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[BEC阅读] BEC 真题4.3(translate)









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发表于 2011-11-1 14:35 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

0.      the price depending on the product features by the customer.
1.      the failure of a company to set its prices appropriately.
2.      a context that makes it difficult to increase prices.
3.      the consequences of companies trying to conceal their approach to pricing.
4.      the means by which a company ensured precision in the prices it offered.
5.      the fact that companies can learn about the effects of a price reduction.
the first sector to price products according to how much customers were prepared to spend.
6.      the widespread use of rough guidelines to determine prices.
Getting the price right
Chief executives need to pay more attention to pricing, according to Roberto Lippi of the Apex Group, a consultancy that offers advice on pricing strategy. (2)He accepts that low inflation figure in many industrialized countries make raising prices tough, but argues that this should not necessarily deter companies. He give the example of the airlines, which, with their minimum stay requirements and massive premiums for flexibility, led the way in sorting customers into categories based on their willingness to pay.
总裁需要对价格多一些关注,根据Apex 集团的Roberto Lippi所说,一个咨询公司能够提供价格策略的建议。他承认很多工业国家的低通货膨胀率使得涨价变得困难。但是认为这不一定会组织公司。他举了航空公司的例子,以他们最低的位置需要以及最大的灵活性费用,带领客户进行分类的方式。基于他们自愿支付。
The key to pricing is to avoid alienating customers. As Lippi points out, once a bad price has been established, it can be very difficult to turn the situation around.(1) He gives the example of a consumer goods company that went bankrupt largely because it did not price its digital cameras properly. In contrast, he cites the case of (4)a Swiss drug company that introduced software for every sales representative’s laptop, enabling them to provide consistent and accurate price quotes. To help staff with this innovation, the company also created a new post of director of pricing strategy.
Many of today’s managers have the benefit of modern technology to help them with pricing. (5)Supermarket chains, for example, can easily track customers’ elasticity – how their buying habits change in response to a price rise or a discount.8But although a company can now measure this sort of thing in a more sophisticated way, following basic rules is still the most common way of setting prices. Most bosses still worry more about their costs than the prices they charge; one recent survey found that they spend as little as 2% of their time on pricing.
One popular approach to pricing is illustrated by the car companies that charge extra for product add-ons such as electric windows, instead of offering them as part of the standard price. Although many customers are prepared to pay extra, Lippi recommends that companies make sure that price difference reflect real differences in the product, either in quality or in the extra service on offer. 3The worst approach is to try to keep the pricing structure secret from customers. Nowadays, that is more likely to lead to lost contracts than large profits.
Issues in the recruitment world

