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[经济学人] [2009.2.26]OCOck up OCO卫星失事

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发表于 2010-4-29 03:43 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Greenhouse gases
温室气体


OCOck up
OCO卫星失事

Feb 26th 2009
From The Economist print edition


America’s new carbon-dioxide-monitoring satellite crashes soon after launch
美国新型二氧化碳监测卫星在升空后不久坠毁

ATTEMPTS to understand more about the Earth’s atmosphere and the effects on it of increasing levels of carbon dioxide suffered a blow on February 24th. A shroud protecting the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), an American satellite intended to monitor levels of the gas, failed to detach as it was being carried into space. Instead of going into orbit, the Taurus rocket carrying the craft crashed into the sea near Antarctica.

于美国当地时间2月24日,人类为进一步了解大气层的情况以及二氧化碳对其的日趋加大的影响而作出的努力尝试遭遇了一次不小的打击。一颗意在检测温室气体含量的美国卫星OCO(注:轨道碳检测站),因其整流罩(注:用于保护卫星的部分)在送入太空的过程中无法和运输主体分离,从而未能进入预定轨道,最后和运载火箭Taurus一同坠入南极洲附近的海域。


When the rockets go up…
火箭升空时......

The OCO, which cost $278m and took eight years to develop, would have been the first American satellite dedicated to the study of atmospheric carbon dioxide. It was supposed to join five others in a formation known as the “A-train”. The plan was for OCO’s measurements to be synchronised with an analysis of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, methane and other greenhouse gases by the rest of the fleet. One of these satellites, Aura, does already look at carbon dioxide, but its measurements are confined to the upper atmosphere. The instruments on OCO would have examined the lower atmosphere, and in finer detail.

OCO的研发耗资两亿七千八百万美元,历时八年。原本它可以成为美国第一个用于研究大气层二氧化碳含量的卫星。按照原计划,OCO将和其他五颗卫星构成链状的A字形,那五颗卫星分别用于监测臭氧、二氧化氮、甲烷以及其他的温室气体,并且在监测时间上它们与OCO同步。在这些卫星当中,Aura已经可以检测到二氧化碳,但是它的测量范围还只局限在外层大气,而OCO上的测量仪器则可以非常细致地检测到内层大气中去。

What the researchers were trying to discover were the places on Earth where carbon dioxide is being added to the atmosphere and those where it is being removed. Including man-made emissions, the Earth’s “carbon cycle” releases about 330 billion tonnes of the gas each year. Most of this is then absorbed by so-called carbon sinks, a mixture of photosynthesising plants and chemical precipitation, while a small amount remains to contribute to the rise in carbon-dioxide concentration that has been going on for the past 150 years. About half of the sunk carbon is absorbed by oceans, but exactly where the rest goes—and in what quantities—is not well understood. Remote habitats such as rainforests are clearly involved, but the lack of instruments in these places means the details are hazy.

研究人员原本要试图找到把二氧化碳排入大气层的地区和把二氧化碳为其他物质的地区。地球上的“碳循环”,包括人类社会的排放在内,每年大约释放出3300亿吨的二氧化碳,其中的大多数是被当代所谓的“碳汇”(是指从大气中清除二氧化碳的过程、活动或机制)吸收掉。碳汇是能进行光合作用的植物和能将碳元素转化为沉淀的物质的统称,然而其中的一小部分剩余物在过去的150年中持续地提升着二氧化碳的浓度。大约一半的碳沉淀物被海洋所吸收掉,但其余的物质究竟去往何处---还有去了多少---至今尚未得到完整的答案。遥远的生物栖息地,例如热带雨林,明显和上面的问题很有关联,但是在这些地区,精密测量仪器的缺乏意味着所有的细节都变得扑朔迷离。

Michael Freilich, the director of the Earth Science Division of NASA, America’s space agency, says his team will look at how other measurements taken by the A-train might be used to compensate for the loss of OCO, and how these measurements can be co-ordinated with data from other sources. Such sources could include Ibuki, a satellite dedicated to monitoring carbon dioxide and methane, which was launched by the Japanese space agency in January. So the loss of OCO is a setback to understanding the details of global warming, but thanks to Japan, perhaps not a complete disaster.

美国国家航空航天局的地球科学部的主管Michael Freilich说,他的团队将会关注如何通过“A型链”中其他卫星所取得的数据来一种弥补OCO的损失的办法,以及找到如何把现有的测量结果和其他途径获得的数据相协调的方法。上面说的其他途径包括Ibuki,这是一颗意在监测二氧化碳和甲烷的卫星,它由日本航天机构在一月份送入太空。OCO的坠毁是人类探索全球变暖过程中的重大挫折,但是多亏了日本的努力,这场事故可能还不会成为一场无可挽回的灾难。
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发表于 2010-4-29 04:18 | 显示全部楼层
试点评一篇-以/*开头,用蓝色字体,结尾用*/

OCOck up
OCO卫星失事
/*是否可以译为 ”OCO卫星栽了“, 感觉原题是Fxxk up 的变形”*/

Feb 26th 2009
From The Economist print edition

America’s new carbon-dioxide-monitoring satellite crashes soon after launch
美国新型二氧化碳监测卫星在升空后不久坠毁
/*可否变换一下“后”和“不久”的顺序,成为“卫星在升空不久后坠毁”*/
sh
ATTEMPTS to understand more about the Earth’s atmosphere and the effects on it of increasing levels of carbon dioxide suffered a blow on February 24th. A shroud protecting the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), an American satellite intended to monitor levels of the gas, failed to detach as it was being carried into space. Instead of going into orbit, the Taurus rocket carrying the craft crashed into the sea near Antarctica.

