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[经济学人] [2009.05.16]A chapter of accidents事故篇









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Pope Benedict

A chapter of accidents

May 14th 2009
From The Economist print edition

The pope’s visit to the Holy Land adds another public-relations disaster to the string that already exists. Why should this be?

TO UNDERSTAND the personal baggage that Pope Benedict XVI brought to the Holy Land this week, it is worth looking at his most accessible book, “Jesus of Nazareth”, published two years ago. With a mixture of intense piety and arcane scholarship, he reflects on the Jewish origins of Christianity’s dogmas and rites in a way that shows deep interest in the religion of ancient Israel—yet total conviction that the older faith’s true meaning is to be found only in Christ. Both in its rigour and in its devotion, the pope’s writing reflects the enclosed places in which he has spent most of his 82 years. First, the formal atmosphere of German academia, where charisma is a dirty word; and then the upper echelons of the Vatican, a world whose ethos, reasoning and vocabulary are utterly remote from the lives of most lay Catholics, let alone everyone else.
要了解这个星期教皇本Benedict十六世到圣地带来的个人负担,就应该去看他两年前出版非常出名的书 “Jesus of Nazareth” 。随着强烈的虔诚和神秘的学识的混合,用一种显示对古以色列的宗教浓厚的兴趣的方式,他反映了犹太血统的基督教教义和仪式,但深信古老信仰的真正含义是只存在于基督那里。在其严格性和在其奉献精神,教皇的书面反映了封闭的地方,在那里他度过82岁中的大部分。首先,正规的气氛德国学术界,在那里教皇的权利是一个肮脏的词汇,后来在高层梵蒂冈,世界的精神,推理,词汇完全远离了大部分天主教堂的生活,更不用说其他人。

No surprise, then, that he lacked the street sense to send the right signals on a trip to the front line: the Middle Eastern confrontation zone of the three monotheistic faiths, Christianity, Islam and Judaism, a region that tests the skills of the savviest statesman. In the event, he deeply upset his Israeli hosts, and to a much milder extent his Palestinian ones too, both mainly through sins of omission.  

On his arrival in Israel, Benedict spoke some of the words that Israelis were waiting to hear. He honoured the memory of the 6m Jewish victims of the Holocaust, noting that: “Sadly, anti-Semitism continues to rear its ugly head in many parts of the world. This is totally unacceptable.” The trouble came when he made his more publicised speech at the Yad Vashem Holocaust shrine a few hours later. In this he spoke only of “millions” of Jewish victims, not of “six million”, an omission that had the effect of reopening the barely closed controversy over the pope’s readmission into the church, four months ago, of a British bishop, Richard Williamson, who denies the extent of the Holocaust.
他在抵达以色列,Benedict说了一些话以色列人中听的话。他向六百万犹太大屠杀受害者致敬,并指出: “可悲的是,反犹太主义继续在世界许多地区抬头。这是完全不可接受的。 “麻烦的是当他更公开的讲话在Yad Vashem大屠杀纪念馆的几个小时之后。在此,他以唯一的“百万”的犹太受害者,而不是“六百点〇万” ,这个遗漏重新打开了几乎没有公开争异,关于那个教区主教重新获准进入教堂,四个月前,一个英国主教,理查德威廉姆森,谁否认大屠杀的程度。

The pope then made things worse for himself by speaking of the “tragedy of the Shoah [Hebrew for the Holocaust]” without attributing blame. This led to Israelis raking over his own early life as a soldier in the Wehrmacht and before that as an (unwilling) member of the Hitler-Jugend. And yet another mistake: the pope used the word “killed” rather than “murdered”.
教宗于是事情更糟因为没有讲出的“浩劫悲剧[希伯来文的大屠杀] ”是谁的错。这导致以色列人痛骂他自己作为一个早期的纳粹国防军士兵和在此之前,作为(被逼的)希特勒青年。又一次错误:教皇使用“死亡” ,而不是“谋杀” 。

This close parsing of what was essentially a compassionate speech, full of well-chosen Old Testament associations and passages from Lamentations, will seem casuistic to most. But the near-unanimous verdict in Israel was bitter disappointment. The pope had managed to rile, not to reconcile. Right-wing and religious politicians who had stayed away from the ceremonies crowed. Even steadfast interfaith activists criticised the lack of sensitivity evinced in the speech.  

