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[经济学人] [2008.12.30]第七篇之一网打尽(Grabbing it all)

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发表于 2010-4-29 00:12 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
A special report on the sea
海洋专题报道七

 
Grabbing it all
一网打尽

 
Dec 30th 2008
From The Economist print edition

 
In most places fisheries policies have failed completely
在大多数地方,渔业政策完全失败了

 
With friends like these, who
needs anemones?

“Finding Nemo”
 
有这样的伙伴,谁
还需要海葵呢?
《海底总动员》
 
THE politicians who make fisheries policy may sometimes be excused if they are confused. Knowledge is incomplete, and natural systems are not necessarily stable. Paradoxes and surprises abound.
 
如果制定渔业政策的政治家头脑不清晰,有时也许会被原谅。因为相关知识还不完备,很多自然系统也不是必然地处于稳定状态。似乎矛盾和令人惊异的事情大量存在。
 
An abundance of fish, for example, is not always a sign of health in a fishery: the profusion of one species may simply be a temporary consequence of the depletion of its predators. On the other hand, a profusion of stressed, smaller fish may actually be a sign of a balanced ecosystem.
 
例如,鱼类数量过多,在渔业上并不总是状况良好的表现:一个物种的丰富,可能仅仅是其猎食者衰减的暂时结果。另一方面,较小鱼类的应激增多,实际上可能是一种平衡的生态系统的征兆。
 
This is suggested by observation of pristine coral reefs in the middle of the Pacific. Researchers from Scripps who have looked at those around Palmyra, an atoll some 1,600km south of Hawaii whose marine environment is largely untouched by man, have been surprised by the large numbers of such predator fish as sharks and groupers; in fact the predators seem to outnumber the prey. For Stuart Sandin, one of the researchers, the profusion was a puzzle. What are these big fish feeding on?
 
这是在观察太平洋中部的原始珊瑚礁的报告中提出的。来自思科利普斯研究所的研究人员一直在观察帕尔米拉岛周围的珊瑚礁,该岛是位于夏威夷以南大约1600公里的一座环状珊瑚岛,夏威夷的海洋环境在很达成程度上未被人类影响,研究人员对这里的食肉鱼类象鲨鱼和石斑鱼的巨大数量感到惊讶;实际上这些食肉鱼类的数量似乎超过了它们的猎物。斯图尔特•散丁是研究人员之一,他认为这么巨大的数量是一个谜。这些大鱼吃什么呢?
 
The answer is smaller fish. But those round Palmyra are not merely smaller, they are smaller than they would be if they were not hunted. In other words, in a state of nature, for that is pretty much what Palmyra is, the apex fishes’ prey seems to be in a permanently stressed condition. Yet the prey can maintain their numbers by growing fast, reproducing fast and eating not just the next victim below them in the food web but also algae. And these algae would soon take over and destroy the reef if they were not being eaten by fish. So stressed middle-sized fish make for both happy coral and happy predators—in short, a healthy and highly productive reef. It will remain so over time, even recovering from shocks like the bleaching Palmyra experienced in 1998, if it is not unduly disturbed.
 
答案是,它们吃较小的鱼类。但是帕尔米拉周围海里的鱼并不只是较小的鱼类,它们如果不被捕猎将会更小。换句话说,在自然状态下,因为这一状态几乎全都是象帕尔米拉岛那种情况,因此食物链顶端鱼类的猎物似乎持久地处于应力状态。另外这些猎物可能通过快速生长、快速繁殖和不仅吃它们下级食物链上的生物而且吃海藻,来维持它们的数量。而且这些海藻如果不被鱼吃掉,它们将迅速生长并破坏珊瑚礁。因此应激产生的中等大小的鱼类导致了适当的珊瑚和猎食鱼类——简言之,即状态良好并高产的珊瑚礁。随着时间过去,如果这种状态不被过度破坏,它将维持下去,甚至可以从象1998年帕尔米拉岛被漂白那样的打击中恢复。
 
One lesson therefore is to avoid unbalancing the marine environment. The other is to take a long-term view. Neither of these comes readily to politicians. Unless the briny is lapping at the door, which generally takes a hurricane, politicians give little thought to the sea. Their concerns start and end with fishermen, who in most rich countries are few in number but well organised as lobbyists. And though most fishermen have a strong interest in the long-term productivity of the sea, they also have a short-term interest in maximising their incomes and paying for the very expensive ships and equipment with which they plunder the deep.
 
