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[经济学人] [2006.12.02][Multicultural Britain:A nation at ease with bits of itself ]

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发表于 2010-4-29 02:29 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Multicultural Britain
A nation at ease with bits of itself
安于现状的英国
Nov 30th 2006
From The Economist print edition

Multiculturalism is no longer just about colour
文化多元不再只是肤色不同


WHEN the Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, boycotted a conference on race relations, marking 30 years of anti-discrimination law, held on November 27th and 28th, it was put down to a personal feud between the mayor and the head of the Commission for Racial Equality (CRE), Trevor Phillips. But the row has deeper roots. It is about the new fault-line in the politics of multiculturalism: religion.
反歧视法实行三十周年之际,伦敦市长凯恩.列文斯顿却拒绝参加11月27至28日的种族关系大会,这已上升到市长与种族平等委员会(CRE)的负责人特雷弗.菲利普斯之间的个人恩怨。但争端的根源并非如此简单,而是多元文化下的政治有了新隐忧:宗教问题。

This would have surprised the drafters of the 1976 Race Relations Act, which banned racial discrimination and established the CRE to enforce the law. Then, the widespread prejudice against Afro-Caribbeans (and a smaller number of Asians) was explained by colour.
1976年《种族关系法案》的起草者定会对此大为吃惊。他们立法禁止种族歧视,创建CRE以执行法令,由此对非洲裔加勒比移民(和少量亚裔移民)受到的无处不在的偏见做出解释:肤色不同。

A speech by Enoch Powell, a Conservative MP, struck a chord with many working-class whites when, in 1968, he warned against the results of unchecked immigration from the Commonwealth. Powell, a classicist, said: “Like the Roman, I seem to see the Tiber foaming with much blood.”

保守党下议员伊诺柯.鲍威尔1968年的一次演讲,说出了许多白人工人阶级的心声。他警告政府不能无限制吸收英联邦移民,身为古典学家的鲍威尔说:“好像罗马人,我仿佛看到了台伯河血沫翻腾。”

Thirteen years later, when riots swept through 29 of Britain's inner cities, Powell's prophecy appeared to have been fulfilled. Lord Scarman's report into the disturbances in Brixton blamed the “racial disadvantage that is a fact of British life”. Since then, things have got better.
十三年后,当暴乱席卷英国29个移民社区,鲍威尔的预言似乎得到了应验。斯卡曼勋爵在布里克斯顿骚乱的调查中,谴责“英国生活中现实存在的种族弱势”。自此以后,情况有了好转。

Although Afro-Caribbeans still suffer from more than their share of problems, such as high rates of criminality, low achievement by black boys at school and family breakdown, they differ little from the problems suffered by poor whites. Initially, it was the determination of Afro-Caribbeans to be part of the mainstream of British life, competing with whites for blue-collar jobs, council houses and, increasingly, for sexual partners that made them unpopular; these days it has helped them to become accepted. According to the latest MORI polling on attitudes to race, commissioned by the CRE, 80% of black people report that they mix often with different ethnic groups.
对非洲裔加勒比移民来说,尽管生活中还是有着过多的问题,比如犯罪率居高不下,黑人儿童在学校难有成绩,或是家庭破裂等等,但他们遇到的多数问题,贫困的白人同样也有。那些移民自愿融入英国生活的主流,他们与白人竞争,做蓝领工人,住政府廉价屋,甚至越来越多的人当起了性伙伴,曾因此搞坏了移民的名声。而如此种种,今天却有助于他们被人接受。由CRE委托MORI所做的,关于种族态度的最新调查中,百分之八十的黑人,称自己常常同其它民族混居无间。

By contrast, Asians, especially Pakistanis and Bangladeshis, opted more for separateness. Consequently, they were seen as “less trouble” than Afro-Caribbeans—a silent and well-behaved minority, which kept itself to itself. But the rise of aggressive Islamic fundamentalism and its accompanying threat of home-grown terrorism has changed all that.
与此相反,亚裔移民,特别是巴基斯坦和孟加拉国人,往往选择与世隔绝,于是较非裔加勒比人显得更“老实”,互相抱成一团,过着安分守己的生活。但好战的伊斯兰原教旨主义逐渐兴起,随之带来了本土恐怖主义的威胁,以往的平静成了过眼云烟。

The same polling reflects the anxieties this has caused. Race and immigration are regarded as the most important issues facing the country today. But Mr Phillips suspects that race is not the problem so much as the cultural and religious separateness of many Asians. As well as separatist Muslims, new Sikh and Hindu organisations are emerging and the quality of leadership among these emerging groups is at best, patchy. Mr Phillips recently warned that Britain was in danger of “sleepwalking into segregation”.
上述调查也反映民众对这一切忧心忡忡。如今种族与移民成为了国家最重要的两大议题。而在菲利普斯先生眼里,与众多亚裔人文化和宗教上的封闭相比,种族问题不成其问题。包括穆斯林分裂主义者在内,新的锡克教和印度教组织纷纷浮出水面。而这些组织,充其量只是一盘散沙。菲利普斯最近警告国家有“不知不觉走入种族隔离”的危险。

The need to combat narrow-minded identity politics was much discussed at the CRE conference, as was the fact that the body will be subsumed into a super-quango, the Commission for Equality and Human Rights (see article), next year. It will fight discrimination on all fronts, including religion. Mr Phillips, who will head it, believes old-fashioned race politics is on the way out. Mr Livingstone disagrees and accuses Mr Phillips of creating unnecessary alarm over cultural differences that should be welcomed. One thing is certain. The new dividing lines are more complex than the old ones.
打击政治中狭隘的身份观,它的必须性在CRE大会上讨论的很多,因为明年,此团体会被吸收进一大型半官方机构:人权与平等委员会。委员会将多线出击,在包括宗教等方面全面打击歧视。作为此机构将来的负责人,菲利普斯相信,老一套以种族为重的政治将逐渐走下舞台。而列文斯顿先生对此并不同意,他欢迎文化差异,并指责菲利普斯拿这点大做文章,造成了不必要的惊慌。其实有一点是肯定的:无论种族还是文化,新的分界线,比旧的要复杂得多。

ps: 第一次翻译the economist 感觉它虽然风格很朴素,但却十分不好对付 。不大明白的地方已标出,希望多多纠错。
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