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[经济学人] [2008.08.21] Exit the president 总统离任

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发表于 2010-4-28 20:35 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Pakistan
巴基斯坦


Exit the president
总统离任


Aug 21st 2008 | LAHORE
From The Economist print edition

The troubled era of Pervez Musharraf comes to an end. New troubles begin
穆沙拉夫的麻烦年代已然终结,新的问题浮出水面。




HE HAD stayed too long, as dictators do. He considered himself “indispensable”, even as his powers ebbed and support vanished. But Pervez Musharraf, an army coupster turned army-backed president, made a dignified exit on August 19th. In a cogent hour-long address, televised live and delivered with few notes, Mr Musharraf defended his nine-year rule. He denied the charges that the ruling coalition, led by the Pakistan People’s Party, was about to impeach him with, accusing it of pursuing a “vendetta” against him. As he spoke, taut with emotion, its supporters were dancing in the street.
他在位时间太长,就像独裁者一样。即使手中权力日减,支持者不再,他依然认为自己不可或缺。但是穆沙拉夫,这位靠军事政变上台、军队支持的总统,于8月19日体面的离职。一小时的电视直播讲话,他很少看稿,并为自己九年来的统治做了有力的辩护。穆沙拉夫否认了由巴基斯坦人民党领导的政治联盟即将对他进行的弹劾,指责这是他们针对他的报复行径。当他声情并茂地发表演讲之时,他的支持者走上街头欢快舞蹈。

Mr Musharraf’s demise had been inevitable since August 7th, when the PPP and its main coalition partner, the Pakistan Muslim League (N), or PML(N), said they would impeach him. A charge-sheet had been drafted, and was to be presented to parliament this week. It included Mr Musharraf’s first seizure of power in 1999—at the expense of Nawaz Sharif, the PML(N)’s leader, whom Mr Musharraf imprisoned and exiled—and his second last November, when he declared an emergency as a means to get re-elected president.
自8月7日起,穆沙拉夫便不可避免的走到了政治生涯的终点。巴基斯坦人民党(PPP)和其主要盟友穆斯林联盟谢里夫派[PML(N)]在那天宣布,他们将弹劾总统穆沙拉夫。指控文书当时已起草完毕,并将于本周呈交给议会。对他的指控包括:穆沙拉夫1999年将PML(N)领导人谢里夫监禁并驱逐出境,篡夺了权力;去年11月大选期间,他宣布在全国实行紧急状态,借此他赢得了总统选举。

The charge-sheet also listed some of Mr Musharraf’s contributions to the “war on terror”. By stomping to America’s fiddle—for example, in marching his army into the north-west tribal areas bordering Afghanistan—Mr Musharraf won $11.8 billion in American aid, most of it military. But many Pakistanis hated him for it. They reasonably blamed his policies for a Taliban insurgency in the north-west and terrorism all over, including a suicide attack on a hospital in the frontier town of Dera Ismail Khan on August 19th that killed 30 people.
指控还包括一些穆沙拉夫对“反恐战争”的贡献。他中了美国人的小把戏,比如他派遣军队进入与阿富汗接壤的西北部族地区,也因此赢得了美国118亿美元的援助,其中大部分是军事援助。但许多巴基斯坦民众却因此而痛恨他。他们对穆沙拉夫的指责很有道理:他的政策导致了塔利班在西北地区的暴动和遍布全国的恐怖主义行为,其中就包括8月19日发生在边境小镇医院的自杀式炸弹攻击事件,该袭击造成了30人死亡。

The impeachment of its former chief would have embarrassed the army. To ensure it kept its nose out of politics for a change, the government had therefore urged Mr Musharraf to quit. And the army, under its recently appointed chief, General Ashfaq Kayani, did not demur. Nor did America; it called the impeachment an “internal” issue. In the dying days of his supremacy, Mr Musharraf was therefore reduced to haggling over his retirement plan.
对军队前领导人的指控会令军方感到尴尬。为了确保军队不染指政治引发变数,政府因此敦促穆沙拉夫辞职。在新近任命的Ashfaq Kayani将军的领导下,军队确实没有反对。美国人也没有表示异议,它称此次弹劾为巴方内部事务。因此,在其总统任职的最后几日,穆沙拉夫开始为他的辞职计划讨价还价。