因此一个教训是,避免是海洋环境失去平衡。另一个教训是,要有长远的眼光。政治家们都不会容易地接受这两个教训。除非是通常被飓风带来的海水涌到了家门口,否则政治家们几乎不会考虑海洋。他们关切的始终是渔民,在一些最富的国家,渔民在数量上很少,但是被完全组织成了游说者。而且尽管大多数渔民对海洋的长期生产能力有着强烈兴趣,他们也同样对在短时间内使收入最大化、购买他们用以掠夺海洋的昂贵的渔船和设备有兴趣。
 
Unplumb’d, salt, estranging sea
未知的、苦涩的、远离的海洋

 
Most policymakers’ first response to overfishing, if not to deny it, has been to extend their country’s territorial waters. The “free seas” advocated by Hugo Grotius, a Dutch jurist, in 1609 never in practice extended quite to the high-tide mark. But from the 18th century to the mid-20th, territorial waters, within which foreigners had no rights except that of “innocent” passage, ended three miles from shore.
 
大多数决策者如果不否认过度捕捞,那么他们对此的第一反应就是扩展国家的领海。“公海”这一概念自1609年由荷兰法学家休苟•格劳提尤斯倡导以来,实际上从没有扩展到最大值。但是从18世纪到20世纪中叶,领海却从海岸扩展了三英里。在领海内外国人除了“合法”通过外,没有权力。
 
In 1945, though, the United States unilaterally claimed jurisdiction over the natural resources of its continental shelf. Other countries followed suit, and some started to extend their territorial waters to 12 miles. Chile and Peru soon pushed their limits to 200, and other Latin American and African countries were not far behind. By 1958, Iceland, whose fishing catches were already diminishing, extended its limit to 12 miles too, and precipitated the first of three “cod wars” with Britain. Claims were everywhere being asserted, contested and copied. Order was needed.
 
虽然如此,但是1945年,美国单方面声称对其大陆架的自然资源拥有权限。其它国家随之效法,而且一些国家开始将其领海扩展到12英里。智力和秘鲁很快将他们的边界推进到200英里,其他的拉丁美洲和美洲国家也没有落后太多。到1958年前,冰岛也将其领海边界扩展到12英里,并导致了与英国的三个“鳕鱼战”中的第一个。冰岛的捕鱼量正逐渐减少。所有权到处都在被宣告、争辩和效仿。确实需要有一个秩序了。
 

Turtles, dolphins, albatrosses not on show
没有陈列海龟、海豚和信天翁
 
After three conferences convened by the United Nations to draw up a comprehensive law of the sea, coastal countries today have territorial waters up to 12 miles from land in which they exercise total control except for the right of innocent passage. For the next 12 miles, ie, up to 24 from the shore, they have fewer rights but may also control customs, immigration and taxation. And up to 200 miles they have an economic zone with control over various maritime activities and the right to exploit natural resources under the seabed or on it, so long as these are fixed and do not move. This is about to be extended (see ).
 
在联合国召集了三个会议,拟定了一项全面的海洋法后,现在沿海国家的领海达到离岸12英里,在这个范围内,除了无害通过权外,他们拥有全部的控制权。对于再向外12英里,也就是离岸24英里,他们除了也可以控制海关、移民和征税外,拥有的权力较少。在达到离岸200英里的区域,他们有一个控制各种海事活动的的经济区,并有权力开发海底之下或海底表面的自然资源,只要这些资源是固定的、不移动的。这一区域将被延长(见)。
 
From the point of view of fish in coastal waters, this should have been good news: instead of belonging to everyone, ie, no one, they now have national owners with a clear interest in their preservation. As the evidence of continued overfishing shows, however, most of the owners have yet to find, or implement, the right policies.
 
