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Flexible Patterns of Work 弹性工作方式

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发表于 2011-8-9 15:50 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Working from home 在家上班
Cubicle 图书馆,办公室里供单人阅读、工作使用的小单间、隔间
Telecommute 通讯上班(指不用去办公室而在家里用电脑和其他通讯设备,例如电话、传真、网络等和办公室连接上班)
Telecommuter 通讯上班族
Telecommuting 通讯上班(制)
Telework 电子居家办公
Teleworking 电子居家办公方式
Teleworker 采用电子居家办公方式的员工
Skyrocket 火箭式上升,猛升,猛涨
Heading 标题,类目
Blur 使模糊
Interference 干扰
Touchdown center 触地中心(指商务旅行者可在内打电话、使用笔记本电脑上网的专用场所)
Maternity-leave 产假
Changeover file 交接文件
Compatible 适合的,协调的
Contact 熟人,有影响的熟人,有用的社会关系
Case-load 工作量
Daily log 日志
Voice mail 语音信箱,语音邮件
Pager 传呼
Intranet (公司、企业)内部网,局域网
At regular intervals 定期
Clerical job 办事员工作
Commute 乘车上下班,上下班交通
Self-disciplined 自律的
Formality 礼节,俗套,形式,例行手续
Work-at-homer 在家工作的人
Hotdesking 办公桌轮用(指将职工分成不同的班次,以便他们能同一个办公室、一张办公桌和一台计算机)
Copy writer 广告撰写人
Programming 编程
Win-win stragety 双赢策略
Telework
电子居家办公
Prior to the Industrial Revolution, most people worked either close to or inside their own home.
工业革命之前,大多数人在自家或附近的地方干活。
However,mass production technologies changed all this, separating work life from home life, as people began to travel to centrally located factories and offices.
然而,大规模生产技术改变了这种方式。由于人们开始到场所集中的工厂和办公室上班,家庭生活便和工作过程分离开来。
In cities all over the United States, workers spend several hours a day in cars crawling along in traffic to get to offices many miles from home.
在美国各地的城市里,上班族每天花费几小时开着车徐徐行进在车流中,赶往离家数英里的办公室。
They experience stress, waste time, and pay a lot for gas, car maintenance, and parking.
不仅神经高度紧张,浪费时间,还要为汽油、维修和泊车花一大笔钱。
Once they get to work, they make their way through a maze of cubicles, each with its computer, phone, and file cabinet.
到达上班地点后,他们便在配有电脑、电话和文件柜的迷宫般的小隔间中活动穿梭。
As we approach the new millennium, however, skyrocketing office space prices combined with drastically reduced prices for portable electronic computing and communication devices seem ready to reverse this trend.
随着进入新世纪,办公用地租金的疯长伴随着便携式电子计算机与通讯设备价格骤降,似乎在改变这一工作方式。
The broad term for doing one’s work away from a centrally located office is telework.
在集中办公地点以外进行工作的广义词是电子居家办公。
Studies reveal that the cost savings from such programs can top $8000 per employee annually.
调查研究显示,采用这种办公方式所节省的费用可高达每年人均8000美元。
Not surprisingly, given these savings, the number of teleworkers has increased dramatically over the past few years.
因此,由于节省费用,近年来电子居家办公一族的人数大大增加便不足为奇。
It has been estimated that over 10 million U.S. workers now fall under this heading.
估计目前有1000万以上的美国人属于这一族。
The experiences of many companies suggest that telecommuting can increase workplace flexibility and enhance productivity.
许多公司的经验表明,利用电子手段居家办公可以提高工作场所的灵活性和办公效率。
Part of this productivity resulted from the flexibility that allowed people to work when they were at their peak efficiency (late at night or early in the morning for some) and work around nonwork obligations(such as caring for a sick child).
有一部分工作效率来源于这种工作方式的灵活性:既可以在状态最佳时高效工作(如深夜和凌晨时分,对这些人而言工作效率最高),也可以承担工作以外的义务(如照顾生病的孩子)。
Telecommuting,however, is not without its obstacles.
