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[经济学人] [2009.09.10] Top-up teaching 课外补习

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发表于 2010-4-29 01:05 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
The growth of home tutoring
家教市场持续升温


Top-up teaching
课外补习


Sep 10th 2009
From The Economist print edition

The booming business of providing extra education out of school
课外补习供需火爆


AFTER three years in school, seven-year-old Dan could barely scrawl his name. Yet another parent-teacher meeting had come and gone at which his mother, Jackie, rehearsed her concerns and Dan’s teacher pooh-poohed them. Then Jackie saw a retired teacher’s advertisement in a local shop, offering help with reading and writing. After just three weeks of one-to-one tuition for an hour every Saturday morning, she saw a big improvement in her child—and since she could not bring herself to tell Dan’s school that she was paying to remedy its deficiencies, his teacher assumed her marvellous teaching was responsible.
七岁的丹上到小学三年级了,还是连自己的名字都写不好。在刚刚过去的这一次家长会上,妈妈杰茜再次表示担忧,可是丹的老师却完全不当回事儿。后来杰茜在一家商店里看到一则家教广告,是由一位退休教师辅导阅读和作文。于是丹开始在每周六上午接受一小时的一对一辅导,仅仅三周之后,丹就表现出了明显的进步。当然杰茜不可能跑去学校说她花钱请人补习,于是丹的老师理所当然地以为这完全归功于他的教导有方。

No one knows how many people work as home tutors: the business is unregulated and many work for cash in hand. But more youngsters are getting education on the side than before. A recent survey by the Sutton Trust, an education charity, found that 22% of parents with 11-16-year-olds in state schools had paid for tutoring at some point. Four years ago, 18% had.
谁也不知道如今多少人在做家教,这个行业缺乏管理,很多人都靠家教赚取现金,但是接受校外教育的孩子越来越多,由慈善教育机构萨顿信托进行的一项最新调查表明,在国立学校就读的11-16岁的学生中,有22%的学生家长因各种理由请过家教。四年前,这个数字为18%。

Tutoring also starts earlier now than it used to. The standardised tests pupils take at age seven mean that parents whose children are falling behind find out earlier than previously—and today’s cash-rich, time-poor working mothers may well decide their only option is to pay for the homework help their own mothers would have seen as part of their job description.
和过去相比,学生的年龄也越来越小。现在小学生在七岁时都要接受标准考试,于是家长在这时就可以发现孩子是不是跟不上。而且现在的妈妈大多忙于工作,有钱没时间,因此她们只好出钱找人辅导孩子的功课,这在上一辈的眼里也是她们做妈妈的份内事

Even parents who already pay for schooling no longer seem to think that tutoring is unnecessary: Charles Bonas, the managing director of a London-based tutoring agency, Bonas MacFarlane, says most of its clients are privately educated. In response to rising demand, the annual “Good Schools Guide”, the bible for middle-class parents choosing their children’s next academic step, recently added a chapter on finding a good tutor to its usual analyses of state and private schools.
即便家长已经花钱供孩子上学读书,他们也不再觉得家教是多余的。查尔斯伯纳斯是一家伦敦家教中介——伯纳斯麦法伦公司的经理,他说他们公司的大多数客户都选择私人教育。面对如此高涨的家教需求,就连中产阶级父母为孩子做学业规划的圣经——一年一度的《择校指南》,也在国立或私立中学的常规介绍中间增加了一章,专门介绍如何寻找出色的家庭教师。

Underlying this demand is increasing competition to get into the most prestigious universities. Even in the era of university top-up fees it is the taxpayer, not the student, who pays most of the cost of a degree. To limit its liability the government caps student numbers. But school-leaving cohorts have been getting bigger for some years now, and a larger share of school-leavers are going on to further study. The battle for places is particularly acute this autumn because of the shortage of entry-level jobs (see article).
家教市场需求旺盛的背后反映了跨入名牌大学门槛的日益激烈的竞争。由于学生上大学的大部分费用是由纳税人而不是学生自己支付的,包括过去的高等教育附加费。因此政府不得不对学生数量进行控制以减轻财政负担。但是近年来大学毕业生越来越多,其中大部分还要继续深造。尤其是今年秋天,由于就业市场紧俏,第一份工作难找,于是造成学生的择校竞争尤其激烈(详见文中)。

