a lot of promise. For example, a doctor might implant a sensor during surgery to offer far better post-operative monitoring and care. When the patient comes for a follow-up visit, the doctor's reader would power the chip, which would provide medical information. Tiny devices could even be used for treating diseases. They might be powered wirelessly to, say, burn new cancer cells in an area that had previously been treated.
然而,已有公司开始关注该领域。以色列资本风险基金公司Evergreen Venture的合伙人 Adi Gan称,最近几月,这个领域的大量商业计划已经堆满办公桌。他认为前景光明。例如,医生可在外科手术时植入装置以便更好的进行术后观察护理。当病人前来复诊,医生的阅读器将启动提供医学信息的芯片。小装置同样能被用来治疗疾病,他们可被无线启动,消灭其曾治疗区域新生癌细胞。

Such uses of wireless seem far removed from the mobile phones which vast numbers of people carry with them at all times. But there is a connection. As the use of wireless medical devices grows, the best way of collecting the data and sending them to a remote monitoring centre may turn out to be the patient's mobile phone, which will be close enough to receive data from the low-powered implanted device. It could be the critical bit of infrastructure between wireless communications in the body and the global internet. Just when people are starting to think of the mobile phone as a wallet, they find that it is becoming the family doctor too.
这种无线技术的运用似乎与现在大多数人整天使用的手机相去甚远,但其实道理相通。随着无线医学装置使用的发展,患者与远程遥控中心交换数据的最好途径就是利用手机,因为它可于人体近距离接收低能植入装置的信息。 他将成为人体与全球网络无线交流基础至关重要的纽带。当人们正在思考如何赋予手机更多功能时,他也已变成家庭医生。

Mobile-phone operators understand the potential. South Korean and Japanese carriers are experimenting with technologies that let people monitor their heart rate, blood pressure and other vital signs with home devices and transmit the data using a phone. Philips and GE are adding wireless technology to patients' home-monitoring devices. Yet today's mobile networks are not sufficiently reliable for anything other than non-critical uses, according to a study in 2005 from the University of Massachusetts in Amherst. And the operators' current pricing models are a major barrier, says Matt Welsh of Harvard University, who is developing sensors for the continuous monitoring of vital signs.
手机生产者看到了它的潜力。韩国与日本的生产者以实验通过家庭设备及手机传递数据技术监控患者心率,血压及其他重要指标。飞利浦与GE已将无线技术用到家庭监控装置中。但2005年爱莫斯特麻省理工学院的一份学术报告指出,目前的移动网络只能提供非决定性用途。正在研制持续监控生命指数传感器的哈佛大学Matt Welsh 称,生产者的现行定价模式是主要壁垒。

For now the advances are largely coming from the IT industry, not the medical sector, which is noted for its conservatism. Whereas pharmaceutical firms are starting to use RFID tags on medicine packages as an anti-counterfeiting measure, other companies are working to put RFID tags onto individual pills. In January Kodak filed for a patent on an edible RFID tag which could be used, for example, to examine the digestive tract or check whether a patent has taken his medication.
目前,医学界的IT业有了很大进步,当然不是在保守的一医学领域。尽管制药公司开始在其药品包装上使用RFID标记作为防伪标记,某些公司已致力于将RFID标记用于每个药片。今年一月,Kodak公司已对可食用 RFID标记的投放使用提交申请,该产品用于消化道检查及检测病人是否进行药物治疗。

It all seems a long way from the Baja Beach Club, where Mr Chase goes about his nightly routine. He reviews images from security cameras, some of which are wireless, and then locks an office with keys using a wireless ID system that records who enters where and when. The geeky stuff is his doing, but then he has form. Back in the 1980s, long before opening his nightclub, he served in the US Army Signal Corps, working on the ARPANET, the military precursor to the internet.
这一切似乎都是从巴哈海滩俱乐部的Chase先生每晚的进场与消费装置衍生的。他可以从一些无线的安全电视摄像机中看回访图像,或用无线ID系统将办公室上锁,该系统可记录进入人员及其去向与时间。Mr.Chase的做法有些无聊但也自成一套。回到20世纪80年代,早在夜总会建成前,他是美国陆军通讯兵并在ARPANET(美国国防部高级研究所)工作,那里是国际网络的军事先驱。
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发表于 2010-4-28 23:17 | 显示全部楼层
Wireless incorporated 这个题目中的 incorporated 貌似不是公司的意思 注意后面有“ed” 我暂时理解为 无线合成人 无线合体 无线一体化  我先往下看 ^_^


1  THE Baja Beach Club in Barcelona is an unlikely demonstration model for wireless technology.
翻译的有歧义
the club is a demonstration model   not the club is demonstrating a model
对于无线技术来说,巴塞罗那的巴枷海滩俱乐部是一个不可思议的展示模型。

2 Bikini-clad waitresses serve drinks to guests as a DJ mixes music from a motorboat perched above the dance floor.
DJ mixes music  应该是 Disk Joker mixes music
在舞池上方摩托艇所传出DJ的混合乐声中,身着比基尼女服务生为客人送上一杯杯饮料。

3 But the club made headlines three years ago when it introduced a unique form of entry ticket to its VIP area: a microchip implanted in the patron's arm.
entry ticket 入场券 感觉unique form 翻成 独特的比较准确,后面patron翻译出来比较的好,microchip 微芯片(^_^ ,集成电路芯片不要把客人给疼死)
  它为VIP区准备了独特的入场券:为每一位赞助人手臂上植入微芯片。