A tactful statement the next day at the Western Wall might have improved matters. But the pope made do with a barely audible prayer in Latin and a petition on paper, which he slipped between the stones, asking: “God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, hear the cry of the afflicted, the fearful, the bereft; send your peace upon this Holy Land, upon the Middle East, upon the entire human family.” This, though unexceptionable, was seen as yet again avoiding the painful essence of Holocaust expiation and was compared unfavourably with Pope John Paul II’s prayer in March 2000 at the same spot.
第二天在Western Wall一个委婉声明有可能改进的问题。但是,教宗下滑的石头之间,他用勉强听得懂的拉丁文和纸面上一份请愿书,祈求: “上帝的亚伯拉罕,以撒和雅各,听受折磨的人,在害怕中的人和失去亲人的人的祈祷吧;把您的和平带到圣地,带到中东,带给整个人类大家庭。 “这虽然无懈可击,这被看作又一次避免大屠杀赎罪痛苦的本质,不如教皇约翰保罗二世在2000年3月于同一地点的祈祷。

Islamic clerics escorted the pope to the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem (shown above), to Bethlehem and to Nazareth. But others expressed disappointment that he did not apologise for a lecture given in 2006 which included a damning quotation about Muslims. They also complained that Gaza was excluded from the itinerary. Sheikh Taysir Tamimi, the chief Islamic justice, interrupted an interfaith discourse with a passionately political speech.
伊斯兰神职人员陪同教皇到耶路撒冷的圆顶清真寺(如上所示) ,伯利恒和拿撒勒。但其他人表示失望,他并没有道歉为 2006年演讲中引用谴责穆斯林的话。他们还抱怨说,加沙是被排除在行程。谢赫泰西尔塔米米,首席伊斯兰法官,中断了与宗教间对话的政治热情的讲话。

On the whole, however, the pope’s words to the Palestinians avoided pitfalls. Addressing the Muslim majority as well as the dwindling Christian minority (since the creation of Israel, the number of Christians in the Palestinian territories has fallen from 15-20% of the Palestinian population to less than 1.5%), he said: “I know how much you have suffered and continue to suffer as a result of the turmoil that has afflicted this land for decades.” He added that the Vatican “supports the right of your people to a sovereign Palestinian homeland in the land of your forefathers, secure and at peace with its neighbours, within internationally recognised borders.” He then appealed to the young not to allow “the loss of life and the destruction that you have witnessed to arouse bitterness or resentment in your hearts. Have the courage to resist any temptation you may feel to resort to acts of violence or terrorism.”
就整体而言,但是,教宗对巴勒斯坦人演讲很谨慎。考虑到穆斯林占多数以及减少中小部分基督教(自建立以色列,一些基督徒在巴勒斯坦领土上已经从15-20%下降到不及巴勒斯坦人口的1.5 % ) ,他说: “我知道你们受了多少苦难还在继续遭受由于动荡的折磨这片土地几十年的苦难。 “他补充说,在安全,与邻国和平相处,及在国际公认的边界的前提下,梵蒂冈的”支持贵国人民的权利,在你们的祖先土地上建立一个巴勒斯坦国。 “然后,他呼吁年轻人不要让”生命的损失和你看到的破坏引起内心的痛苦或怨恨。有勇气抵制任何你可能会觉得诉诸暴力行为或恐怖主义的诱惑。

Finely weighted words that reflect the best of Vatican diplomacy, honed over centuries. Why then does Pope Benedict, supposedly served by specialists, slip up so often and so badly?