In the competitive world of investment banking, good senior executives are not easy to find. So what should the industry’s hard-pressed directors do when they need to find senior staff? Increasingly, they decide to call in the headhunters. These are busy and profitable times for the recruitment agencies that dominate the world of executive search and selection.
   A number of big investment banks recently decided to make changes to their management boards after disappointing end-of-year results. They needed new people to revitalize their operations, and the result has been a boom in the recruitment market. Pinnacle, a leading recruitment agency, has helped various UK investment banks to rebuild their entire senior management teams. It is hard to overstate the significance of this. (8)Until a few years ago, even the biggest companies were unlikely to use headhunters to fill more than one or two jobs a year.
   But now everything has changed, and Pinnacle is not the only major player in the field. Some analysts believe that rival recruitment specialists ALT Associates has a larger share of the market. However, there is little doubt that over its 13-year history. Pinnacle and its chairman, Matthew Edwards, have built up an impressive reputation.
但是现在所有事都改变了,而且Pinnacle在这个领域不是唯一的玩家。一些分析家相信竞争者的招聘专家 ALT协会有更大的市场份额。然而,毫无疑问超过13年的历史,Pinnacle和它的主席Matthew Edwards已经建立了一个令人一项深刻的声誉。
   Edwards estimates that his company controls between 10 and 15 per cent of the headhunting market for senior investment banking jobs in the UK. (9)Although others may put it lower, it is important to remember that the company’s reputation is not based on market share alone. Rather, it is the high-caliber jobs and people that Pinnacle deals with that define the company’s success. For example, the company was recently commissioned to find a new chairman for NBS Bank, a vacancy that was one of the most talked about in the bank world.
   Most HR directors recognize that headhunters such as Pinnacle play a valuable role in the recruitment process. (10)But this acceptance does not mean they are universally happy, either with the state of the market or with Pinnacle’s role within it. Some are concerned that a few companies, including Pinnacle, have too much power over high-level recruitment. (11)Their chief worry is that the headhunters can now make or break managerial careers. As Tim Davidson, HR Director at Cawfield Bank, explains. They can be kingmarkers. These are the people who decide who gets a future and who doesn’t. If Edwards form a view about an individual, it can affect their ability to get a particular job. That view could just have been formed on a bad day. (12)Edwards objects to this suggestion, claiming that all he does is find candidates and encourage them to apply for a particular post. Final decisions in the selection process are always taken by his clients, he says, whoever they are.
大多数的人力资源经理认识到像Pinnacle这样的猎头在招聘的流程中起着有价值的作用。但是这种接受并不意味着他们完全开心。而且可能是对猎头公司发挥作用的消极看法。许多公司的人担心包括Pinnacle在内的猎头公司权力大过大,他们首要担心的是猎头公司会创造或者破坏管理职业生涯。正如Cawfield 银行的Tim Davidson所解释,他们能够成为市场的主宰。这些人能够决定谁能掌控未来谁不能。如果Edwards形成一个个人观点,它能够影响他们得到特定领域工作的才能。那个观点只能使情况变得糟糕。Edwards 反对这种说法,声称他所做的无非是寻找候选人然后鼓励他们去申请某个特定的职位。在选择流程中的最终的决定总是他的客户掌控,他说,无论他们是谁。
   The role of headhunters should not be exaggerated. Many companies never use them. But as top executives are hard to find, these will always be a role for people like Matthew Edwards.
猎头的角色应该被夸大。许多公司从不用猎头公司。但是因为高管人员很难寻找,像Matthew Edwards那样的角色将永远存在。

Let me send you our brochure’ is probably the most commonly used phrase in business. But all too often, it can spell the end of a customer enquiry because many brochures appear to be produced not to clarify and to excite but to confuse. So what goes wrong and how can it be put right? Too often, businesses fall to ask themselves critical questions like, Who will the brochure be sent to? What do we want to achieve with it? The truth is that a brochure has usually been produced for no other reason than that the competition has one.

