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英语常用写作句式归纳及运用

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发表于 2010-2-23 18:58 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

  组成句子的各个部分叫做句子的成分。句子的成分包括:主语(subject)、谓语(predicate)、表语(predicative)、宾语(object)(直接宾语、间接宾语)、宾语补足语(object complement)、主语补足语(subject complement)、定语(attribute)和状语(adverbial)。主语和谓语是句子的主体部分。表语、宾语和宾语补足语是谓语里的组成部分。其它成分如定语和状语是句子的次要部分。由以上这些成分构成了英语中各式各样的句子,但最基本的还是六种基本句型,其它句型都是由六种句型转化来的。

  一、 S + V (Subject + Verb. 主语+动词)

  这样的动词大多为不及物动词,可分为如下几种情况:

  1、不及物动词类:在英语中大多数动词即可作及物动词又可作不及物动词,纯不及物动词为数很少。常见的有:arrive, come, craw, die, dive, walk, go, run, come, fall, flow, happen, rise等。如:

  Thomas Edison’s name never dies. 托马斯?爱迪生的名字永远不会消失。

  She apologized to me again. 她再次向我表示道歉。

  2、有时主要起及物作用的动词也可用作不及物动词。常见的此类动词有:wash, sell, lock, wear等。如:

  My recent book sells very well. 我最近出的书销路很好。

  The door won’t lock. 门锁不上。

  3、个别不及物动词后可跟同源宾语。常见的此类动词有:sleep, dream, die, smile, live等。如:

  They are leading a happy and peaceful life now. 他们现在过着幸福安宁的生活。

  The soldier died a heroic death. 那个士兵光荣地牺牲了。

  4、有时主要起不及物作用的动词也可用作及物动词。如:

  They walked me into the hotel. 他们陪我走到旅馆。

  They are swimming the channel. 他们在游过海峡。

  二、S + V + P (Subject +Verb +Predicate 主语+动词+表语)

  这种句型结构主要指谓语动词为连系动词的情况。常见的连系动词可分为如下两类:

  1、表示状态的连系动词:be, look, seem, appear, smell, taste, sound, sit, stand,   lie, keep, remain, continue, stay等。如:

  The weather continued windy and rainy. 天气仍持续刮风刮风、下雨。

  Several players lay flat on the playground. 几个队员正平躺在操场上。

  That is all what I want to make clear. 这就是我想向大家澄清的全部。

  We should remain modest and prudent any time. 我们任何时候都应保持谦虚谨慎。

  2、表示转变或结果的连系动词:become, get, grow, turn, go, come, fall, prove等。如:

  The weather is becoming warmer. 天气正在变暖。(强调变化的持续性)

  They’ve just got married. 他们刚结婚。(强调变化的结果)

  The milk went sour. 这些牛奶变酸了。(强调不以人的意志转移的变化或恶化)

  All my hair turns grey. 我的头发全变白了。(强调不以人的意志转移的变化或恶化)

  Children grow wiser as they grow. 孩子们随着长大会变得更聪明。(表示人或自然的逐步变化)

  All his dreams have come true. 他所有的梦都变成了现实。(强调情况的改善)

  三、S + V + O (Subject + Verb +Object 主语+动词+宾语)

  只跟一个宾语的动词叫单宾语及物动词。常见的有:accept, admire, admit, affect, afford, announce, borrow, bury, celebrate, cover, defeat, defend, destroy, devote, discover, educate, enjoy, equip, explain, forget, guess, invent, love, post, raise, supply, use等。 应注意以下几点:

  1、一些常用作不及物动词有时也可作单宾语及物动词,但词义往往有差别。如:

  Oranges grow in Spain. 橘子长在西班牙。

  Farmers in our area grow lots of vegetables. 我们那个地方的农民种植很多蔬菜。

  Does this color run after being washed? 洗过之后颜色褪吗?