然而,利用电子手段居家办公的方式不无弊端。
At IBM,some teleworkers perceived that this type of arrangement hindered teamwork, felt isolated from informal networks of communications, and missed the mentoring opportunities that went along with traditional office work.
IBM公司一些采用这种工作方式上班的员工认为,它无法体现团队合作,有一种与日常人际沟通隔离之感,失去了传统办公事务中常见的相互请教的机会。
Telecommuting also makes many employees feel isolated and out of touch, leading to decreased motivation and less, not more productivity.
电子居家办公也使许多员工产生孤寂和与世隔绝之感,从而造成工作积极性的减弱,使工作效率不升反降。
By blurring the barriers between work and family, telecommuting often leads to more work hours and more interference with family life.
利用电子手段居家办公造成工作与家庭的界限模糊不清,因而延长了工作时间并干扰了家庭生活。
Thus, there is no one best way of designing work.
因此,没有哪一种工作方式最佳。
Whereas telecommuting may have positive influence on some outcomes, it has negative effects on others.
利用电子手段居家办公或许对于有些工作成果能发挥积极作用,而在其他方面却有消极影响。
That is to say, telecommuting is not universally applicable.
也就是说,利用电子手段居家办公并非普遍适用。
Jobs and individuals must be suitable, and staff must be capable of of managing telecommuters.
工作方式必须适合个人情况,同时,行政人员必须懂得如何对在家办公的员工进行管理。
In addition, technological improvements, such as hig-seed moderms, are crucial.
此外,诸如高速的调制解调器等技术改进也至关重要。
PART ONE: INTERVIEW
(1)      How do you think the Internet is influencing business life in your country?
在你的国家中,你认为互联网对商务生活产生了怎样的影响?
It is having a great influence and the most significant impact is in the way people work.
(2)      What do you think is the major advantage of telecommuting?
你认为通讯上班方式的主要好处是什么?
Telecommuting helps those with families spend more time together. It results in less pollution, and allows employees to work where and when they want to.
(3)      Are there any advantages in working from home rather than an office?(Why?/Why not?)
在家上班比到办公室上班是否存在有利之处?(为什么?)
Yes. There are many advantages in working from home. By doing so, one may have flexbile management of time and work. It improves efficiency, increases production and improves employees’ lives.
(4)      What do you think traditional offices will be like in the future?
你觉得传统的办公室将来会变成什么样?
In the future, home working will become popular and traditional offices will turn into something like touch-down centers, where people will only occasionally call in.
PART TWO: MINI-PRESENTATION
What is important when…?
Introducing job sharing scheme                    实行工作分担计划需考虑哪些要点?
l       Suitable types of job                           合适的工作种类
l       Benefits for the company                       对公司的好处
l        
When introducing job sharing, it’s important to consider what benefits it may bring to the company. An obvious benefit is that it’s a good way to retain valuable, well-trained employees by allowing them to balance their home life and work life, especially when they become parents. It also means higher productivity and an enhanced company image. In addition, it can decrease maternity-leave time.
You also have to consider which types of job the scheme would be suitable for. It doesn’t make any sense for highly individual and creative jobs such as computer programming to be shared. Jobs for consideration include those that have tasks easy to separate, for instance, secretaries and janitors. Computer systems engineers, technical-training instructors can also split their work load with a partner.
Another important factor to consider is how to make sure the partners pass on information obtained from superiors, clients or staff and keep each other well informed. This can be done by lunch or coffee meeting, phone calls, a changeover file, bulletin board, or tape-recorded messages.
实行工作分担的时候,考虑这将给公司带来什么好处非常重要。一个明显的好处是这是一个保留价值的好方法,可以允许训练有素的员工平衡他们的生活和工作,特别是当他们成为搭档。这也意味着更高的生产力也可以增强公司形象。此外,这也可以减少产假的时间。
你也必须考虑什么类型的工作种类比较适合。它没有任何意义上极具个性和创造性的工作比如计算机编程。工作进行审核包括哪些容易分割的任务,比如,秘书及管理员。计算机系统工程师,技术培训指导也可以与搭档分享工作负担。
另一个重要的考虑因素是怎样确保搭档从上级、客户或员工那里获取信息并相互传递,并且保持相互之间消息灵通传递。这可以通过午餐或咖啡、电话、交接文件或者录音信息来传递。
What is important when…?