Les trois gaffes

If the beliefs and disciplines of the Catholic faith were merely a private concern to the world’s 1.2 billion baptised Catholics, the pontiff’s remoteness from life’s realities might not be of great consequence. But no global faith is an island. The Vatican is a powerful actor in world affairs, one that can affect the likelihood of a “clash of civilisations”. So it matters that the frequency with which this accident-prone pope causes offence is accelerating.
如果信仰和学科的天主教信仰只是对世界12亿受洗礼天主教徒的私人关注,教皇远离现实生活可能不会有很大的后果。但是没有一个全球性的信仰是孤立的。梵蒂冈在世界事务中扮演重要的角色,这个角色能够影响的可能的“文明冲突” 。所以,教皇引起冒犯的频率的正在加很重要。

In France, aggressively secular but steeped in Catholicism, churchgoers refer with a shudder to 2009 as the year of les trois gaffes. The pope’s three blunders were the rehabilitation of the Holocaust-denying bishop; a statement, en route to Africa, that condoms were no help against AIDS; and the church’s heartless reaction to the nine-year-old Brazilian girl who had an abortion after being raped by her stepfather. The Archbishop of Recife declared that everybody involved in procuring the abortion (the girl’s mother, the doctors) was excommunicated.
在法国,沉浸在天主教愤世嫉俗的信徒为2009三个失误不寒而栗。教宗的三个分别是为否认大屠杀的主教复职;,前往非洲途中,声明避孕套对抗击艾滋病没有帮助;和教会的冷漠, 9岁的巴西女孩被继父强奸后做人工流产后。累西腓的大主教宣布,把每个人都参与流产(女孩的母亲,医生)逐出教会。

In all three cases, the story was not quite as simple as the headlines suggested. When the excommunication of Bishop Williamson was lifted, the Vatican did not know he had recently said there were no gas chambers, and that no more than 300,000 Jews had died; as soon as it learnt of his views, they were condemned unequivocally. Defenders of the pope have argued that his words on AIDS were quoted out of context, and that he was alluding to some respectable academic research that in Africa anti-AIDS policies based solely on condom distribution have been counter-productive. And horror over the church’s attitude towards the raped child was slightly appeased when Archbishop Rino Fisichella, head of the Pontifical Academy for Life, admitted that talk of excommunication had been “insensitive, incomprehensible and lacking mercy”.
在三件事情上,事情的曲直不是像头条新闻那样简单。在逐出威廉姆森主教被取消时,梵蒂冈不知道他最近说什么,他说那里没有毒气室,并没有超过30万犹太人死亡;一旦梵蒂冈知道威廉姆森主教的观点,他们会绝不含糊地谴责。教皇的支持者认为,他关于艾滋病的讲话是断章取义,他指出一些权威的学术研究,在非洲完全依靠发放避孕套防治艾滋病的政策已经在起反作用。当宗座科学院终身大主教Rino Fisichella承认逐出教会事件是“不敏感,缺乏理解和缺乏怜悯的, 公众对教会关于被强奸儿童的态度的担忧有所减轻。 ”

Even so, all this is a far cry from the hopes expressed by many when Benedict was enthroned in 2005. It was felt that after the charismatic, globe-trotting John Paul, it was time for a pope who would concentrate on sprucing up the church itself, particularly in its European heartland. The scholarly German appeared to be the ideal choice to shore up an ancient ideal of a Christian, humanist Europe against the challenges posed by secularism.
即便如此,所有这一切都与Benedict在2005年登基时人们希望的相去甚远。有人认为,继有领袖魅力游览全世界的John Paul (前任教皇)后,现在是集中精力完善教会本身,尤其是在欧洲腹地的教皇出场的时候了。学术德国似乎是理想的选择来实现基督教古老的理想,学术德国似乎就是人道主义的欧洲来因对世俗挑战。

