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[纽约时报] [2011.11.17]As U.S. Looks to Asia, It Sees China Everywhere









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发表于 2011-11-17 20:33 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 inundate 于 2011-11-17 20:36 编辑

As U.S. Looks to Asia, It Sees China Everywhere

United States uses aircraft carriers like the George Washington, which was in Hong Kong last week, to project power into Asian waters.

The last time the remote Australian city of Darwin played a significant role in American military planning was during the early days of World War II, when Gen. Douglas MacArthur used the port as the base for his campaign to reclaim the Pacific from the Japanese.
上一次澳大利亚的边远城市达尔文市在美国军事部署中起重要作用还要追溯到二战初期。当时Gen. Douglas MacArthur把这个港口当成作战基地,从日军手中夺回了太平洋地区的控制权。

So it is with considerable symbolism that President Obama will arrive in Australia on Wednesday to announce that the United States plans to use Darwin as a new center of operations in Asia as it seeks to reassert itself in the region and grapple with China’s rise.

The United States is taking some first steps — bold in rhetoric, still mostly modest in practice — to prove to its Asian allies that it intends to remain a crucial military and economic power in the region as the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan draw to a close. The new Australian base, coming after decades in which the Pentagon has been slowly but steadily reducing its troop presence in Asia, puts American planes and ships closer to trading corridors in the South China Sea, where some traditional American allies worry that China is trying to flex its military muscle.

Over the past year and a half, China has moved to assert territorial claims in the resource-rich but hotly contested waters near the Philippines and Vietnam. Many of the region’s smaller countries have asked Washington to re-engage in the region as a counterweight. 过去的一年半时间,中国开始行动,重申自己对这片靠近菲律宾和越南的海域的主权。这片海域资源丰富,但是其归属一直饱受争议。

“The U.S. needs to show the Chinese that they still have the power to overwhelm them, that they still can prevail if something really wrong happens,” said Huang Jing, a foreign affairs analyst and visiting professor at the National University of Singapore. “It’s a hedging policy.”

For the United States, the more muscular approach toward China has far-reaching implications, not just geopolitically but also economically. Caling for punitive measures against China for its currency and trade practices, Mr. Obama wants to appear strong in pressing Beijing. He made headway on an ambitious American plan to create a Pacific free trade zone, known as the Trans-Pacific Partnership, which, for now, would not include China. 对于美国来说,对中国采取更为强硬的手段会产生深远的影响,不光体现在地理上,更体现在经济上。国内的共和党人叫嚣着要对中国的货币和贸易进行制裁,奥巴马也想在对北京施压时表现得强硬一些。他野心勃勃地牵头组建了泛太平洋自由贸易区,即泛太平洋伙伴关系。目前,这一贸易区还不包括中国。

For the Pentagon, which faces sweeping budget cuts in Congress, shifting its focus toward Asia provides a strong argument against cutting back its naval presence in the Pacific — something that Defense Secretary Leon E. Panetta explicitly ruled out in a recent visit to the region. 国会在大幅削减预算,五角大楼把军事重心转向亚洲。此举也强力反驳了美国要削减其在太平洋地区的军事力量部署的说法---美国防部长Leon E. Panetta近期访问这一地区时也明确否认了这一点。

He and Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton have been prime proponents of the emphasis on Asia, with Mrs. Clinton shoring up old alliances, like those with Japan and South Korea, and cultivating new partners, like India and Indonesia. 他和国务卿—希拉里 克林顿一直都大力强调亚洲的重要性。希拉里女士在支持日本和韩国这种老牌盟友的同时,还不断发展新伙伴,像印度和印度尼西亚。

Inside the White House, that emphasis has been reinforced by the president’s national security adviser, Thomas E. Donilon, who has argued that the United States needs to “rebalance” its strategic emphasis, from the combat theaters in Iraq and Afghanistan toward Asia, where he contends that Washington has put too few resources in recent years, because of its preoccupation with the two wars.
白宫内部,奥巴马的国家安全顾问,Thomas E. Donilon,也强调要加强对亚洲地区的重视。他说,美国政府需要“重新平衡”其战略重点,把战略重点从伊拉克和阿富汗的战场转到该地区。他认为由于近几年美国深陷两场战争的泥沼,而在该地区投入了太少的资源。

