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[经济学人] [2011.11.19] America in the Asia-Pacific: We’re back 美国回防亚太地区

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发表于 2011-11-25 14:01 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
America in the Asia-Pacific
美国在亚太地区

We’re back
美国回來了

America reaches a pivot point in Asia
美国在亚洲找到了施力点


BORN in Hawaii, raised for some of his childhood in Indonesia, Barack Obama has since his election wanted to be known as America’s first “Pacific President”. Until recently, he has not done much to earn the title. That, Mr Obama declares, is now changing.
布拉克奥巴马生于夏威夷,童年时在印尼生活过一段时间。他自从当选以来一直想把自己打造成美国第一位“太平洋总统”。但他却未曾为赢得这个称号作过太大努力。直到最近,奥巴马宣称这种情况正发生改变。

Allies in Asia have complained about only intermittent American attention to their region. But in a speech to Australia’s parliament on November 17th Mr Obama announced that America is back. “Let there be no doubt: in the Asia-Pacific in the 21st century, the United States of America is all in.” It was, he said, a “deliberate and strategic decision”: America was “here to stay”.
美国在亚洲的盟友们抱怨它只是偶尔将注意力投向亚洲地区。但是奥巴马11月17日在澳大利亚议会发表的演讲中宣称美国回来了。“不要再有疑虑。在二十一世纪,美国将全心投入亚太地区。”他说这是一个“审慎而又至关重要的决定”:美国“绝不会离开”。

Senior administration officials back up the president. They talk of a new “pivot” in foreign policy towards Asia. They say that much of Mr Obama’s first term has been spent dealing with “inherited” issues, many of them linked to George Bush’s war on terror. But America is now (almost) out of Iraq, and there is a deadline to extricate itself from Afghanistan (see article). So Asia is coming more into focus. Of course, old problems, such as Iran, can rapidly force themselves back to the top of the president’s in-tray, and old European allies still command the most trust. But insiders hope that the Pacific will be the new strategic focus.
美国政府高级官员们都支持总统。他们谈到美国对亚洲政策的一个新支点。他们说奥巴马在第一个任期中花了大量时间处理“遗留”问题,其中许多都与布什的反恐战争相关。但是现在美国(几乎)撤出了伊拉克,而且他也必将从阿富汗抽身。因此,亚洲问题变得更加突出。当然,诸如伊朗这类老问题很快就能再次引起总统的关注。与此同时,欧洲那些旧日盟友仍是最值得信赖的。但是内部人士希望太平洋地区成为新的战略重点。

The new commitment has both an economic and a security aspect. The Asia-Pacific region is the world’s most economically vibrant, a point underscored by Europe’s travails. It may also prove to be the source of the greatest threats to security over the coming decades. In both respects, a resurgent China is at the heart of things.
这一新的承诺不仅包括经济方面,还涉及军事方面。亚太地区是当今世界经济最繁荣的地区,其重要性也因欧洲的困境显得尤为突出。在未来几十年中,它也可能成为最大的安全隐患的源头所在。在这两方面,崛起的中国都是关键所在

Hosting an Asia-Pacific trade summit in Hawaii a few days earlier, Mr Obama laid out the case for open, liberal trade in Asia. He invited China to share in this vision, while jabbing at it for perceived protectionism. In Canberra, Australia’s capital, the president dwelt on security. He and the Australian prime minister, Julia Gillard (pictured above), announced that America will put rotating units of marines in Darwin, in northern Australia, for training and exercises. About 250 will arrive next year, rising to 2,500.
几天前,奥巴马在夏威夷主持了亚太贸易峰会。他对亚洲开放自由的贸易作了展望。他邀请中国共同支持这一构想,同时又就所谓的保护主义对其进行攻击。在澳大利亚首都堪培拉,奥巴马重点关注安全问题。他和澳大利亚总理朱丽叶吉拉德宣布美方将在澳大利亚北部的达尔文轮流驻扎海军陆战部队,进行训练以及演习活动。明年约有250名海军陆战队员驻澳,未来驻澳美军兵力将达到2500人。

