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[经济学人] [2009.05.28] The gunshot that hoaxed a generation 愚弄了一代人的枪击

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发表于 2010-4-29 02:52 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
German history and the Stasi
德国历史与史塔西[注1]


The gunshot that hoaxed a generation
愚弄了一代人的枪击


May 28th 2009 | BERLIN
From The Economist print edition


The secret of a momentous death
一起重大死亡事件背后的秘密



THE death of Benno Ohnesorg stirred a whole movement of left-wing protest and violence. On June 2nd 1967 the newly wed student of literature joined a protest in West Berlin against the visiting shah of Iran. As he watched a commotion in the courtyard of a house into which police had chased some demonstrators, he was shot in the back of the head by a policeman, Karl-Heinz Kurras, who claimed he had been threatened by knife-wielding protesters.

本诺•欧内索格[注2]之死激起了一场全面的左翼抗议与暴力运动。1967年6月2日,这位新婚的文学专业学生参加了西柏林一场针对来访的伊朗国王的抗议活动。一些示威者被警察追至某幢房屋的院内,当欧内索格正在观望这一骚动时,他被一名警察开枪击中脑后,这位叫做卡尔-海因兹•库拉斯的开枪警察声称他之前正被一些挥舞刀具的抗议者所威胁。

This was a turning-point. In the eyes of many young Germans the state had unmasked itself as evil. Many joined what would become the 1968 student movement; some took up arms. “This fascist state wants to kill us all,” said Gudrun Ensslin, who went on to become a leader of the Red Army Faction terrorist group and died in prison in 1977.

这起死亡事件是一个转折点。在许多年轻的德国人看来,国家露出了它的邪恶面目;许多人投身于将演变为1968年学潮的运动之中;一些人则拿起了武器,古德伦•安司林宣称“这个法西斯国家想把我们杀得一个不剩。”接下来,安司林成为了恐怖组织红军派[注3]的一位头目并最终于1977年卒于狱中。

Had she lived, she would be stunned to learn that Mr Kurras, now 81, had been a long-time agent of East Germany’s secret police, the Stasi. Historians trawling through the Stasi’s archives stumbled across 17 volumes chronicling Mr Kurras’s secret career. It began with an unsolicited visit to the Communist Party’s central committee in East Berlin in 1955 and prospered when he joined the state-security section of the West Berlin police. Under the codename “Otto Bohl” he rendered such services as tipping off the Stasi to espionage investigations and locating tunnels used by defectors from the east. Germans, who heard of Mr Kurras’s double identity this month, are wondering just how much of their history will have to be re-examined.

如果她还在世的话,那么安司林将会为这样一个消息所震惊:今年81岁的库拉斯长期以来曾是东德秘密警察“史塔西”的一名特工。那些缜密研读该组织档案的历史学家们偶然发现了记载库拉斯秘密职业生涯的17卷资料。这一生涯开始于1955年库拉斯对位于东柏林的共产党中央委员会的一次主动来访;在他加入西柏林警察组织中的国家安全部门后,其事业更上了一层楼;以“奥托•波尔”为代号,库拉斯为史塔西提供了诸如泄露间谍案调查情况、探明被来自东德的叛逃者所利用的隧道位置等服务。那些在本月获知库拉斯双重身份的德国人正想知道,他们的历史将有多少需要被重新检查。

There is no evidence that the Stasi ordered him to kill Ohnesorg, though it was not displeased by the tumult that ensued. Would the students who embraced the martyr have blamed the West alone had they known that the bullet was fired by an agent of the East? Would fellow policemen have rallied around Mr Kurras, who was twice acquitted of manslaughter, had they known him to be a communist spy?

没有证据表明史塔西下令库拉斯杀害欧内索格,但它倒也乐见接下来出现的动荡局面。如果那些奉其为烈士的学生们知道开枪者是一位东德特工的话,他们还会单单谴责西方吗?如果当时警察同事们知道库拉斯是一名共产党间谍的话,他们还会站在两次被判过失杀人罪不成立的库拉斯一边吗?

Despair over his exoneration helped drive Ensslin and others to violence. Till Meyer, once part of the violent June 2nd Movement and himself a former Stasi agent, told Der Spiegel, a magazine, that history need “not be rewritten a bit”. But if people like him had known who Mr Kurras really was, their extremism might have been tempered by uncertainty.

