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[经济学人] [2010.03.18] Chile: Running to rebuild a shaken country 临“震”受命,重建家园

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发表于 2010-4-29 00:21 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Chile's new government
智利新政府


Running to rebuild a shaken country
临“震”受命,重建家园


Lacking his predecessor’s popular touch, Sebastián Pinera (below) and his team of business technocrats will face pressure from Chileans for quick results
百姓寻求快速解决方案,缺少公信度的塞瓦斯蒂安•皮涅拉(下图)和他的商业巨头们面临巨大压力
Mar 18th 2010 | SANTIAGO | From The Economist print edition



HE HAS always been hyperkinetic. But taking office as Chile’s president just 12 days after a devastating earthquake has thrown Sebastián Pinera into a frenzy of activity. No sooner had he been sworn in on March 11th as the country’s first elected right-of-centre leader in half a century than he was off on a helicopter tour of the damage from a big aftershock, cancelling lunch with seven visiting Latin American presidents. Having set up an emergency committee under his interior minister to handle the disaster, Mr Piñera is doing much of the work himself, holding cabinet meetings late into the night and making whistle-stop visits to the worst-affected areas in south-central Chile.

地震12天后,一向活跃的塞瓦斯蒂安•皮涅拉临“震”受命,上任就陷入了高密度的灾后重建工作。作为智利50年来首位选举产生的右派总统,皮涅拉11日一宣誓就职就马上搭直升机飞越震区,了解灾情;取消了和来访拉丁美洲的七位总统的宴会;亲力亲为,组织自己的内阁成立紧急委员会来应对灾害;通宵召开内阁会议;在中南部智利重灾区做短暂停留。

He has a big task ahead of him. The ground is still shaking. Parts of the coast have been raised by two metres. The death toll (at around 500) is lower than at first feared. An official in the outgoing government reckons that 150,000 families were made homeless (down from an initial guess of 500,000). Even so, the new team guesses that the earthquake has caused damage to infrastructure, businesses and homes of some $30 billion (a sum equal to around a fifth of GDP), though it will be weeks before an accurate tally is made.

他面临着震后大“考”。地表仍然在震动。部分海岸上升了两米。死亡总数比最开始担心的有所下降。前政府的一个官员公布有15万家庭无家可归(比最初预计的50万要少)。尽管如此,新的政府预计地震将造成基础设施、商业及家庭损失近300亿(相当于GDP的五分之一),准确的数字将会在数周以后公布。

The damage is concentrated in the regions of Maule, Bío-Bío and O’Higgins, all to the south of Santiago. A string of coastal towns and villages were flattened by a tsunami triggered by the quake. They are thick with the stench of rotting fish, thrown ashore by the waves.

受灾地区主要集中在圣地亚哥的南面,如Maule, Bío-Bío and O’Higgins。沿线的海岸城市及乡村都被地震引起的海啸所填平。这些地区都弥漫着海风吹上来的腐烂的鱼腥味。

Schools and hospitals were destroyed or damaged. In all, some 250,000 people still lack access to primary health care according to the Pan American Health Organisation. The quake coincided with the start of the school year. Pupils from damaged schools are doubling up in others, or will use temporary classrooms. Mr Piñera has given orders that all classes must resume by April 26th.

学校和医院被摧毁和破坏。据泛美卫生组织透露,25万人民对接受最基本的医疗保健有困难。地震正值学校新学年的开始,受灾的学生数成倍增长,或是使用临时搭建的教室。总统先生已经下命令在4月26日之前恢复所有学校的正常开课。

Water and electricity were quickly restored in most places. All the main roads were made passable within a few days, although some still have temporary bridges. But some minor roads in coastal areas are still blocked or can be used only by light vehicles. Santiago airport is working again, though passengers must use tents because the main terminal building was badly damaged. So was the big fishing port at Talcahuano, in the south, as well as quays in many smaller fishing towns.