从沿海水域鱼类资源的角度来说,这应该是个好消息:鱼类已不属于任何一个人,现在沿海国家对保护他们领海的鱼类资源有了明显的兴趣。然而,因为继续存在的明显过度捕捞的现象表明,大部分沿海国家仍必须寻求或实施适当的政策。
 
A variety of remedies have been tried, usually in combination. Thus regulations have been issued about the size and type of fish to be caught, the mesh of nets to be used, the number of days a month that boats may go to sea, the permissible weight of their catch and so on. In some countries fishermen are offered inducements to give up fishing altogether. Those that continue are, at least in theory, subject to monitoring both at sea and in port. Large areas are sometimes closed to fishing, to allow stocks to recover. Others have been designated as marine reserves akin to national parks. And some of the technology that fishermen use to find their prey is now used by inspectors to monitor the whereabouts of the hunters themselves.
 
各种补救措施已经在尝试,通常是以相互结合起来的形式。因此颁布了各种法规,包括捕鱼的大小和种类、网眼的大小、每月可以出海的天数以及允许的捕获量等等。有些国家给予了捕鱼者一些经济鼓励,使其完全放弃了捕鱼。那些继续捕鱼的国家,渔民至少在理论上来说,要服从海洋和港口的管理。大一些的水域时常被关闭禁止捕鱼,以使鱼存量得以恢复。其它海域被指定为类似国家公园的海洋保留区。一些过去捕鱼者用来寻找猎物的技术,现在被检查人员用以监视捕鱼者。
 
Most of these measures have helped, as the recovery of stocks in various places has shown. Striped bass and North Atlantic swordfish have returned along America’s east coast, for instance. Halibut have made a comeback in Alaska. Haddock, if not cod, have begun to recover in Georges Bank off Maine. And herring come and go off the coasts of Scotland. Those who doubt the value of government intervention have only to look at the waters off Somalia, a country that has been devoid of any government worth the name since 1991. The ensuing free-for-all has devastated the coastal stocks, ruining the livelihoods of local fishermen and encouraging them, it seems, to take up piracy instead.
 
这些措施大部分是有作用的,因为在很多地方已经出现鱼存量的恢复。例如,条纹鲈和北大西洋剑鱼已经沿美国西海岸返回。在阿拉斯加,大比目鱼已经恢复。即使不是所有鳕鱼类,起码黑线鳕在缅因州乔治海岸水域已开始恢复。青鱼已在苏格兰沿海水域游弋。那些怀疑政府干预作用的人,只要看看索马里沿海情况就可以了,这个国家自1991年开始处于无政府状态,接着出现的混战摧毁了沿海的鱼存量,毁掉了当地渔民的谋生手段,这似乎促成他们转而干起了海盗生意。
 
But too often the recovery, if it comes, is partial or temporary. Pressure mounted to reopen Georges Bank for haddock as soon as the first signs of vigour returned, and limited fishing is now allowed. In some places, round the Channel Islands of southern California, for instance, fish cannot thrive because their habitat—in this instance, the kelp forests—has been destroyed. Elsewhere the sea mounts, the hills and mountains that rise up from the ocean floor but do not break the surface, have been ruined by smash-and-grab trawlermen. In many places the rules are simply ignored. Illegal fishing thrives, landings go unmonitored, skippers keep two sets of logbooks, officials are bribed.
 