于美国当地时间2月24日,人类为进一步了解大气层的情况以及二氧化碳对其的日趋加大的影响而作出的努力尝试遭遇了一次不小的打击。一颗意在检测温室气体含量的美国卫星OCO(注:轨道碳检测站),因其整流罩(注:用于保护卫星的部分)在送入太空的过程中无法和运输主体分离,从而未能进入预定轨道,最后和运载火箭Taurus一同坠入南极洲附近的海域。

/*人类为深入了解地球大气层以及日益增加的二氧化碳对大气层影响的探索在二月二十四日(美国当地时间)暂遭挫折。*/
/*...未能与运载火箭脱离, 导致未进入运行轨道,并最终和运载火箭Taurus一起坠入南极附近的海域*/



When the rockets go up…
火箭升空时......

The OCO, which cost $278m and took eight years to develop, would have been the first American satellite dedicated to the study of atmospheric carbon dioxide. It was supposed to join five others in a formation known as the “A-train”. The plan was for OCO’s measurements to be synchronised with an analysis of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, methane and other greenhouse gases by the rest of the fleet. One of these satellites, Aura, does already look at carbon dioxide, but its measurements are confined to the upper atmosphere. The instruments on OCO would have examined the lower atmosphere, and in finer detail.

OCO的研发耗资两亿七千八百万美元,历时八年。原本它可以成为美国第一个用于研究大气层二氧化碳含量的卫星。按照原计划,OCO将和其他五颗卫星构成链状的A字形,那五颗卫星分别用于监测臭氧、二氧化氮、甲烷以及其他的温室气体,并且在监测时间上它们与OCO同步。在这些卫星当中,Aura已经可以检测到二氧化碳,但是它的测量范围还只局限在外层大气,而OCO上的测量仪器则可以非常细致地检测到内层大气中去。

/* 如果发射成功,历时八年并耗资两亿七千八百万美元研发的OCO卫星将是美国第一个专门用于研究大气层二氧化碳含量的卫星。按照NASA的设想,OCO卫星将加入由五颗已在轨卫星构成的,被称为A-Train的编队中。在计划当中,OCO的量测结果将同步于其它五颗卫星所得到的臭氧、二氧化氮、甲烷以及其他温室气体的分析结果。........ 测量仪器可以更为细致地检测....*/


What the researchers were trying to discover were the places on Earth where carbon dioxide is being added to the atmosphere and those where it is being removed. Including man-made emissions, the Earth’s “carbon cycle” releases about 330 billion tonnes of the gas each year. Most of this is then absorbed by so-called carbon sinks, a mixture of photosynthesising plants and chemical precipitation, while a small amount remains to contribute to the rise in carbon-dioxide concentration that has been going on for the past 150 years. About half of the sunk carbon is absorbed by oceans, but exactly where the rest goes—and in what quantities—is not well understood. Remote habitats such as rainforests are clearly involved, but the lack of instruments in these places means the details are hazy.

研究人员原本要试图找到把二氧化碳排入大气层的地区和把二氧化碳为其他物质的地区。地球上的“碳循环”,包括人类社会的排放在内,每年大约释放出3300 亿吨的二氧化碳,其中的大多数是被当代所谓的“碳汇”(是指从大气中清除二氧化碳的过程、活动或机制)吸收掉。碳汇是能进行光合作用的植物和能将碳元素转化为沉淀的物质的统称,然而其中的一小部分剩余物在过去的150年中持续地提升着二氧化碳的浓度。大约一半的碳沉淀物被海洋所吸收掉,但其余的物质究竟去往何处---还有去了多少---至今尚未得到完整的答案。遥远的生物栖息地,例如热带雨林,明显和上面的问题很有关联,但是在这些地区,精密测量仪器的缺乏意味着所有的细节都变得扑朔迷离。

/* 研究人员的目的是发现在地球上大气中二氧化碳正在增加及正在减少的地方。地球上的“碳循环”,包括人为的排放在内,每年释放出大约3300 亿吨的二氧化碳。与此同时,这些二氧化碳的绝大部分,会被植物的光合作用及化学沉淀,即所谓“碳汇”的方式吸收掉,而其中.........提升着二氧化碳的浓度。海洋以“碳汇”方式吸收大约一半的碳*/


Michael Freilich, the director of the Earth Science Division of NASA, America’s space agency, says his team will look at how other measurements taken by the A-train might be used to compensate for the loss of OCO, and how these measurements can be co-ordinated with data from other sources. Such sources could include Ibuki, a satellite dedicated to monitoring carbon dioxide and methane, which was launched by the Japanese space agency in January. So the loss of OCO is a setback to understanding the details of global warming, but thanks to Japan, perhaps not a complete disaster.

美国国家航空航天局的地球科学部的主管Michael Freilich说,他的团队将会关注如何通过“A型链”中其他卫星所取得的数据来一种弥补OCO的损失的办法,以及找到如何把现有的测量结果和其他途径获得的数据相协调的方法。上面说的其他途径包括Ibuki,这是一颗意在监测二氧化碳和甲烷的卫星,它由日本航天机构在一月份送入太空。OCO的坠毁是人类探索全球变暖过程中的重大挫折,但是多亏了日本的努力,这场事故可能还不会成为一场无可挽回的灾难。

/*美国国家宇航局NASA的.....说:他的团队将会评估能否利用A-Train中其他卫星的量测结果来弥补OCO坠毁带来的缺失,以及如何利用A-Train中的卫星的量测结果来使从其它途径获得的数据相互协调。....但幸亏日本有类似目的的卫星,....*/
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