4 the chip is used to identify people when they enter and pay for drinks.
用于客人进场验证以及对饮料付费。

5 It is injected by a nurse with an intimidating syringe under a local anaesthetic.
蓝字意思没有译出来。暂时没有搞清楚是什么意思。“在威逼利诱下”??

5 RFID tag
射频识别标签

6  If a special tag-reader is waved near the arm, a radio signal prompts the chip to transmit an identification number which is used to call up information about the wearer in a computer database.
special 这里不是“特殊” 是“专用”
   [另外] If在这种情况下,习惯性翻译为“当...时” “在...情况下” 而且该句翻译为主动比较好
   prompt用“刺激”不是很准确,刺激一般对象是具有神经性的物质。这里prompt:To give rise to; inspire:引起,唤起 --> 激活
    identification number 识别码
    当在手臂附近晃动专用标记阅读器时,无线电信号就会激活微芯片传送识别码,用以调出电脑数据库中该标签携带者信息。

7  Otherwise the chip is dormant
   如核对不符,则芯片不工作。表述不准确,还有另外情况芯片不进行工作,比如不是专用的标签阅读器,或者在不使用标签阅读器的状况下。直接翻译就可--> 而在其他情况下,芯片不会被唤起.   该系统的“情报信息”存于电脑而非芯片当中

8 It is the first time that chips have been placed in humans as a means of identification and payment, gushes Conrad Chase, the club's co-owner, who came up with the idea and was the first volunteer to be “tagged”.
   作为想法的提出者,同时也是第一个志愿被标记者,俱乐部合伙人康拉德.蔡斯滔滔不绝:“.....”
    这个gushes是不是由前面强调句引起的倒装呢?再咨询一下老大们,^_^。

9 radio-transmitting
  无线传导

10 But as go the bohemians, so, eventually, go the rest of us.
   但随着其在波西米亚中推广,最终,它将风靡全球。     感觉我表述的还是有些问题,go the bohemians是不是还有其他的意思或者背景呢?

11 CityWatcher.com, an American firm that provides video surveillance in cities, has experimented with tagging two employees to give them access to areas where sensitive data are stored.
   City Watcher.com是一家在城市中提供视频监控的美国公司,其实验通过“标记”两名雇员以给与他们进入机要数据的权限。

12 around 200  约200人  immigrant workers 移民工
    idea 这里用“想法”不是很准确
    在美国,对移民工进行标记的观点已在国会提出。
   
13    芯片装置不仅只与及其相连或只存在于我们周围
     兄弟  打错字了吧 ^_^
not only .... but (also)
     划入我们的皮肤   打错字了 ^_^  不过感觉这里用“滑入”还不是很贴切
    随着无线技术的不断进步,芯片装置不仅能够附着于机器设备或单纯内嵌于周边环境,而且还能够滑入(进入)我们的皮肤。

14 14 多家公司在无线技术深入人体方面竞争激烈。
    多家公司在深入人体的无线技术方面竞争激烈。 后面的那个 ”他“ -- ”它“

15 这种450$的药片可自然穿出肠道,最终消失于卫生间。
    这句话如果做成书面性的广告,消费者估计要被吓住了 ^_^
    这种价值450美元的药片可自然游经肠道,并最终消失于卫生间。

16  This method lets people go about their normal business for most of the eight-hour test, during which up to 50,000 images are generated. It marks a vast improvement on an older technique that involves pushing a long tube through a patient's digestive tract.
  这种方法能人们在这8小时的5万张拍照检查中大部分时间做自己的工作,相对于以前那种“下胃管”的技术,这标志着巨大的进步。
    不要偷懒啊 ^_^,把从前那种令人痛苦的技术翻译出来,更能突出意思。
    该技术使得人们在八小时检查的绝大部分时间里能够正常行动,而在此期间五万多幅影像会被拍摄收集。这相比过去将长长的胃管导入患者消化道的旧式技术,无疑是一个巨大的进步。

17 Although that procedure allows doctors to take tissue samples, it is uncomfortable and risks irritating the tract.
    "that procedure"指的是上文的”older technique “ 这句,需要重新翻译下。

回头继续看啊,兄弟翻译的不错,赞一个!
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发表于 2010-4-28 23:32 | 显示全部楼层
1  But the club made headlines three years ago when it introduced a unique form of entry ticket to its VIP area: a microchip implanted in the patron's arm.
entry ticket 入场券 感觉unique form 翻成 独特的比较准确,后面patron翻译出来比较的好,microchip 微芯片(^_^ ,集成电路芯片不要把客人给疼死)
  它为VIP区准备了独特的入场券:为每一位赞助人手臂上植入微芯片。

:loveliness: :loveliness:

2    intimidating
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发表于 2010-4-28 23:47 | 显示全部楼层
没写完, 那个单词在这里有些医学用词的味道:直接注射

积极听取师兄建议(应该是师兄吧 感觉这的大师们都比我大 啊~~)  小妹再这谢过啦:loveliness:
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发表于 2010-4-29 00:02 | 显示全部楼层
Otherwise the chip is dormant
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发表于 2010-4-29 00:17 | 显示全部楼层
Otherwise the chip is dormant
总感觉应该再多出点什么 如果译成"如信息核对不符"或者别的什么呢?
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