大部分地区的水和电都得到很快恢复。几天之内,几乎所有的道路都已通车,尽管有些搭建了临时的桥梁。但是,在一些沿海地区,一些小的道路仍然受阻或者只能承受轻便的车辆通过。圣地亚哥飞机场已经再次恢复运营,但是航站楼严重受损,乘客们需要搭建帐篷。塔尔卡瓦纳南部的渔港以及一些小的鱼镇码头都受严重损坏。

As the southern-hemisphere summer turns to autumn, the priority is shelter. A Catholic charity has begun to build emergency housing for 20,000 families. It is basic: small, uninsulated wooden huts without kitchens or bathrooms. How robust they will prove in the winter storms that typically whip south-central Chile is unclear. And another 40,000 more are needed. One local mayor has refused the huts out of fear that they will become permanent shanty towns—something Chile’s governments had all but eliminated over the past 25 years of rising prosperity.

南半球正值夏秋之交,最急迫解决的是搭建避难所。一天主教慈善组织已经开始给2万家庭建立小型简易的紧急房屋,房屋用非绝缘的木头搭建并且没有厨房和浴室。这种房子在中南部的智力能不能抵御中南部典型的冬季风还不清楚。4万个房子还仍然需要搭建。一位当地的市长拒绝这种小房子的建立,因为智利政府花了25年的时间才把这类的小房子取消掉。

The country is far better placed to rebuild itself than it was after the previous big earthquake in 1985, let alone the one in 1960 which was of similar massive force to that of February 27th. Stricter building standards limited the damage. Insurance will cover around a quarter of the total bill, and is mostly reinsured abroad. Mr Piñera can draw on savings of over $11 billion, piled up in an offshore sovereign fund by his fiscally prudent centre-left predecessor, Michelle Bachelet. The government has almost no debt and an investment-grade credit rating. Ordinary Chileans are better able to help each other too: a telethon held earlier this month for the housing charity raised $59m, twice its target.

国家重建的难度已经比1985年大地震的难度小得多,更不用说1960年2月27日发生的相同程度的地震。首先,更加严格的建筑标准减小了地震的破坏性。其次,保险支付了近四分之一的损失,其中大部分是国外的再险。再者,皮涅拉可以利用在财政上很有远见的前任左翼总统米歇尔•巴切莱特110亿。同时,智利政府没有债务而且投资信用等级高。最后,普通的智利人民也可以互相帮助:telethon已经在本月初筹集了5900万住房慈善金,比目标翻了一番。

Chile’s big copper mines, which produce around half its total exports, lie north of the quake zone and were unaffected. But many labour-intensive export industries—forestry, fishing, wine and fruit—were hurt. A strong economic recovery, after last year’s recession, has been dented, though investment in reconstruction will boost growth by the end of the year.

占智利出口总额二分之一的大型铜矿,由于在震区的北面,因而没有受到什么影响。但是,很多劳动密集型产业,如林业,渔业,酒业和水果生产,都受到损害。去年经济衰退以后的强势恢复受到了影响,但是,本年末重建过程中的经济投资会刺激经济发展。

All this will be a big test for Mr Piñera, a successful businessman whose political skills are relatively unproven. Ms Bachelet’s natural empathy with ordinary Chileans meant that she left office with an approval rating of over 80%, even though her government’s immediate response to the earthquake was not faultless.

这些都给作为成功商人但是并非是成功政治家的总统大人出了考卷。巴切莱特女士虽然在紧急应对地震的行动不是很完美,但是她的政绩赢得了80%民众的肯定。

Chileans will look to Mr Piñera for results. His cabinet is stuffed with technocrats, most of them educated at private schools and Santiago’s Catholic University. Many have close ties to Chile’s main private business groups. Respect for their technical skills and efficiency could easily turn to resentment in a country that has just become poorer and even more socially unequal. The new president had better keep running.

智利百姓迫切期待总统先生的解决方案。他的内阁被专家管理者占据,很多是私立学校和圣地亚哥的天主教大学毕业的。不少和智利主要私营企业有密切联系。面对日益贫困和社会的不平等,这些倡导管理主义的内阁很可能会面临公众的愤怒。新总统恐怕得马不停蹄。
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发表于 2010-4-29 00:46 | 显示全部楼层
technocrats.....指:技術官僚團隊
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发表于 2010-4-29 01:11 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢!那business technocrats 呢?
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发表于 2010-4-29 01:36 | 显示全部楼层
[:cheeky:]
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发表于 2010-4-29 02:01 | 显示全部楼层
[:cheeky:]
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发表于 2010-4-29 02:26 | 显示全部楼层
[:cheeky:]
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发表于 2010-4-29 02:51 | 显示全部楼层
[:cheeky:]
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