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[经济学人] [2008.12.30]第六篇之耕作海洋(Come, friends, and plough the sea)

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发表于 2010-4-29 00:27 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
A special report on the sea
海洋专题报道六

 
Come, friends, and plough the sea
来吧,伙计们,耕作海洋

 
Dec 30th 2008
From The Economist print edition

 
But make sure farmed fish are veggies
确保养殖的鱼属于植食类

 
“Will you walk a little faster?” said a
whiting to a snail,
“There's a porpoise close behind us, and
he's treading on my tail.”

Lewis Carroll
 
“你能走快点吗?”
小鳕鱼对蜗牛说,
“我们后面有只海豚,
他踩了我的尾巴。”
刘易斯•卡洛尔
 
FOR most of man’s existence he has been a hunter-gatherer. These days, however, it is as a farmer that he harvests almost all his food from the land. Now he has started farming the sea, too. The world produced 48m tonnes of farmed fish in 2005, worth $71 billion. That was 34% of the total, a proportion that is likely to rise to half by 2010. A huge variety of fish, including cod, crayfish, bream, halibut, mussels, salmon, sea bass and sturgeon, are all farmed, providing jobs and food for people all over the world.
 
自人类出现以来,大部分时间是作为采集狩猎者。然而在这些年代,人类作为农夫,几乎从陆地收获所有的食物。现在人类也开始经营海洋。2005年世界生产了4800万吨养殖鱼,价值710亿美元。这占渔业总产量的34%,这一比例到2010年可能升至50%。非常多的鱼类已被养殖,包括鳕鱼、小龙虾、鲤科鱼、大比目鱼、贻贝、鲑鱼、黑鲈和鲟鱼,为世界各地的人们提供了食物和工作岗位。
 
Unfortunately, fish farming is still in its infancy and in some places may do more harm than good. In Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam and other parts of Asia, huge swathes of coastline have been denuded of trees to make way for ponds and pens. Many fish farms create pollution, too. Even if the water in which the fish are reared starts out fresh, the build-up of faeces and uneaten food soon makes it foul. The mix is made even nastier by the pesticides and antibiotics needed to keep the crop alive. And to cap it all, aquaculture produces CO2 and gobbles up energy.
 
不幸的是,鱼类养殖仍处于初期,而且在一些地方损害多余裨益。在印度尼西亚、泰国、越南和亚洲其它地方,巨大的沿海地带因为建池塘和养殖场而砍掉了树木。很多养鱼场也在制造污染。即使是养鱼的水也开始变得不新鲜,粪便和吃剩下的食物堆积,很快使水变得污秽。污秽的水甚至被杀虫剂和保持饲养物存活需要的抗生素搞得更加肮脏。更有甚者,水产养殖产生CO2并大量消耗能源。
 
China, which produces about 70% of the world’s farmed fish, has been a notable offender in creating such pollution. Many of its fish have been found to contain heavy metals and toxic chemicals. But China is not alone. When salmon farming first started in Europe, the fish often became infested with lice, which then spread to wild fish. The drugs to treat them contributed to the pollution of the waters, already contaminated by the growth hormones and antibiotics added to the food.
 
中国养殖鱼的产量占世界的70%,在制造这样的污染上是明显的违规者。中国的养殖鱼大部分被发现含有重金属和有毒化学物质。但是中国并不是唯一的例子。当鲑鱼养殖在欧洲开始的时候,这种鱼经常伴随着虱子大量滋生,随后虱子又蔓延到野生鱼上。治疗药物对水有污染作用,而且现在已经被生长素和添加到饲料中的抗生素所污染。
 
Similar problems still arise elsewhere. Millions of fish were killed last year when a virus called infectious salmon anaemia swept through Chile’s salmon farms. Many blamed the outbreak on intensive farming. Farmed fish are also prone to parasites, one of which, Gyrodactylus salaris, has infected about 10% of Norway’s rivers, wiping out the wild salmon. Farmed fish also do damage when they escape, as many do. Sometimes the escaped fish interbreed with wild fish to the detriment of the local stock. Sometimes they eat the young of their rivals. Always they compete for food.
 
类似的问题也在其它地方出现。去年传染性鲑鱼贫血病毒席卷了智利的鲑鱼养殖场,数百万鲑鱼死亡。很多人指责这种爆发出现在密集的养殖场里。养殖场也易遭寄生虫的侵害,三代虫病是其中之一,挪威的河流大约10%被其感染,灭绝了野生鲑鱼。养殖鱼溜出养殖场后,也遭受这样的损害。有时溜走的鱼与野生异种交配,使本地鱼的存量遭到损失;有时他们吃掉幼小的竞争鱼种。他们总是在为食物而竞争。
 
The solutions to these problems are often known, if not applied. They usually involve fewer farms, colourings and pesticides, and cleaner water. But some difficulties are more complicated.
 
