大家论坛

 找回密码
 注册
查看: 2505|回复: 0

[BEC阅读] BEC 真题4.3(translate)

[复制链接]

697

主题

1510

帖子

1万

金币

大家网博士生

Rank: 21Rank: 21Rank: 21

积分
15143

BEC V

发表于 2011-11-1 14:35 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
这篇文章主要是关于定价(pricing)的。题目算是阅读第一部分里比较隐晦的了。四个部分分别介绍了影响定价的一些因素。

0.      the price depending on the product features by the customer.
价格依赖于客户决定的产品特性。
1.      the failure of a company to set its prices appropriately.
公司没有合理定价。
2.      a context that makes it difficult to increase prices.
大环境使得涨价很困难。
3.      the consequences of companies trying to conceal their approach to pricing.
公司隐瞒定价策略的后果。
4.      the means by which a company ensured precision in the prices it offered.
一个公司确保定价准确的方式。
5.      the fact that companies can learn about the effects of a price reduction.
公司了解降价的后果。
the first sector to price products according to how much customers were prepared to spend.
对产品定价首要的是根据客户所愿意支付的。
6.      the widespread use of rough guidelines to determine prices.
粗糙的定价准则的广泛应用。
Getting the price right
准确定价
A
Chief executives need to pay more attention to pricing, according to Roberto Lippi of the Apex Group, a consultancy that offers advice on pricing strategy. (2)He accepts that low inflation figure in many industrialized countries make raising prices tough, but argues that this should not necessarily deter companies. He give the example of the airlines, which, with their minimum stay requirements and massive premiums for flexibility, led the way in sorting customers into categories based on their willingness to pay.
总裁需要对价格多一些关注,根据Apex 集团的Roberto Lippi所说,一个咨询公司能够提供价格策略的建议。他承认很多工业国家的低通货膨胀率使得涨价变得困难。但是认为这不一定会组织公司。他举了航空公司的例子,以他们最低的位置需要以及最大的灵活性费用,带领客户进行分类的方式。基于他们自愿支付。
B
The key to pricing is to avoid alienating customers. As Lippi points out, once a bad price has been established, it can be very difficult to turn the situation around.(1) He gives the example of a consumer goods company that went bankrupt largely because it did not price its digital cameras properly. In contrast, he cites the case of (4)a Swiss drug company that introduced software for every sales representative’s laptop, enabling them to provide consistent and accurate price quotes. To help staff with this innovation, the company also created a new post of director of pricing strategy.
定价的关键是避免顾客疏远,正如Lippi指出,一旦确立糟糕的价格,扭转形势就会很困难。他举例关于一个消费者产品公司破产主要是因为没有对数码相机合理定位,相反,他引用一个瑞士医药公司的案例,为每个销售代表的手提电脑引进了软件,确保他们提供准确的定价。为了帮助员工进行革新,公司也创立了一个新的负责定价策略的主任的职位。
C
Many of today’s managers have the benefit of modern technology to help them with pricing. (5)Supermarket chains, for example, can easily track customers’ elasticity – how their buying habits change in response to a price rise or a discount.8But although a company can now measure this sort of thing in a more sophisticated way, following basic rules is still the most common way of setting prices. Most bosses still worry more about their costs than the prices they charge; one recent survey found that they spend as little as 2% of their time on pricing.
当今许多管理者受益于帮他们定价的先进技术。比如连锁超市,可以轻易追踪客户的弹性—他们购买习惯是如何对涨价或打折做出反应。但是即使公司可以用一种更复杂的方式来衡量,遵守基本法则仍然是定价的最普通的方式。大多数的老板仍然担心他们的成本高于他们所定的价格,一个最新的调查显示他们在定价上花的时间不到2%。
D
One popular approach to pricing is illustrated by the car companies that charge extra for product add-ons such as electric windows, instead of offering them as part of the standard price. Although many customers are prepared to pay extra, Lippi recommends that companies make sure that price difference reflect real differences in the product, either in quality or in the extra service on offer. 3The worst approach is to try to keep the pricing structure secret from customers. Nowadays, that is more likely to lead to lost contracts than large profits.
汽车公司阐述了关于定价的一个流行的方法是产品附加的额外费用,比如有了电子窗户定价就不能跟标准价格一样。虽然许多客户已经准备好为附加费埋单,Lippi建议公司确保价产品格差异的真正影响,既要提供高质量也要提供额外的服务。最坏的方法是试图让定价结构对消费者保密,今天,它更有可能导致失去合同而不是最大的利润。
Issues in the recruitment world
招聘世界的话题
招聘世界里的话题。围绕猎头公司(headhunter)展开,说明了猎头公司的发展和重要性,以及用人单位对猎头公司的一些疑问。第一段引出话题,说现在正是猎头公司占领市场的时候。接下来几段顺序介绍了猎头市场的发展阶段,从起步阶段(第二段的内容),到逐步发家(第三段),当中列举了一个猎头公司的情况加以说明(第四段),然后第五段介绍了用人单位对猎头公司的一些质疑。最后一段是总的概括。做这种题一定要理清文章的逻辑顺序,从整体上把握文章脉络。