This is Crocodile Dundee territory, but the move is more about facing up to a distant dragon than to the local saltwater crocs. It is intended to drive home the administration’s new and insistent message: that withdrawal from Afghanistan and wide-ranging defence cutbacks do not mean America is retreating from Asia. America is around to ensure that China’s “peaceful rise” remains just that.
这里是“鳄鱼邓迪”的领地,但此举主要意在对付一条遥远的巨龙而非当地海洋中的鳄鱼。它想告诉国内民众政府新近提出却也是一贯坚持的理念。那就是,从阿富汗撤军以及大幅削减军费开支并不意味着美国正从亚洲撤离。美国是要确保中国的“和平崛起”名副其实。

Americans hope that the Australian deal will set an example of closer co-operation with other allies, especially in South-East Asia. There, islands in the South China Sea, beneath which oil and gas are thought to lie, are subject to several disputes involving China and South-East Asian neighbours. These see growing Chinese intimidation over the claims. As part of a concerted diplomatic push, on November 16th Hillary Clinton, the secretary of state, was on the deck of an American warship in Manila Bay in the Philippines, to strengthen the two countries’ military ties. Mrs Clinton talks of “updating” relations with five treaty-bound allies in the region: Australia, Japan, the Philippines, South Korea and Thailand. Mr Obama intends to raise the matter of territorial disputes in the South China Sea at the East Asia Summit in Bali at the weekend. China will see that as meddling.
美国人希望美国与澳大利亚达成的协议能为其他盟友,尤其是那些东南亚盟友加强与美国的合作树立榜样。在那里,海底蕴藏着石油与天然气的南中国海中的岛屿引发了中国与其东南亚邻国之间的争端。它们看到了日渐强大的中国咄咄逼人的领土主张。作为协同外交推力的一部分,11月16日,国务卿希拉里克林顿出现在菲律宾马尼拉湾的一艘美国军舰的甲板上,以示两国军事关系得到强化。克林顿夫人谈到“升级”与该地区五个缔约盟友的关系,即澳大利亚、日本、菲律宾、韩国和泰国。奥巴马想要在本周在巴厘岛召开的东亚峰会上提出南中国海的领土争端问题。中国会将此视为干预行为。

Mr Obama is adamant that none of this is designed to stop China’s “peaceful rise”, which he welcomes. Rather, the new commitment is to reassure the region. Shortly before Mr Obama’s visit, the deputy chief of the People’s Liberation Army happened to be in Australia for annual bilateral talks. His hosts briefed him about the Darwin plan, explaining it as continuation of a longstanding military partnership under the ANZUS Treaty signed in 1951. It was just “hedging” and “insurance”—anything but “containment”. China may beg to differ—though all a spokesman has yet said is that: “It may not be quite appropriate to intensify and expand military alliances and may not be in the interest of countries within the region.”
奥巴马坚称所有这一切都不是为了遏制中国的“和平崛起”。他欢迎中国和平崛起。恰恰相反,他们的新承诺是为了给该地区带来稳定。奥巴马出访前不久,中国人民解放军副司令正巧在与澳大利亚进行年度双边会谈。他的东道主国向他简要介绍了达尔文计划,并向其解释这是1951年签订的太平洋共同防卫组织条约下长期存在的军事伙伴关系的延续。这只是“防范”与“保障”而绝非“遏制”。中国可能会持异议—--尽管外交部发言人所说的也只是“强化和扩大军事同盟是不是适合时宜之举,是不是符合地区国家的利益,值得商榷。”

Not everybody among America’s Asia-Pacific allies is happy either. Hugh White, a former defence official now at the Australian National University, worries about “America’s muscular approach to China’s growing power”. He warns against the emergence of a “structurally adversarial relationship” between China and the United States and its regional friends. The hope is that “balancing” does not have to come to that.
美国在亚太地区的盟友也并不是人人都感到高兴。前任国防部官员,现在澳大利亚国立大学任教的休怀特担心“美国面对日益强大的中国采取的强硬政策”。他对中国与美国及其在该地区的盟友之间的“结构性对抗关系”浮出水面发出警告。希望“平衡”不必达到那种程度。


from the print edition | Asia

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