He wants to live honourably in Pakistan, in a mansion he is building outside Islamabad. The PPP’s leader, Asif Zardari, the widower of the party’s murdered former leader, Benazir Bhutto, could tolerate this. But Mr Sharif, who was no stickler for the rule of law during his own two riotous terms, says the coupster must be punished. “I have no vendetta,” he explained, seated in his opulent mansion near Lahore, guarded by two stuffed lions. “Though he handcuffed me, humiliated my family, tried to destroy my party, put me in a dungeon in a 500-year-old fort, put me in exile for seven years; that is all gone. I hold nothing against him personally.” For now, Mr Musharraf seems safe from prosecution. But he may yet quit Pakistan for a spell.
穆沙拉夫希望体面的留在巴基斯坦,住在他建在伊斯兰堡城外的公馆。人民党领导人,也是遇刺的该党前任领导人贝布托的丈夫扎尔达里,接受了这个条件。但谢里夫说穆沙拉夫一定要受到惩罚,可谢里夫在自己两个放纵的任期内却没有要求遵守法律。谢里夫的官邸富丽堂皇,座落在拉合尔附近,门前有两个填充狮守卫。他在官邸解释说,“尽管他逮捕过我,羞辱过我的家庭,试图消灭我的政党,把我放在一个有500年历史堡垒的土牢内,驱逐了我7年,但我不是在报复;那些都过去了。我完全没有针对他个人。”目前看来,穆沙拉夫似乎免于被起诉。但他仍有可能离开巴基斯坦一段时间。

The government meanwhile has troubles of its own. Its decision to impeach the president was less a sign of strength than of terminal wrangling between Mr Zardari and Mr Sharif. At the heart of their dispute are 60 judges, sacked by Mr Musharraf during the emergency. Mr Sharif needs friendly judges to overturn a ban on his eligibility to stand for election, and wants them restored. But Mr Zardari, granted an amnesty from corruption charges under Mr Musharraf, reckons the deposed judges would be less friendly than their successors. As Mr Zardari stalled over reinstating the judges, Mr Sharif in May withdrew his nine ministers from the government. It was largely in an effort to woo him back that Mr Zardari agreed to Mr Sharif’s other main demand: to impeach Mr Musharraf.
同时,政府也有它的麻烦。弹劾总统之举与其说是政府强有力的标志,还不如说是扎尔达里和谢里夫二人争执不下的最终结果。两人分歧的焦点是被穆沙拉夫在宣布紧急状态时解职的60名法官。谢里夫希望恢复这些法官的职务,因为他需要他们去推翻一个禁止自己参加选举的法令。而扎尔达里则认为,继任法官将会比这些被解职的法官对自己更有利,在穆沙拉夫治下,他曾免于腐败指控。5月份,当扎尔达里阻挠重新任用这些法官时,谢里夫派九名部长从联合政府中集体请辞。为了挽回谢里夫的支持,扎尔达里同意了他的另一主要要求:弹劾穆沙拉夫。

But Mr Sharif is still not happy. He wants the old judges restored at once. And he wants the president’s power to dismiss parliament—which Mr Musharraf awarded himself—clipped by a constitutional amendment. Mr Zardari is willing to have most of the judges back, but not their irascible leader, Iftikhar Chaudhry. He may also fancy the presidency for himself. If Mr Sharif will not compromise on the judges, Mr Zardari may even take it: the PPP might have enough votes, in an electoral college of the four provincial assemblies and national parliament. In that case, Mr Zardari might be loth to dilute the president’s powers first—though he has sworn to do so.
但谢里夫依然不开心。他希望立刻起用被解职的法官,希望宪法修正案解除总统解散议会的权力,出于一己私利,穆沙拉夫在其当政时期有此规定。扎尔达里乐于恢复大多数被解职法官的职务,但不包括易怒的首席大法官提哈尔·乔杜里。扎尔达里也可能想当总统。如果谢里夫不能就法官问题做出妥协,扎尔达里甚至可能梦想成真:在国民议会和四个省级议会组成的选举团体里,人民党或许有足够的选票。如果他真能当选,扎尔达里可能不会爽快的削减总统的权力了,尽管他曾发誓如此。