In the competitive world of investment banking, good senior executives are not easy to find. So what should the industry’s hard-pressed directors do when they need to find senior staff? Increasingly, they decide to call in the headhunters. These are busy and profitable times for the recruitment agencies that dominate the world of executive search and selection.
投资银行的竞争世界里,不容易找到优秀的高级主管。因此当捉襟见肘的行业主管需要寻找高级员工的时候他们应该做什么呢?逐渐地,他们决定聘用猎头,招聘机构有忙碌和有利可图的时间来支配寻找和选择高管的世界。
   A number of big investment banks recently decided to make changes to their management boards after disappointing end-of-year results. They needed new people to revitalize their operations, and the result has been a boom in the recruitment market. Pinnacle, a leading recruitment agency, has helped various UK investment banks to rebuild their entire senior management teams. It is hard to overstate the significance of this. (8)Until a few years ago, even the biggest companies were unlikely to use headhunters to fill more than one or two jobs a year.
许多大型投资银行最近在令人失望的年终结果之后决定改组他们的董事会。他们需要新人来振兴他们的业务,这个结果在招聘市场产生了轰动。一个领先的招聘机构Pinnacle已经帮助各种英国投资银行重建他们整个高层管理团队。很难高估这个的重要性。直到几年之前,甚至最大的公司都不可能一年利用猎头公司来填补一两个职位。
   But now everything has changed, and Pinnacle is not the only major player in the field. Some analysts believe that rival recruitment specialists ALT Associates has a larger share of the market. However, there is little doubt that over its 13-year history. Pinnacle and its chairman, Matthew Edwards, have built up an impressive reputation.
但是现在所有事都改变了,而且Pinnacle在这个领域不是唯一的玩家。一些分析家相信竞争者的招聘专家 ALT协会有更大的市场份额。然而,毫无疑问超过13年的历史,Pinnacle和它的主席Matthew Edwards已经建立了一个令人一项深刻的声誉。
   Edwards estimates that his company controls between 10 and 15 per cent of the headhunting market for senior investment banking jobs in the UK. (9)Although others may put it lower, it is important to remember that the company’s reputation is not based on market share alone. Rather, it is the high-caliber jobs and people that Pinnacle deals with that define the company’s success. For example, the company was recently commissioned to find a new chairman for NBS Bank, a vacancy that was one of the most talked about in the bank world.
爱德华估计它的公司在英国猎头市场之间控制了10%~15%的投资银行工作。虽然其他人可能把市场份额估计得更低,重点需要记住公司的声誉不只是以市场份额为基础。相反,应该是公司所处理的高质量的工作和客户决定了公司的成功。比如,公司最近受到委托为NBS银行寻找一个新的主席,这个空缺是银行界最为津津乐道的事情。
   Most HR directors recognize that headhunters such as Pinnacle play a valuable role in the recruitment process. (10)But this acceptance does not mean they are universally happy, either with the state of the market or with Pinnacle’s role within it. Some are concerned that a few companies, including Pinnacle, have too much power over high-level recruitment. (11)Their chief worry is that the headhunters can now make or break managerial careers. As Tim Davidson, HR Director at Cawfield Bank, explains. They can be kingmarkers. These are the people who decide who gets a future and who doesn’t. If Edwards form a view about an individual, it can affect their ability to get a particular job. That view could just have been formed on a bad day. (12)Edwards objects to this suggestion, claiming that all he does is find candidates and encourage them to apply for a particular post. Final decisions in the selection process are always taken by his clients, he says, whoever they are.
大多数的人力资源经理认识到像Pinnacle这样的猎头在招聘的流程中起着有价值的作用。但是这种接受并不意味着他们完全开心。而且可能是对猎头公司发挥作用的消极看法。许多公司的人担心包括Pinnacle在内的猎头公司权力大过大,他们首要担心的是猎头公司会创造或者破坏管理职业生涯。正如Cawfield 银行的Tim Davidson所解释,他们能够成为市场的主宰。这些人能够决定谁能掌控未来谁不能。如果Edwards形成一个个人观点,它能够影响他们得到特定领域工作的才能。那个观点只能使情况变得糟糕。Edwards 反对这种说法,声称他所做的无非是寻找候选人然后鼓励他们去申请某个特定的职位。在选择流程中的最终的决定总是他的客户掌控,他说,无论他们是谁。
   The role of headhunters should not be exaggerated. Many companies never use them. But as top executives are hard to find, these will always be a role for people like Matthew Edwards.
猎头的角色应该被夸大。许多公司从不用猎头公司。但是因为高管人员很难寻找,像Matthew Edwards那样的角色将永远存在。
THE ART OF PERSUASION
劝说的艺术
劝说的艺术。这里的劝说(persuasion)带点广告的意思,是指怎么样设计广告手册(brochure)才能吸引顾客,也就是劝顾客掏钱购买产品。