但是如果出现恢复的话,也经常是部分的或暂时的。恢复元气的迹象刚一出现,为捕捞黑线鳕而要求重新开放乔治海岸水域的压力就迅速增加,曾受限制的捕鱼现在已经准许。在有些地方,比如加利福尼亚南部海峡群岛周围的水域,鱼类不可能繁盛,因为它们的生活坏境(在本例中是巨藻林)已被破坏。在其它地方,从海底升起但没有超出海面的海底山、海丘和海底山脉,已经被打砸抢的拖船渔民破坏。在很多地方规章完全被忽视,非法捕鱼猖獗,码头无人监管,船长存有两套航海日志,正式的一套是买通有关人员编造的。
 
Often agreements are ignored as soon as they are signed. Several countries agreed, for instance, to cut Atlantic swordfish catches in 1991. Spain and America did so, but not others: Japan’s catch rose by 70%, Portugal’s by 120% and Canada’s by 200%. France, Ireland and Italy were among the countries that continued to use large-scale drift nets on the high seas after they were banned by the UN in 1991. These nets, by definition over 2.5km long, indiscriminately scoop up enormous quantities of marine life: whales, turtles, dolphins, small fish of no commercial value, the lot.
 
经常是协议刚一签署完就被忽视了。例如,一些国家在1991年达成一致,减少捕捞大西洋剑鱼,西班牙和美国如约做了,但是其它国家却没有:日本捕量增加70%,葡萄牙增加120%,加拿大增加了200%。1991年联合国禁止使用漂网,但法国、冰岛、意大利和一些国家仍继续在公海上使用。按照定义,这种网长度超过2.5公里,它不加分辨地捕捞巨大数量的海洋生物:鲸、海龟、海豚和没有商业价值的小鱼,统统收尽。
 
Bycatch was not confined to drift-netting. In commercial fisheries as a whole, 25% of the catch was discarded in the 1990s. At the same time the use of fishing lines as long as 125km, whose thousands of baited hooks attracted diving seabirds as well as their intended prey, was calculated to be killing 40,000 albatrosses a year. Nets of one kind or another meant to catch Pacific yellowfin tuna were also killing 400,000 dolphins a year.
 
副捕获物不仅限于漂网捕鱼。就商业捕鱼整体来说,九十年代捕获物的25%被丢弃。同时长达125公里的鱼线的使用,使得这种鱼线上数千个带饵的鱼钩在吸引着要捕捉的鱼的同时,也吸引着会潜水的鸟,据估算每年都要杀死4万只信天翁。各种意在捕捉太平洋黄鳍金枪鱼的网,每年也在杀死着40万只海豚。
 
New methods of setting nets have reduced the bycatch of dolphins but not of other species, such as billfish, turtles and sharks. In his book, “The End of the Line”, Charles Clover says that, for 15,721 tons of tuna, fishermen using these dolphin-friendly methods caught 237 tons of sharks and rays and 15,500 tons of other fish.
 
布设渔网的一些新方法已经减少副捕获物海豚的捕获,但没有减少其它一些生物的捕获,象长嘴鱼、海龟和鲨鱼。查尔斯•克劳弗在其书《鱼线末端》中说,为捕获15721吨金枪鱼,使用不伤害海豚的捕鱼方法的渔民,同时要捕获237吨鲨鱼和鳐鱼以及15500吨其它鱼类。
 
Sharks provide a particularly unhappy example of destruction. They have long been hunted in the Mediterranean and are now close to extinction there, having been reduced to 3% of their stock 200 years ago, according to Lenfest Ocean Program, an institute based in Washington, DC. They have not been much luckier in North America. Never quite as cuddly as polar bears or as lovable as porpoises, sharks became sinister objects of hatred after the publication of Peter Benchley’s bestseller, “Jaws”, in 1974 and the success of the film a year later. A guilt-ridden Benchley then became a marine conservationist and a campaigner for sharks in particular, but by that time many people’s latent fears of Great Whites had turned into open loathing of all sharks, even the harmless, plankton-eating basking variety.
 