However, with a little research, it often transpires that what the client want is a mixture: part mail shot, part glossy corporate brochure and part product catalogue—a combination rarely found. Having said that, the budget is likely to be finite. There may not be enough money to meet all three marketing needs, so the first task is to plan the brochure, taking into account the most significant of these. The other requirements will have to be met in a different way. After all, introducing the company’s product range to new customers by mail is a different task from selling a new season’s collection to existing customers.
The second task is to get the content right. In 95 percent of cases, a company will hire a designer to oversee the layout, so the final product looks stylish, interesting and professional; but they don’t get a copywriter or someone with the right expertise to produce the text, or at least tidy it up – and this shows. A bigger failing is to produce a brochure that is not customer focused. Your brochure should cover areas of interest to the customer, concentrating on the benefits of buying from you.
Instead thousands of brochures start with a history lesson. Founded in 1987, we have been selling our products… I can assure you that customers are never going to say to themselves, they’ve been around for 20 years—I’ll buy from them. It’s what you’ve done in that time. The important point to get across at the beginning is that you have a good track record. Once this has been established, the rest of the brochure should aim to convince customers that your products are the best on the market.
不应该像数以千计的广告册从一堂历史课开始。在1987年建立,我们已经销售我们的产品… …我保证你的客户永远不会对自己说,他们建立大约20年。我得从他们那儿购买。在那个时候你在做什么。重点是开始讲清楚你所获得的良好记录。一旦这个被建立,广告册的其他部分应该可以致力于让客户相信你的产品是市场上最好的。
It is helpful with content to get inside the customer’s head. If your audience is young and trendy, be creative and colorful. As always, create a list of the benefits that potential customers would gain from doing business with you, for example, product quality, breadth of range, expertise of staff and so on. But remember that it is not enough just to state these, in order to persuade, they need to be spelt out. One possibility is to quote recommendations from existing customers. This also makes the brochure personal to you, rather than it simply being a set of suppliers’ photographs with your name on the front.
At the design stage, there are many production features that can distinguish your brochure from the run of the mill. You may think that things like cutouts or pop-ups will do this for you and thus make you stand out, or you may think they just look like designer whims that add cost. Go through all the options in detail. One of them might be that all-important magical ingredient.
Online exchanges?
Online exchanges have emerged as some of the internet’s best businesses—but also as some of the worst.
  So the internet hasn’t revolutionized the way most of us buy petrol, or watch movies. But there is one thing the internet does very well. It can bring together(19) widely dispersed buyers and sellers to create active, efficient markets where none(20) existed before. this facility has (21)led to the emergence of online exchanges; retail businesses with none of the usual traders’ risks—no merchandise, no storefronts- and with nothing to do but take a (22)percentage of each transaction that takes place on the site.
  This may sound straightforward, but some high-profile online exchanges have (23)turned out to be major embarrassments. One company, which tried to establish a central marketplace on the internet for auto parts, has invested, in (24)total a massive $250m and is (25)struggling to stay in business. Another businessman, who facilitated online trading in business equipment and supplies. (26)Gave upafter he had lost $280m.
  So what does a company need in order to be successful? You could call it good market architecture – a structure that (27)combinescombine with,结合。将正确的商业计划和顶级技术结合好的时机和买家和卖家的信任。)the right business plan and top technology with good timing and the(28) confidence(买家和卖家的信任。用confidence。)of both buyers and sellers.
  Mike Pham’s company, stream, is an excellent example of one business that met these (29)criteria. Bank in 1996, when Pham was looking for a loan, he didn’t like filling in the same form every time he  (30)applied to a new lender. That got him thinking. Why not (31)invite  prospective borrowers to complete a standard form and circulate that to a number of lenders, who would then make an offer to the borrower, in (32)competition in competition with each other相互竞争。)with each other?
Mike Pham公司的涌入是一个生意满足这些标准的很好的例子。银行在1996年,当Pham正寻找贷款,他他不喜欢每次申请新的借款人时都要填相同的表格。这使他思考为什么不邀请 填写一个标准的表格然后表格在债主那里流通。
  Pham’s company is doing well. Last year, stream (33)handle more than 1.5 million loans on behalf of 170 lenders.
Summary of annual progress

  I am pleased to report another year of progress by the company. This performance has been achieved in the toughest market conditions we have seen for many years34yet一般用在否定句的句尾,而此句是肯定句,yet多余.) It reflects the effort over the past five years that has gone into transforming 35transform into,词组搭配,表示把…..转变成。of多余。)our company onto a highly competitive world-class business. Since 2002, we have managed to36 we have managed to improve almost double our profits,这个句子有两个谓语动词,improvedouble,所以有一个多余。保留improve的话,almost的位置不对,所以应该去掉improve,直接用double表示加倍。almost double our profits, and this increase in profitability has37这个句子的意思是说利润的增长已经将我们公司置于全球玻璃行业顶尖的位置。强调的动作的完成,如果用has been就是强调动作的一直持续。所以been多余。placed us at the top of the global glass industry. We have managed to succeed 38succeed in固定搭配,this多余in difficult trading conditions for a number of reasons, the most important of which has been39最重要的原因是我们的能力一直领先于对手。定语从句的成分很齐全,不需要介词from our ability to stay ahead of our competitors. We have refused to 40又是两个动词同时使用,重复了,必须去掉一个。句子的意思是我们拒绝原地踏步,stand still是原地踏步。所以去掉allowstand still and have continued to bring out a number of new products, most if which are already on 41on sale,固定搭配,降价的意思。去掉thesale in our key markets. All this goes to confirm(42) 如果用that,后面应该接从句。而这句的后面不是从句。直接是comfirm as,表示确认公司作为行业领头羊的地位。the company’s position as the recognized industry leader in technical innovation. We realize that there is still much more to be done, but we believe that we know precisely what (44)what this is,我们明确的知道这些是什么,extra多余。 this is and we have already put into place organizational and technical changes to bring this about.

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