这些问题的解决办法即使没有应用,也是人们经常被知道的,通常包括减少饲养场、少使用色素和杀虫剂,使水更清洁。但是存在一些更复杂的困难。
 
Cod’s head for salmon’s tail
用鳕鱼头换鲑鱼尾

 
Some fish, such as groupers and eels, do not breed in captivity. They must be reared from fish caught in the wild, whose stocks are thereby reduced. And most of the fish that people like to eat are predators, which means they must themselves be fed fish. This is not an efficient business. It takes at least three kilos of fish meal to add one kilo to the weight of a farmed salmon. Most of this meal is made of ground-up anchovies, menhaden or sardines. Such forage fish already account for nearly a fifth of the world’s total annual catch; another fifth goes to feed pigs and poultry. Increasingly, as these small and middle-sized fish run out, smaller and hitherto commercially worthless ones are scooped up in fine-meshed nets. With them are quantities of tiddlers that, were they to survive, would grow into bigger, commercially valuable fish.
 
有些鱼类,象石斑鱼和鳗鲡,不能囚禁繁殖,它们必需由捕捉的野生鱼繁殖,因此导致野生鱼存量减少。这不是一个有效率的生意。增加养殖鲑鱼一千克的重量需要至少三千克鱼粉。大部分鱼粉由粉碎的凤尾鱼、鲱鱼或沙丁鱼制成。这样的饲料鱼已经差不多占每年世界总捕鱼量的五分之一;另有五分之一被用于喂猪和家禽。当中小型鱼类这样日益被耗尽时,更小的和迄今还没有商业价值的鱼类就会被细密的渔网捕捞。随后就会捕捞大量更小的鱼类,如果这些鱼类更够幸存,它们将会长得更大,成为有商业价值的鱼。
 
They might be ecologically valuable too. The striking drop in numbers round British coasts of such seabirds as arctic terns, kittiwakes, guillemots and puffins is probably a result of the disappearance of sand eels. These have either fled north to stay cool or been fished to the last elver before being turned into salmon feed.
 
它们在生态学上可能是非常有价值的。在英国周围的海岸,象北极燕鸥、三只鸥、海雀和海鸭等海鸟数量的显著减少,可能是由于玉筋属鱼类消失导致的。这些鱼类不是逃往北方寒冷的水域,就是在长成为鲑鱼食物之前被捕捞到只剩下幼鳗。
 
Perhaps the most grotesque form of fish farming is the ranching of bluefin tuna, a delicacy that may sell for as much as $860 a kilo. Bluefins are sensitive creatures that hate being cooped up so much that, if confined, they tend to throw themselves against their cages and break their necks. Australian “ranchers” have now adopted a technique that involves catching young bluefins, enveloping them in a huge net and dragging it slowly round the south seas for months while feeding them pilchards imported from west Africa.
 
也许最奇怪的养鱼场是蓝鳍金枪鱼大养殖场。蓝鳍金枪鱼做成的佳肴可以买到每公斤860美元。蓝鳍金枪鱼是一种敏感的动物,它们不喜欢象很多鱼那样被关起来,如果被关起来,它们往往会跳起向笼子撞击并折断脖子。澳大利亚的“大牧场主们”现在采用了一种捕捉幼蓝鳍金枪鱼的技术,是将它们围到一个巨大的网里并绕着南海缓慢地拖动几个月,同时喂它们从西非进口的沙丁鱼。
 
If fish are to be farmed in ever greater numbers, most had better be plant-eaters. Even better, from an environmental point of view, are molluscs such as mussels, clams and oysters. These need no feeding, thriving on plankton alone. They may even clean the water they live in. The main damage associated with farming shellfish is caused by harvesting them with dredges, which ruin the seabed. Fortunately, they can be gathered by divers.
 
如果以更大的数量养鱼,最好是饲养植食鱼类。从环境保护的观点来说,甚至更好的是养殖软体动物,象贻贝、蛤和牡蛎。这些动物不需要喂食,只以食浮游生物维生。它们甚至可以清洁所在的水域。与养殖贝类有关的主要损害,是由用老网收取它们导致的,捞网会毁坏海底。幸运的是,它们可以用潜水员采集。
 
        
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