Relations with the Muslims were not among his priorities. Indeed, the new pontiff was known to be sceptical of the value of that inter-religious dialogue dear to the heart of his predecessor. It was thus ironic that Benedict should have first run into trouble with the faux pas that his Islamic hosts were still worrying about this week. In a lecture at the University of Regensburg in 2006, he quoted (though without endorsing) a Byzantine ruler who said that Muhammad brought “things only evil and inhuman, such as his command to spread by the sword the faith he preached.”
伊斯兰教的关系不是教皇应首先考虑的。事实上,新教皇明确怀疑价值他的前任教皇重视的宗教间的对话政策的价值。因此,具有讽刺意味的是Benedict应该首先遇到(faux pas=失言,阿拉伯语,我猜的)失言的窘境,他的伊斯兰主机担心直到这个星期。在Regensburg大学2006年的演讲中,他引用(不能考究)一个拜占庭统治者说,穆罕默德带来的“东西只有邪恶和不人道,例如他命令以剑宣扬他鼓吹的信仰。 ”

That lecture, which triggered riots and cost lives in several parts of the world, won him quiet admirers in some new quarters, ranging from the American neoconservative right to a sprinkling of European intellectuals. “The reaction to Regensburg, in which people died, proved his point: that Islam is a violent religion,” declared a Vatican official close to the pope’s thinking.
这讲座,在世界一些地区引发骚乱和命案,演讲为他赢来了私下的崇拜者在一些地方,崇拜者包括美国新保守主义分子和一些欧洲的知识分子。 “Regensburg大学演讲的后果,在Regensburg死亡的人证明了他的观点:伊斯兰是一个暴力的宗教, ” 作为Regensburg大学演讲的回应梵蒂冈宣布正式撤销教皇的智囊团。

Others within the Vatican argue that the lecture was a “necessary provocation” that succeeded in eliciting a more considered Muslim response, including a proposal from Islamic scholars and clerics for a theological dialogue known as the “common word”. Yet many supporters of that dialogue, including members of the Jordanian royal family, were passionate for Christian-Muslim amity long before any “provocation” from the Vatican.
其他人认为,梵蒂冈的演讲是一个“必要的挑衅” ,成功地争取乐观穆斯林的反响,包括一项由伊斯兰学者和教士提案经常伊斯兰教基督教“交流” 。然而,伊斯兰基督教交流有许多支持者,包括在梵蒂冈“挑衅”之前就热衷于基督教穆斯林长期相处的约旦王室。

Saying the unsayable
To his defenders, Benedict is a rare, politically incorrect voice in a world cowed by intellectual conformity. “It is not so much that what he says is controversial, but that people find it painful to hear,” said a conservative Catholic layman in Rome. Others see his most controversial pronouncements, and in particular the outcry over his attitude to condoms, in a quite different light: as evidence of the vast gap that has developed between the leadership of the Catholic church and modern society.
他的辩护人,笃是一种罕见的,在政治上不正确的发言人在一个权威的世界。一个在罗马的天主教看门人说“这并非是他所说的话是有争议的,但人们发现听到它很难受 ”。其他人则认为他最有争议的言论,特别是强烈反感他对态度避孕套,在一个完全不同的想法:这就是,天主教的领导人和现代社会的鸿沟正在加深,的证据。

Neither view excuses the giving of avoidable offence. In 2007 Benedict cleared the way for wider use of the old, Tridentine Latin mass. The rite he encouraged includes a prayer on Good Friday that calls for the conversion of the Jews. This is entirely consistent with the views of the man who signed off on the Vatican’s 2000 declaration, “Dominus jesus”, which states that “to consider the Church as [merely] one way of salvation alongside those constituted by the other religions” is “contrary to the faith”. But nobody in the Vatican appeared to notice, or care, that the reinstated prayer contained a reference to the “blindness” of the Jews. It was removed the following year. But why had it not been deleted in advance?
两个观点都不为给予撤销罪行而道歉。在2007年Benedictx为更广泛地使用旧的拉丁文弥撒铺了平道路。他鼓励的礼仪包括祈祷耶稣受难节。这签署了梵蒂冈的2000年宣言的人的意见完全一致“ 主耶稣” ,其中指出, “考虑教会有[只是]一种方法救赎那些相信其他宗教人”是“违反信仰“ 。但是,在梵蒂冈没有似乎注意到,或关心,重新信教的人中提到的“失明”的犹太人。一年后这被删除了。但是,为什么不事先被删除?