Mr Musharraf goes at a time of alarming instability in Pakistan. With inflation officially at 24%, and food prices rising faster, the economy is stricken. The violent north-west is screaming for more enlightened and steadier policies than the army has applied. But after nine years of being hounded, divided and abused by Mr Musharraf and his men, the politicians’ erratic performance is not surprising. Above all, Pakistan needs confidence in its democratic system, including its capacity to keep its army in check. Under Mr Musharraf, this was unimaginable.
穆沙拉夫是在巴基斯坦可能陷入动荡局面的背景下离任的。其时,官方的通货膨胀数字是24%,食物价格飞涨,经济受到严重冲击。西北地区的暴力亟须军方实行更开明、稳定的政策。但经过了穆沙拉夫及其同伙九年的糟糕统治后,政治家们飘忽不定的表现也不足为奇。总之,在其民主体制内,巴基斯坦需要自信,这其中就包括相信自己控制军队的能力。在穆沙拉夫治下,这是不可想象的。

Not that he recognised it. To the end, he considered himself a promulgator of the “essence of democracy”. Mr Musharraf referred to this concept in his speech while claiming credit for having boosted women’s rights, local governments and other equitable things. And so he did, sometimes successfully. But two tawdry facts remained: Mr Musharraf had never won an unrigged election; and had long been unpopular. He has now been slung out by the first fairly-elected government permitted on his watch. That is democratic.
穆沙拉夫的辞职并不是因为他认识到了这一点。直到最后,他还认为自己是“民主精髓”的传播者。在辞职演说中,他提到了这个概念,同时他还为自己揽功,认为自己提高了妇女和地方政府的权利以及他做的其它一些公正的事情。他确实做了,有时也成功了。但他的两个污点依然存在:从未赢过一场他未加操控的选举;长期不受欢迎。现在他被首个由公正选举产生的政府踢了出来,而该政府的产生也经他同意。这,就是民主。
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发表于 2010-4-28 21:10 | 显示全部楼层
这是谁的佳作啊,难得一见啊 ??!!
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发表于 2010-4-28 21:45 | 显示全部楼层
As he spoke, taut with emotion, its supporters were dancing in the street.
当他声情并茂地发表演讲之时,他的支持者走上街头欢快舞蹈.
charge-sheet 指控文书/ 弹劾条陈
handcuffed 逮捕
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发表于 2010-4-28 22:20 | 显示全部楼层
你就寒碜我吧
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发表于 2010-4-28 22:55 | 显示全部楼层
The troubled era of Pervez Musharraf comes to an end. New troubles begin
麻烦连连的穆沙拉夫时代虽已终结,但是新的烦扰已经涌上心头(改改导语吧,我随便写的,你能攒个更好的 !!)

谁寒碜你啦,不知好歹的小家伙~~:o
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发表于 2010-4-28 23:30 | 显示全部楼层
The troubled era of Pervez Musharraf comes to an end. New troubles begin
麻烦连连的穆沙拉夫时代虽已终结,但是新的烦扰已经涌上心头(改改导语吧,我随便写的,你能攒个更好的 !!)

谁寒碜你啦,不知好歹的小家伙~~:o

哈哈哈:D
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发表于 2010-4-29 00:05 | 显示全部楼层
delivered with few notes是翻译成很少看稿啊?确定么?
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发表于 2010-4-29 00:40 | 显示全部楼层
这个基本上确定,deliver就是公开演讲,If you deliver a lecture or speech, you give it in public.
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发表于 2010-4-29 01:15 | 显示全部楼层
一处不小的错误
It was largely in an effort to woo him back that Mr Zardari agreed to Mr Sharif’s other main demand: to impeach Mr Musharraf.
为了挽回盟友谢里夫,扎尔达里做出了很大程度的努力,即同意前者另一主要要求:弹劾穆沙拉夫。
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发表于 2010-4-29 01:50 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢指出。
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