Counter-intuitively, perhaps, rampant grade inflation is adding to the competitive pressure. Students cannot rest on their laurels in the firm expectation of a sheaf of A-grades but take even more care to get them. An eighth of all those taking A-levels now get at least three As. So universities also look at GCSE results when deciding whom to admit—and approach admissions as an exercise in finding reasons to say no. A youngster who slacks or slips up will quickly find that there is no way to redeem himself. So many parents, including those paying for private schools, see home tutoring as a near-compulsory insurance policy.
也许没想到的是,优秀太多,高分泛滥,无形中也增加了竞争压力。自认为能拿到全优的好学生也不敢高枕无忧,反而还要加倍努力。A等学生里如今有八分之一能拿到三个A,因此大学招生时还要看学生的GCSE成绩,而且往往拿这个作为拒收学生的借口。平日里懒懒散散的学生到这时就会后悔莫及。因此家长总会请家教来确保万无一失,即便已经送孩子读私立学校,家教几乎也是非要不可的。

One side-effect is a generation of young people who think that making sure they learn is someone else’s job entirely. “Lazy rich kids who had been mucking around, and coming up to exam time realised they needed help”, is how one tutor describes his pupils. “A lot of it is just checking to see they are doing what they’ve been assigned,” says another. She describes the role of a tutor as “somewhere between hand-holding and prison-guarding”.
家教也有其负面影响,其中之一就是它使得这一批年轻人认为“要我学”完全是他人的责任。一个家教老师这样评价他的学生“他们就是些懒散的富家子弟,平时游手好闲,考试之前才找来老师临时抱佛脚”。另一个说“很多家教只不过是监督小孩子完成作业。”她说家庭教师就是种“手把手地教、看犯人地管”的角色。

Another, equally undesirable, is that the league tables of exam results that are used to compare schools are worth a good deal less than meets the eye. A good showing proves little more than that a school is patronised by parents who will do whatever it takes to get good results for their children, not that it does much in the way of quality teaching itself.
家教还有另一个预料之外的负面影响,越来越高的考试成绩与其说是该学校竞争力的体现,还不如说是它装点门面的道具。尤其是家长资助的私立学校,学生成绩好倒不一定说明学校的教学质量过硬,只不过因为家长们为了孩子成绩好可以砸锅卖铁而已。


尽力了。。不少地方还是不知怎么译更好,已标出,希望高手指正。非常感谢~~
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发表于 2010-4-29 01:40 | 显示全部楼层
很佩服inatawa的翻译——原作中从句结构真是复杂。以下供参考:

1. the business is unregulated and many work for cash in hand. ...很多家教都以此赚得现金。cash in hand 有点现金落袋,不受管理,不必上税的意思吧。

2. 第三段参考了inatawa的翻译,稍作整理,翻译如下:“学童较之从前更早开始接受课外辅导。现在,七岁学童的标准化测试可以帮助子女学业落后的父母们更早发现问题。以往上一代母亲们会把督导子女功课视之为己任;而今对那些有钱无闲的全职妈妈来说,花钱雇用家教成为唯一出路。”

3. 第六段:An eighth of all those taking A-levels now get at least three As. 八分之一的优等生至少要拿到三门优秀(而绝大多数的优等生则需拿到更多的优秀)。我觉得这句是紧扣上一句,学生不敢高枕无忧...

4. 倒数第二段:One side-effect is a generation ...首句是否可以意译为:“家教给年轻一代带来的副作用是缺乏学习自主性。”后面红字部分同意inatawa的翻译。
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发表于 2010-4-29 02:15 | 显示全部楼层
Not only we do for our own, we also have responsipility
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发表于 2010-4-29 02:50 | 显示全部楼层
非常感谢efys7711的指点。尤其是第三段,改过之后读起来清楚明白多啦
第六段那一句我明白您的意思了,我想是否可以连接前文翻译为“自认为能拿到全优的好学生也不敢高枕无忧,反而还要加倍努力,因为优等生里仅仅拿到三门优秀的如今只有八分之一而已”
其余几点意见我同意。谢谢!
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