Let me send you our brochure’ is probably the most commonly used phrase in business. But all too often, it can spell the end of a customer enquiry because many brochures appear to be produced not to clarify and to excite but to confuse. So what goes wrong and how can it be put right? Too often, businesses fall to ask themselves critical questions like, Who will the brochure be sent to? What do we want to achieve with it? The truth is that a brochure has usually been produced for no other reason than that the competition has one.

让我奉上我们的手册大概是在商界被使用最普遍的表达。但是往往,它是以顾客的质疑为结束因为许多小册子的产生不清楚不振奋人心而是使人困惑。那么错误是什么怎样纠正呢?通常,企业没有自问关键的问题比如:小册子要发给谁?我们希望通过它得到什么?事实是小册子通常被生产出来没有别的原因只是竞争者拥有它。
However, with a little research, it often transpires that what the client want is a mixture: part mail shot, part glossy corporate brochure and part product catalogue—a combination rarely found. Having said that, the budget is likely to be finite. There may not be enough money to meet all three marketing needs, so the first task is to plan the brochure, taking into account the most significant of these. The other requirements will have to be met in a different way. After all, introducing the company’s product range to new customers by mail is a different task from selling a new season’s collection to existing customers.
然而,经过许多调查,考量出客户需要的广告手册是一个混合体,部分邮购目录,部分豪华的公司手册,部分是产品目录---一个联合体很难找到。往往客户手册的预算是有限的。这里可能很难有足够的资金来满足三个市场需要。因此首要的任务是规划手册,考虑最重要的需求。其他的需求通过另外的途径来满足。毕竟,通过邮寄向客户引进公司的产品系列是与销售新一季的收藏品给现有客户是一个不同的任务。
The second task is to get the content right. In 95 percent of cases, a company will hire a designer to oversee the layout, so the final product looks stylish, interesting and professional; but they don’t get a copywriter or someone with the right expertise to produce the text, or at least tidy it up – and this shows. A bigger failing is to produce a brochure that is not customer focused. Your brochure should cover areas of interest to the customer, concentrating on the benefits of buying from you.
第二个任务是找准手册的内容。95%的情况下,公司会雇人好好设计广告手册,因此最终的产品看起来很时髦、有趣和专业。但是他们不会找到有相关技能的广告文字撰稿人或者具有相关专业的人来制作内容,或者至少给收拾一下。这展示了一个更大的失败在于制作出的广告册不是以客户为中心。广告册应该含盖客户感兴趣的领域,从你那里购买是集中的好处。
Instead thousands of brochures start with a history lesson. Founded in 1987, we have been selling our products… I can assure you that customers are never going to say to themselves, they’ve been around for 20 years—I’ll buy from them. It’s what you’ve done in that time. The important point to get across at the beginning is that you have a good track record. Once this has been established, the rest of the brochure should aim to convince customers that your products are the best on the market.
不应该像数以千计的广告册从一堂历史课开始。在1987年建立,我们已经销售我们的产品… …我保证你的客户永远不会对自己说,他们建立大约20年。我得从他们那儿购买。在那个时候你在做什么。重点是开始讲清楚你所获得的良好记录。一旦这个被建立,广告册的其他部分应该可以致力于让客户相信你的产品是市场上最好的。
It is helpful with content to get inside the customer’s head. If your audience is young and trendy, be creative and colorful. As always, create a list of the benefits that potential customers would gain from doing business with you, for example, product quality, breadth of range, expertise of staff and so on. But remember that it is not enough just to state these, in order to persuade, they need to be spelt out. One possibility is to quote recommendations from existing customers. This also makes the brochure personal to you, rather than it simply being a set of suppliers’ photographs with your name on the front.