因库拉斯免罪而产生的绝望感帮助驱使安司林与其它人走上暴力道路。曾一度加入暴力派六月二日运动[注4]的提尔•梅尔(他也是一位前史塔西特工)告诉《镜报》杂志,历史“根本不需要重写”。但如果像他那样的人当初知道库拉斯真实身份的话,他们的极端主义可能会被不确定性所软化。

The revelation comes in the midst of an arcane but passionate argument about whether East Germany should be called a Unrechtsstaat, “a lawless state”. Politicians from the ex-communist Left Party reject the label, angering conservatives. Gesine Schwan, a candidate for the German presidency who lost to the incumbent, Horst Köhler, on May 23rd, heightened the row by saying she found the label too “vague”. To win, she would have needed support from the Left Party.

这次揭秘发生在一场神秘但充满激情的、关于东德是否应被称为Unrechtsstaat (不法国家)的争论背景下。来自前共产主义左翼党的政治家们拒绝这一称谓,这激怒了保守派人士。在5月23日德国总统大选中不敌现任总统霍斯特•克勒的参选人格西娜•施万表示她认为此称谓过于“模糊”,这更为论战火上浇油。为了获胜,她需获得来自左翼党的支持。

The unmasking of Mr Kurras does not entitle Germans to pin the blame for Ohnesorg’s killing on East Germany. But it does remind them that the Stasi was at the heart of the regime’s nastiness.

库拉斯身份的揭晓并不能让德国人把欧内索格之死算在东德头上。但它提醒人们,史塔西曾处在东德政权阴暗面的核心位置。

注1:史塔西(Stasi)是Staatssicherheit的缩写,正式名称为 Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (国家安全部),1950年2月8日成立。成立宗旨是担任德意志民主共和国(东德)的政治警察,负责搜集情报、监听监视、反情报等业务。1950年至1989年之间,史塔西管辖有十七个监狱,约九万一千名正式聘用的探员,十七万五千名位在民主德国国内的正式的通报合作者,即著名的“IM”,另有两万名“IM”通报合作者位在德意志联邦共和国。所以史塔西共拥有二十八万六千名合作探员,情报网绵密、有效。一旦史塔西确认某某人的政治意见,他们会用低调的压力逼使当事人辞职、逼使学生终止学业。虐待等等酷刑是罕见的,一旦使用,史塔西会迫使当事人转变成史塔西的通报合作者。

注2:本诺•欧内索格(Benno Ohnesorg,1940年10月15日-1967年6月2日)是一名德国大学生,于1967年6月2日在柏林德意志歌剧院进行反对伊朗国王穆罕默德•礼萨•巴列维访问德国的示威活动时,被便衣警察枪杀。这是他首次参加政治示威。欧内索格当时是26岁的学生,研究浪漫主义、德语文学和文化。当他被杀时,妻子正在怀他们头胎的孩子。 浪漫和研究,他的死亡是左翼的一个集合点,六二运动团体以他被杀的那天命名。1960年代末的左翼学生运动在他死后膨胀起来,许多当时为十几岁和二十几岁的德国政治家都深受影响。在柏林德意志歌剧院旁设有本诺•欧内索格的纪念物,他家乡汉诺威的一座桥梁也以他命名。

注3:红军派是德国的一支左翼恐怖主义组织,主要由安德列亚斯•巴德(Andreas Baader),古德伦•安司林(Gudrun Ensslin),霍尔斯特•马乐(Horst Mahler),乌莉克•麦霍夫(Ulrike Meinhof)等人建立;他们认为自己为一群共产主义的并且以南美洲的反帝国主义游击队(如同乌拉圭的国家解放运动组织(Tupamaros)为榜样。他们犯下34次谋杀案,许多银行强盗案与爆炸攻击,主要活动时期自1970年至1998年。在其近30年的活动过程中,造成了34人死亡和无数人受伤。1977年,由于其猖獗的活动,导致了联邦德国发生了大规模的社会危机,史称“德意志之秋”。该组织与其他许多左翼恐怖主义组织均有着千丝万缕的联系。
1998年4月22日,该组织宣布解散。

注4:The Movement 2nd June (German: Bewegung 2. Juni) was a well known West German militant group based in West Berlin.
Named after the date on which Benno Ohnesorg was killed, the group mostly bombed property in Berlin. The most significant operation of the group was when they successfully kidnapped Peter Lorenz in 1975. Lorenz was the CDU candidate for mayor in Berlin. The kidnappers managed to free four of their imprisoned comrades, who were flown to South Yemen. Lorenz was released the next day, dropped off with some small change so he could call a taxi.
Movement 2nd June was allied with the Red Army Faction (RAF) (referred to by the German media as the Baader-Meinhof Gang after the two founding members), but was ideologically anarchist as opposed to the Marxist RAF. In the early eighties, the movement disbanded. Many members then joined the RAF.

Lilywizardry译文编号023
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