The revival of the Tridentine mass was emblematic of another increasingly evident aspect of Benedict’s papacy: his progressive reversal of the changes that followed the Second Vatican Council of 1962-65. This policy, say his critics, is polarising his church, though more so in the rich West than in the developing world where Catholicism continues to grow (but not necessarily in the way that the pope wants; see article).
恢复弥撒象征着又一个越来越明显的Benedict的宗教权政策:他逐渐扭转的这个自1962-1965年第二次梵蒂冈会议的变化。批评他的声音说,这一政策使他的教会两极分化,但和继续增长的天主教发展中国家相比西方国家更是如此(但不是教皇希望的方式;见文章) 。

Another frequently voiced complaint is that he has failed to get a grip on the Roman Curia, the central administration of the church. The symptoms of this were particularly evident at the height of the Williamson affair, which a German cardinal, Walter Kasper, blamed on “misunderstandings and management errors” in the papal bureaucracy. Officials, he said, had “spoken too little to each other, and have not checked where problems might arise.”
另一个经常听到的抱怨,是他未能掌握罗马教廷和教会的中央行政管理职权。这现行昂的症状,特别明显表现在威廉姆森内政,德国枢机主教,卡斯帕,归咎于教皇官僚机构的“误解和管理错误”。官员说, “彼此沟通很少,并没有检查在那里可能出现问题。 ”
In an apparent effort to introduce new ideas into the Vatican, Benedict has appointed several non-European and/or pastoral bishops to senior posts. The most important job a pope has to fill is that of the secretary of state, who is roughly equivalent to a prime minister. Benedict’s choice was unquestionably ground-breaking. Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone is almost alone among his predecessors, going back 300 years, in never having been schooled at the Accademia Ecclesiastica, the Vatican’s college for diplomats.
这显然是为了引进新的思想到梵蒂冈,教皇已经任命一些非欧洲和/或牧区主教到高级职位。最重要的工作教宗可以申请的是国务秘书,相当于总理。Benedict的决定毫无疑问的是具有开创性的。枢机主教Tarcisio Bertone几乎Benedict的前任政府高官中仅有的一位非欧裔官员,可以追溯到300年,从未在Ecclesiastica大学(梵蒂冈的外交官大学)接受教育。

Indeed, diplomacy is not the bluff, 74-year-old cardinal’s strong point. A member of the Salesian order, whose particular mission is to work with the young, he is quintessentially a pastoral cleric rather than a church bureaucrat. That might have recommended him for the task of overhauling an administrative machine that John Paul barely touched. But, say insiders, Cardinal Bertone has failed to create a base from which to launch reforms and strikes an increasingly beleaguered figure, unable to impose his will on the Curia.
事实上,外交是不是虚张声势, 外交是74岁的枢机主教的优势。作为一名慈幼会成员他命令有特别的使命的人与年轻人一起工作,他是典型牧区教士,而不是教会官僚。这可能已经决定他的任务是整顿的行政机器,这任务约翰保罗几乎没有触及。但是,业内人士说,贝尔托内枢机未能建立一个基地,以推出改革和打击日益围困的数字,无法对他的意志强加在教廷。