内容里包括客户的头像是有帮助的。如果你的观众是年轻时髦的,应该创造性和丰富多彩的。一如既往,创建一个一连串的好处,潜在客户与你做生意时将获得好处。比如,生产质量、范围的广度、专业的员工等等。但是要记住只是去陈述这些事不够的,为了可以说服,他们需要被详细说明。一个可行得做法是引用现有客户的建议。这也可以使得广告手册显得很个人化,而不是堆砌供应商的照片然后把自己的名字印在最前面。
At the design stage, there are many production features that can distinguish your brochure from the run of the mill. You may think that things like cutouts or pop-ups will do this for you and thus make you stand out, or you may think they just look like designer whims that add cost. Go through all the options in detail. One of them might be that all-important magical ingredient.
在设计阶段,这里有许多生产特点让你的手册与普通的一般手册相区分。你可能认为许多事情像切口或者弹出窗口将为你做这些因此也使你脱颖而出。否则你可能认为他们只是像设计师突发奇想,增加成本。贯穿所有详细观点。他们中的某个人可能成为十分重要的神奇的成分。
Online exchanges?
在线交易
Online exchanges have emerged as some of the internet’s best businesses—but also as some of the worst.
在线交易已经作为许多网上最棒的交易—但也是糟糕的交易出现。
  So the internet hasn’t revolutionized the way most of us buy petrol, or watch movies. But there is one thing the internet does very well. It can bring together(19) widely dispersed buyers and sellers to create active, efficient markets where none(20) existed before. this facility has (21)led to the emergence of online exchanges; retail businesses with none of the usual traders’ risks—no merchandise, no storefronts- and with nothing to do but take a (22)percentage of each transaction that takes place on the site.
因此互联网还没有彻底改变我们中大多数人购买石油或者看电影的方式。但是有一件事情互联网做的非常好。他能将广泛分散的卖家和买家聚集到了一起。有效的市场以前从未存在过。此前,这套设备导致了在线交易的出现。零售生意没有通常贸易的风险—没有商品、没有店面—什么都不用做只是拿走需要在网站上发生的每笔交易的一部分。
  This may sound straightforward, but some high-profile online exchanges have (23)turned out to be major embarrassments. One company, which tried to establish a central marketplace on the internet for auto parts, has invested, in (24)total a massive $250m and is (25)struggling to stay in business. Another businessman, who facilitated online trading in business equipment and supplies. (26)Gave upafter he had lost $280m.
这听起来可能很简单,但是一些高调的在线交易结果是无比尴尬。一个试图在互联网汽车零件方面建立中心市场的公司已经投资总共2.5亿而且努力要保持业务。另一个商人,损失了2.8亿的时候,供应商放弃了他。
  So what does a company need in order to be successful? You could call it good market architecture – a structure that (27)combinescombine with,结合。将正确的商业计划和顶级技术结合好的时机和买家和卖家的信任。)the right business plan and top technology with good timing and the(28) confidence(买家和卖家的信任。用confidence。)of both buyers and sellers.
那么公司为了成功应该做什么?你可以称它为良好的市场建筑构架将正确的商业计划和顶级技术结合好的时机和买家和卖家的信任。
  Mike Pham’s company, stream, is an excellent example of one business that met these (29)criteria. Bank in 1996, when Pham was looking for a loan, he didn’t like filling in the same form every time he  (30)applied to a new lender. That got him thinking. Why not (31)invite  prospective borrowers to complete a standard form and circulate that to a number of lenders, who would then make an offer to the borrower, in (32)competition in competition with each other相互竞争。)with each other?
Mike Pham公司的涌入是一个生意满足这些标准的很好的例子。银行在1996年,当Pham正寻找贷款,他他不喜欢每次申请新的借款人时都要填相同的表格。这使他思考为什么不邀请 填写一个标准的表格然后表格在债主那里流通。
  Pham’s company is doing well. Last year, stream (33)handle more than 1.5 million loans on behalf of 170 lenders.
Pham的公司做的不错,去年处理了超过150万贷款让170个贷方受益。
Summary of annual progress
年度进步总结。应该是公司领导在年度总结大会上做的报告,比较简短。