Starting job sharing scheme                      开始实施工作分担计划需考虑哪些要点?
l       Compatible work partner                      合适的工作搭档
l       Role defining                                分工
l        
Finding and choosing a compatible work partner is the most important once a job share is in place. As job sharing is a way for two people to both fill one job, compatibility is very important for the success of the scheme. You may find one from your current workplace, or you may find one from outside through all kinds of contacts.
A clear defining of roles is also important. If it’s shared responsibility, there is no division of duties but the two people have to split the hours clearly to ensure that the work flows continuously. If it’s divided responsibility, each partner has to be clear about his own caseload or project to focus on during his working hours. If it’s unrelated responsibility, the partners have to learn what their separate tasks are in the same department, and each has to do his own share well.
Communication is another important factor to consider when you arrange the job-share, especially for shared responsibility. Partners have to communicate well so that jobs are done smoothly. Using E-mail, voicemail messages, daily logs and notes are some techniques that help facilitate communication.
一旦开始工作分担,寻找和选择一个合适的工作搭档是最重要的因素。因为工作分担是以两个员工分担一份工作,和平共处对该计划取得成功非常重要。你可以在你目前的工作场所找搭档或者从外部通过各种联系找搭档。
一个清晰的角色分工也很重要。如果这是共同的责任,虽然没有指责的分工但是两个人分配时间很清晰能够确保工作顺利进行。如果是划分的责任,搭档双方必须清晰自己的案件数量或项目来专注于他的工作时间。如果是不相关的责任,搭档必须了解其同一部门的单独的任务,而且每个人必须把自己的任务做好。
当你在安排工作分担的时候,沟通是另一个重要考虑因素。特别是对共同责任的分担。搭档必须很好的交流工作才能顺利进行。使用邮件,语音信箱,日常记录和笔记这些技术能帮助顺利交流。
PART THREE: DISCUSSION
Introducing Home-working Scheme
Your company is planning to introduce a scheme which allows members of its staff to do some of their work at home,instead of coming into the office. You have been asked to make recommendations on this. Discuss the situation together, and decide:
l       what are possible advantages for staff and the company
l       how to make the scheme work
实行在家工作计划
你们所在公司准备实行一项计划,让员工在家里完成一部分工作,减少到办公室的次数。请你们对此提出建议。讨论并决定:
l       对员工和公司各有什么好处
l       如何使这项计划有效实施
A: Well, you know our company is planning to introduce a homeworking shceme in response to demands for more flexible arrangements.
B: Exciting news for our employees, I believe. This new parttern of work does have many advantages to them.
A:Yeah. Working at home two or three days a week does not just mean cutting out some of the commute to work and saving money. It helps employees achieve a beter balance between work and life.
B: Exactly. Work-at-homers can better control their hours to reserve time for family, hobbies, volunteer work and other personal interests, while doing the work well.
A: It’s particularly useful for parents because it leaves them free to drop the children off in the morning and pick them up in the afternoon. They can reduce child care costs and have more time with families.
B: It’s also good for people without a family. By working from home, they can have more time for further education and learning new skills to better improve themselves.
A: You’re right. Another thing people like is that homeworking means freedom from office politics, less stress and burn-out. They can come and go as they please, wear what they like, work the hours that suit them and focus on delivering good work.
B: It’s a win-win strategy for the company because it increases efficiency and improves performance. It reduces office space and cut costs.
A: It can even reduce staff turnover since people are happier. But to make the scheme work is not something easy. You know, homeworking people need to be self-disciplined and self-motivated since sometimes it is hard to differentiate between worktime and private time and it can be hard to stay motivated without the support of colleagues.
B: Some home environment simply isn’t suitable for home-based working. We have to do something to make the scheme work.
A: I think we may have a survey and start from those who are in urgent need of such a scheme and whose work can be done at home.