China has become the largest trading partner with most of the countries in the region, undercutting American economic influence. It also is projecting military power more broadly than at any other time in modern history. Its true military budget is not made public, but experts say it has at least tripled over the past decade, allowing China to strengthen a relatively weak maritime presence by building more modern ships that can operate with greater range and arming its first aircraft carrier. It has shown off what appears to be new stealth aircraft and has bought advanced weapons from Russia.

United States military spending remains many times larger than analysts’ projections of China’s real military budget, but much of that has been sucked into the Afghan and Iraq conflicts. Further, the Obama administration has committed to cutting $400 billion over 10 years, and budget battles may result in further cuts. 美国军费开支是分析家预测的中国真正军费的很多倍,但是大部分都花在阿富汗和伊拉克战场上了。况且,奥巴马政府还承诺未来十年还要削减四万亿美元的军费,另外,战争预算也会导致预算削减。

The American situation widens the opening for a more assertive China.

Earlier last year, Chinese officials warned administration officials visiting Beijing that China would not tolerate any interference in the region. This year, Chinese ships or planes began taking more forceful action. Officials in the Philippines say that Chinese forces entered Philippine waters or airspace six times, including once when a Chinese frigate fired in the direction of a Philippine fishing boat. Vietnam has reported that Chinese ships cut the cables of two exploration ships carrying out seismic surveys.

On Tuesday, Philippine officials said China had recently protested their plans to explore waters less than 50 miles offshore from the Philippines, saying the waters fall under its territorial jurisdiction.

The United States began pushing back last year. A quadrennial Pentagon review identified several countries in the region as strategic partners. The United States also began to restore bilateral ties with Myanmar (formerly Burma) and to promote ties with Indonesia. 美国从去年开始被迫撤退。四年一度的五角大楼评审把该地区许多国家都当成战略伙伴。美国也开始和缅甸恢复双边关系,推进与印度尼西亚的关系。

Most dramatically, at a regional meeting in Hanoi in the summer of 2010, Mrs. Clinton emphatically argued that the United States had a vital interest in maintaining open and peaceful sea lanes in the South China Sea. She called for all disputes to be settled in international forums. China’s foreign minister stormed out.最戏剧性的是,2010年夏天,在河内的一次地区性会议中,克林顿夫人说道美国非常希望看到南中国海海域能保持开放和和平的航线。她呼吁一切争端都应在国际论坛中解决。中国外交部长愤然离席。

Administration officials have hewed to Mrs. Clinton’s line. “The South China Sea is a very important maritime common for the entire region” but also for the United States, Adm. Robert F. Willard, commander of the United States Pacific Command, told reporters traveling with Mr. Obama. The navigation lanes account for $5.3 trillion in bilateral annual trade, of which $1.2 trillion is American, he said. 美国政府官员同意希拉里夫人的立场。南中国海是一片非常重要的海域,应当为整个地区共享。美国太平洋舰队司令Adm. Robert F. Willard告诉随行的记者。他还说,这条航向上的年平均双边贸易额为5.3万亿美元,其中美国占1.2万亿。

Officials with the Obama administration say that its stronger role is not just because of American interests. Benjamin Rhodes, deputy national security adviser for strategic communications, said Mr. Obama was focusing on “responding to both the extraordinary interest we have in the region, but also a demand, an interest from the nations of the region for the United States to play a role.”
奥巴马政府的官员说美国如此强硬并不只是为了美国自己的利益。Benjamin Rhodes,负责战略联系的国家安全顾问副手说奥巴马总统强调“不仅要回应我们在该地区的巨大利益,又要回应该地区一些国家为了他们的利益而要求美国发挥作用的呼声”。