  I am pleased to report another year of progress by the company. This performance has been achieved in the toughest market conditions we have seen for many years34yet一般用在否定句的句尾,而此句是肯定句,yet多余.) It reflects the effort over the past five years that has gone into transforming 35transform into,词组搭配,表示把…..转变成。of多余。)our company onto a highly competitive world-class business. Since 2002, we have managed to36 we have managed to improve almost double our profits,这个句子有两个谓语动词,improvedouble,所以有一个多余。保留improve的话,almost的位置不对,所以应该去掉improve,直接用double表示加倍。almost double our profits, and this increase in profitability has37这个句子的意思是说利润的增长已经将我们公司置于全球玻璃行业顶尖的位置。强调的动作的完成,如果用has been就是强调动作的一直持续。所以been多余。placed us at the top of the global glass industry. We have managed to succeed 38succeed in固定搭配,this多余in difficult trading conditions for a number of reasons, the most important of which has been39最重要的原因是我们的能力一直领先于对手。定语从句的成分很齐全,不需要介词from our ability to stay ahead of our competitors. We have refused to 40又是两个动词同时使用,重复了,必须去掉一个。句子的意思是我们拒绝原地踏步,stand still是原地踏步。所以去掉allowstand still and have continued to bring out a number of new products, most if which are already on 41on sale,固定搭配,降价的意思。去掉thesale in our key markets. All this goes to confirm(42) 如果用that,后面应该接从句。而这句的后面不是从句。直接是comfirm as,表示确认公司作为行业领头羊的地位。the company’s position as the recognized industry leader in technical innovation. We realize that there is still much more to be done, but we believe that we know precisely what (44)what this is,我们明确的知道这些是什么,extra多余。 this is and we have already put into place organizational and technical changes to bring this about.

年度进步总结
我很高兴为新一年的进展作报告。我们已经看到这个成绩是在艰难地市场环境下取得的。这反映了过去五年的努力把我们公司转变成具有高度竞争力的世界级的企业。自从2002年,我们已经设法使利益加倍,而且这种利润增长已经将我们公司置于全球玻璃行业顶尖的位置。因为许多原因,我们设法在艰难地贸易环境下取得成功。最重要的原因是我们的能力一直领先于对手。我们拒绝原地踏步并且继续推出大量新的产品,大多数已经在我们的主要市场销售。所有这些为了确认公司作为作为技术革新方面行业领头羊的地位。我们认识到还仍然有许多要做的事情,但是我们相信我们明确的知道这些事什么并且我们已经开始启用的组织和技术使其改变。
2014、11-2015、02 单词 单词
回复

使用道具 举报

您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册

本版积分规则



诚聘英才|移动端|Archiver|版权声明|大家论坛 ( 京ICP备06071611号,京公网安备11010802018363号 )

GMT+8, 2019-11-22 03:26 , Processed in 2.681772 second(s), 7 queries , Redis On.

Powered by Discuz!

© Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表