The papal bureaucracy has two obvious weaknesses. The first is that it is a gerontocracy. Its departmental bosses have crushing workloads. Yet many are well past normal retirement age. The other shortcoming is a lack of consultation in an administration which has nothing equivalent to a cabinet. Decisions are referred upwards to the secretary of state, and from him to the pope. Under John Paul the Curia acquired a string of new “pontifical councils”, quasi-ministries that deal with everything from health workers to canon law. Many observers had expected that Benedict would reduce their number. He has not and, with similar inertia, has kept in office seven cardinals who, having passed their 75th birthdays, are due for retirement.
教皇官僚机构有两个明显的弱点。首先,它是一个老人政府。其部门的上司工作繁重。然而,许多人都过了正常退休年龄。其他的缺点是缺乏协商,在一个行政当局没有任何相当于内阁的机构。决定被提交给国务秘书,并从他哪里到教皇。在约翰保罗时代教廷获得一系列新的“主教理事会” ,准部委处理一切从卫生工作者到教会法的事务。许多观察家预计,本笃会减少他们数量。因为他要退休了他没有那样做,和以前一样,保留了办公室里的7枢机主教,枢机主教已经过了75岁生日。

Liberals and conservatives alike agree that John Paul’s talents distracted attention from the fact that the Curia had failed to adapt to a fast-changing world. Nowhere is that more obvious than in the corners of it that interact with the media. The late pope, who once dreamed of becoming an actor, needed much less support in this area than his retiring successor. Yet Benedict has reduced still further the scant resources assigned to external communications. His spokesman, Father Federico Lombardi, also has responsibility for the Vatican’s radio and television services—and, unlike his predecessor in the office, does not have direct access to the pope.
自由派和保守派都认为,John Paul智囊没有注意到这个事实,即教廷已经不能迅速适应变化的世界。最为明显的表现在与媒体的互动。已故教皇,谁曾梦想成为一个演员,更需要在这方面(和媒体互动方面)的帮助比他退休的继任者。然而Benedict进一步减少的配给外部通讯本来已经很少的资源。他的发言人Federico Lombrdi神父,也负责梵蒂冈的广播和电视服务,和他前任不同,他能直接觐见教皇。

That alone exposes Benedict to the sort of controversies that are in danger of becoming the hallmark of his papacy. But the risk is increased by the fact that, unlike John Paul, he writes most of his own speeches and, say insiders, often does not show them to anyone before delivery.

A hermit manqué

His Regensburg address was circulated in the Vatican and to some of its associated institutions, where it duly raised eyebrows among officials and scholars. But it appears that none of them had a channel through which to express their misgivings to the pope. As for Father Lombardi, he is understood to have tried in Germany to make a last-minute attempt to warn Benedict of the possible consequences. According to a well-informed source in Rome, he was told His Holiness was sleeping, and could not be woken.

The pope is not oblivious to the damage the Holy See’s image has suffered, and is said by officials to be planning changes in the Vatican’s media operations. He is clearly dismayed by the rifts that have opened up with other religions, and has gone some way to repairing them. But what is less clear is whether this most unworldly of pontiffs hopes, or wants, to placate those who object to his intense traditionalism, or whether he is willing, or able, to rally his bureaucracy.

Before setting off for the Holy Land, he offered what may have been a glimpse of the view that he has of himself and the burden he has been asked to take up. His previous high-profile engagement was a visit to the earthquake-stricken Abruzzo region of central Italy. As expected, he visited the shattered basilica where one of his predecessors, Celestine V, is buried. But, as was not expected, he took with him one of his most treasured possessions—his pallium, the woollen band he received when he was invested as pope—and left it behind on Celestine’s tomb.
从圣地出发前,他提出的可能是他对他自己的看法和他被要求承担的负担。他最近高姿态出现是访问意大利中部地区地震灾区阿布鲁佐。正如预期的那样,他访问了他的前任埋葬的地方Shattered Basilica。但是,由于没有预期,他与他,他最宝贵的财产,他被任命教皇时的羊毛的大披肩,把它留在塞莱斯廷的坟墓。

Like Benedict, Celestine was an intensely spiritual figure, a hermit, dragged from his refuge in the mountains in 1294 to be given charge of a troubled Catholic church in the hope that he could regenerate it. Like Benedict, he was criticised for lacking administrative talent. And after five months, he resigned. There must now be moments when Pope Benedict looks back with understanding at the plight and flight of his saintly predecessor.

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