As a sign of this, Mr. Obama will join the leaders of 16 other nations for the sixth East Asia Summit meeting in Bali this week, the first time an American president has participated in the forum. 其中一个表现是,奥巴马总统将要和16个国家的领导人一起参加这周在巴厘岛举行的第六届亚洲峰会。这是美国总统第一次参加此次论坛。

The move is part of a broader strategy to re-embrace multilateralism. In recent years, Washington had come to view Asian regional groups as limiting its ability to act, while China embraced regional partnerships before its rise to regional superpower. Now, those roles appear to have switched. The United States has “turned the multilateral tables on China,” said Carlyle A. Thayer, a professor of international relations at the Australian Defense Force Academy. 奥巴马的这个举动是促进多边主义的更全面策略的一部分。近些年来,华盛顿认为亚洲地区一直以来限制着美国的拳脚,而中国在还没成为地区超级大国之前就和其他国家建立了区域合作伙伴关系。如今,角色似乎要发生转换了。美国已经“把多边桌转向了中国”。 Carlyle A. Thayer说。他是澳大利亚军事学院的国际关系教授。

But multilateralism has taken on an aggressive tinge, some analysts contend. “Beneath the surface they’re becoming an arena for subtle but, for the region, quite unnerving power plays and influence games between the U.S. and China,” said one analyst in Washington, Michael Green of the Center for Strategic and International Studies.但是多边主义已经带上了侵略性的色彩。许多分析人士争论到。表面之下,变成了耍狡猾的竞技场,但是对于该地区来说,则变成了一股让人非常不安的力量,控制和影响着中美之间的争斗。华盛顿战略和国际研究中心的一名分析人士迈克尔 格林说。

The more robust American position is proving difficult for many in China to accept. 如此强硬的美国使中国很多人无法接受。

Global Times, a subsidiary of the Communist Party’s flagship newspaper, People’s Daily, wrote Tuesday that the United States was trying to “form a gang” against China’s territorial claims on the South China Sea.
Many Chinese have grown angry over the American moves in the region, which are frequently reported and heavily criticized in the state-controlled press. 环球时报,共和党麾下的旗帜性报纸,人民日报,星期二报道美国试图在南中国海“组织一帮人”来对抗中国的领土主张。很多中国人对美国在该地区的行为都非常愤怒,这份国家控制的刊物经常报道并严重批判这种行为。

“The United States is trying to use the small nations as marionettes,” said Ge Fen, a Hangzhou-based television producer. “It’s trying to hide behind them to encircle China.” 美国想把一些小国家变成自己的小木偶。格丰,杭州电视台的制片人说。美国自己则隐藏在后面,步步包围中国。

But many more sober voices are also present.

“If the Chinese government is clever, it would do well to think about the reason why the U.S. is suddenly so popular in the region,” said Shi Yinhong, director of the Center on American Studies at the Renmin University in Beijing. “Is it because China has not been good enough when it comes to diplomacy with its neighboring countries?”

There are some signs that China may be adjusting its policies to answer such criticism. Over the past few months, it has showed a renewed willingness to strike more cooperative deals with its neighbors. Last week, it announced that it would join its southeastern neighbors in combating pirates on the lower Mekong River.

In July, it signed a “declaration of conduct” with Southeast Asian nations over the resolution of disputes in the South China Sea. 七月,中国与东南亚各国签署了“行为宣言”,着手解决南中国海地争端。

“We’re back in a cautiously optimistic position,” Professor Thayer said.



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发表于 2011-11-18 14:40 | 显示全部楼层
good article
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发表于 2012-9-14 11:32 | 显示全部楼层
Many of the region’s smaller countries have asked Washington to re-engage in the region as a counterweight.
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发表于 2012-9-14 16:20 | 显示全部楼层
He and Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton have been prime proponents of the emphasis on Asia, with Mrs. Clinton shoring up old alliances, like those with Japan and South Korea, and cultivating new partners, like India and Indonesia.
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