鲨鱼是遭受摧残及其不幸的例子。按照位于华盛顿哥伦比亚特区的蓝飞斯特海洋规划学会的调查,在地中海鲨鱼被长期捕捉,现在已接近灭绝,存量已减少到200年前的3%。在北美洲鲨鱼的情况稍好。鲨鱼完全不象北极熊那样令人想拥抱,或象海豚那样可爱,1974年皮特•本奇立的畅销书《大白鲨》(直译《鬼门关》)出版,第二年同名影片成功上映,此后鲨鱼成了人们憎恶的凶恶的对象。本奇立因受内疚折磨成了一名海洋保护主义者,特别是参加了保护鲨鱼运动,但是在此之前,很多人对大白鲨的潜在恐惧已经转变成明显地厌恶所有鲨鱼,甚至是无害的、吃浮游植物的象鲛种鲨鱼。
 
Oh, the shark has pretty fins, dear
哦,鲨鱼有漂亮的鳍,亲爱的

 
Still, the greater threat to sharks comes not from game fishermen but from Asian gastronomes whose idea of a treat is shark’s-fin soup. For years sharks were caught chiefly for their fins; often, indeed, the fins would be cut off and the creature thrown back in the water alive, there to suffer a slow death by drowning. Nowadays, with at least 11 kinds of shark facing extinction and many more of the 400 species either vulnerable or endangered, sharks are to some extent protected. But the value of their fins, which rivals that of caviar, and the ease with which they can be hidden from inspections on a fishing-boat keep the shark in perpetual danger. Perhaps 73m sharks are killed each year for their fins, and the number is rising fast. Spain and Indonesia are among the worst culprits, according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature.
 
但是对鲨鱼更大威胁不是来自渔民,而是来自亚洲的美食家们,他们的人生一大快事就是想喝鲨鱼翅汤。很多年来,捕捉鲨鱼主要就是为了获取它们的鳍。实际上,鲨鱼鳍经常被割掉,而其身体被活活地扔回水里,使其因溺水遭受缓慢死亡的痛苦。由于至少11种鲨鱼面临灭绝,400种鲨鱼中的很多易遭伤害或濒于灭绝,现在鲨鱼在某种程度上是被保护的。但是由于鲨鱼的价值与鱼子酱差不多,而且将它们隐藏在渔船上逃避检查比较容易,使得鲨鱼一直处于危险中。为了获取鲨鱼鳍,每年大约杀死7300万条鲨鱼,而且这一数字还在快速增加。按照国际自然保护联盟的说法,西班牙和印度尼西亚属于最恶劣的嫌犯。
 
Other fish are not faring much better. Eels are fast vanishing from the Mediterranean, swordfish from the Indian Ocean. The orange roughy, a slow-growing perch now marketed as empereur, was virtually fished out in British waters soon after trawlermen set their sights on it in 1991. It seems all but doomed almost everywhere except perhaps round New Zealand. The bluefin tuna faces “impending extinction” in the west Atlantic, according to Carl Safina, of the Blue Ocean Institute in East Norwich, New York, an example, he says, of “how management can go off track if the scientific part of the process is corrupted by short-term economics and political lobbying”.
 
其它鱼类的遭遇也不是更好。鳗鲡正从地中海快速消失,剑鱼正从印度洋消失。罗非鱼是一种生长缓慢的鲈鱼,现在市场售价极贵,实际上它在1991年被渔民盯上后不久,就在英国海域被捕尽。可能除了在新西兰附近,罗非鱼几乎在任何地方都注定要被捕尽。按照位于纽约东诺维奇的碧海学会的卡尔•赛飞纳的说法,在大西洋西部,蓝鳍金枪鱼正面临“迫在眉睫的毁灭”,他说,这是一个“如果科学处理的部分过程被短期的经济效益和政治游说所腐蚀,管理就可能偏离正轨”的例子”。
 
All in all, the politicians charged with safeguarding the fisheries seem to be failing. Is nobody getting it right?
 
总之,承担保护渔业责任的政治家们似乎是失败了。没有人在纠正这种情况吗?
 
        


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珊瑚岛

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