B: I’m with you. First of all, the people should have a computer at home with access to the Internet, and can be contacted through E-mail, voice mail and paper. Good IT support such as a sound company intranet and other services should be provided for the success of the scheme.
A: And meetings should be arranged at regular intervals for face-to-face communication and share of ideas to encourage staff interaction.
B: The company can also have good control of these people by having timely review of their short-time targets, say, we can check their work progress on a monthly basis to see whether they manage their time well.
A: Good idea! By doing all this, I believe the scheme will work to the company’s advantage.
A:你知道,我们的公司正计划引进在家工作计划使工作有更灵活的安排。
B:我相信对员工来说这是令人兴奋的消息。这种工作的新模式对他们来说益处很多。
A: 是的。一周两到三天在家工作不止意味着节省一部分通勤费。也有助于员工在工作与生活之间实现更好的平衡。
B: 确实是这样。在家工作做的好的话能更好的控制自己的时间以及为家庭、爱好、志愿者工作以及其他个人兴趣预留时间。
A: 对搭档们来说,这是非常有用处的因为折让他们自由选择早晚接送孩子的时间。这样能够减少照看孩子的费用而且有更多的时间跟家人呆在一起。
B:对没有成家的人来说也是有好处的。在家中工作,他们可以有更多的时间进行深造,并且学会新技能来更好的改善自己。
A:你是对的。另一点是喜欢在家工作的人们意味着从办公室政策中解放出来,减少和释放压力。他们可以自由来去,随意穿着,在合适的时间工作并且专注于提供良好的工作。
B: 对公司来说这是一个双赢的策略,因为这增加了工作效率改善了工作成绩。这将减少办公室的空间以及节省成本。
A: 这甚至可以减少人员流动因为人们很快乐。但是,使此项进行并不是件容易的事。你知道,在家工作的人们需要自律和自我激励因为有时候很难区分工作时间和私人时间,而且没有同事的支持很难保持动力。
B:某些家庭环境并不适合在家工作。我们必须做一些事情使该计划实施。
A:我认为我们可以安排一个调查从那些迫切需要实施在家工作的员工开始。
B: 我同意。首先,这些员工在家中应该具备一台可以上网的电脑,并且可以连接邮箱、语音信箱和打印机。良好的IT支持比如提供良好的公司内部网以及其它服务,以使该计划成功实施。
A:应该定期安排会议为了面对面得交流和分享想法来鼓励员工的互动。
B:公司也应该通过及时的审查员工短时期的目标来对其进行良好的掌控,也就是说,我们可以每月的基础上检查他们的工作进展情况来看一下他们是否很好的管理时间。
A:好主意,通过这些方法,我相信在家工作的计划将为公司带来好处。
(1)   What kinds of jobs do you think can be done effectively from home?(Why?)
你认为哪一类工作可以有效地在家中进行?(为什么?)
IT consulting and computer programming can be done effectively from home, since they are done on the computer network and where the work is done isn’t important.
(2)   Do you think it’s a good idea to use home as an office?(Why? Why not?)
你认为把家当作办公室好吗?(为什么?)
Yes. I can be more relaxed working at home. It is less stressful. I don’t have to get dressed up and wear suits. I can just wear casual clothes at home and I can have more time with my family.
(3)   What are the advantages of all company staff working in the same building?(Why?)
公司里所有员工在同一座大楼上班有何好处?(为什么?)
It’s easier to get the support of colleagues which helps to keep you motivated.
(4)   Do you think our homes or offices will change in the future because of technology?(Why?/Why not?)
你认为我们的家或办公室在将来会因为科技而改变吗?(为什么?)
Yes. Because of technology, our homes will be at the same time the offices and more people will work from home.
(5)   Do you think there are any disadvantages for companies in using the Internet?(Why?/Why not?)
你认为公司使用互联网是否存在弊端?(为什么?)
Yes. There may be the problem of hacking and leakage of company secrets.
2014、11-2015、02 单词 单词
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-8-22 13:48 | 显示全部楼层
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 楼主| 发表于 2011-8-24 19:46 | 显示全部楼层
  WORD 版 PASS BEC 新编剑桥商务英语口试必备手册(中高级)
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