  My father runs a big shoe factory. 我父亲经营一家大鞋厂。

  2、有时宾语后必须加上一个与宾语有关的状语,否则句子就不完整。 如:

  You can put the dishes in the kitchen. 你可以把碟子放到橱房里。

  You place me in a difficult position. 你使我陷于困境。

  She laid the papers on my desk. 她把报纸放在了我的桌子上。

  3、可用作动词宾语的成分有:名词、代词、不定式、动词的-ing形式、从句等。如:

  She lost the chance to make her appearance on the stage. 她推动了登台演出的机会。(名词作宾语)

  I prefer to make web pages. 他更喜欢做网页。(不定式作宾语)

  She admitted having taken my suitcase by mistake. 她承认错拿了我的提包。(动词的-ing形式作宾语)

  I am wondering if they include me. 我不知道他们是否包括我。

  4、常含有“使人…”的表心理的动词有:astonish, delight, bore, confuse, excite, encourage, discourage, disappoint, disturb, entertain, frighten, interest, inspire, move, please, puzzle, satisfy, surprise, terrify, touch, tire, worry, amuse, amaze, shake, relax等。这些动词都可有两种形容词转化形式,即-ed形式和-ing形式。这些动词的主语既可以是人,也可以是物,只要能发出“使人…。”的行为即可。如:

  That our team has won the cup encouraged all of us present. 我们的队夺得出奖杯,真令每一个在场的人鼓舞。

  She was surprised at his rudeness that she burst into tears. 她对他的粗鲁感到吃惊,她哭了。

  These children are really disturbing; they are making lots of noises. 这些孩子真烦人。

  四、S + V + O1 +O2 (Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object 主语+动词+间接宾语+直接宾语)

  这一句型可根据动词所跟宾语的情况分为以下几种情况:

  1、可改为 “to 型”的动词:bring, extend, give, hand, offer, pass, pay, post, promise, read, return, sell, send, serve, show, spare, teach, telephone, tell, wish等。如:

  She promised me a nice gift on Christmas Day. (=She promised a nice gift to me on Christmas Day.) 她答应在圣诞节给我一件精美的礼物。

  2、可改为“for 型”的动词:build, buy, choose, draw, find, get, keep, make, order, paint, save等。如:

  I’ll find you a good chance as long as you won’t lose heart. (=I’ll find a good chance for you as long as you won’t lose heart.)只要你不失去信心,我会给找个好机会的。

  3、既可改为“to 型”又可改为“for 型”的动词:cause, fetch, sing等。如:

  Fetch me some wine. (Fetch some wine to/for me.) 给我拿些酒来。

  4、do 要根据情况换为“to 型”或“for 型”。如:

  The poisonous gases will do harm to us all. 这些有毒气体对我们有害。

  Will you do a favor for me, please? 请您


赏个脸,好吗?

  五、S + V + O + C (Subject + Verb +Object + Complement 主语+动词+宾语+宾语补足语)

  可作宾语补足语的词或短语有:名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、动词的-ing形式、动词的-ed形式等。分别总结如下:

  1、可跟形容词作宾补的动词有:believe, consider, cut, dye, drive, find, get, imagine, judge, keep, leave, make, paint, push, set, think等。如:

  They painted the door red. 他们把门漆成了红色。

  Keep the children quiet, please. 使孩子们保持安静。

  We all imagine him foolish. 我们都认为他傻。

  2、可用名词短语作宾补的动词有:call, name, consider, elect, find, keep, make, choose, wish 等。如:

  We all call the baby Sara. 我们都称这个婴儿莎拉。

  I find him a reliable man. 我发现他是可信赖的人。

  3、可带to 不定式结构作宾补的动词有:advise, allow, ask, beg, cause, encourage, expect, forbid, force, invite, get, order, oblige, permit, persuade, require, tell, teach, want, wish, warn等。如:

  We have invited all our friends to come. 我们已邀请我们所有的朋友都来。

  4、可用“to be + n./a.”作宾补的动词有:believe, consider, declare, feel, find, imagine, know, suppose, understand, prove, 等。此时to be 可省略。如:

  We found him (to be) a suitable man for this work. 我们发现他是干这活的合适的人选。

  5、可用不带to不定式作宾补的动词有:have, make, let, see, hear, notice, feel, observe, look at, listen to, watch等。强调宾语已做完的行为。在变为被动时,需要加to.如:

  She noticed a car crash into a big tree nearby. 他注意到一辆小汽车撞到了附近的大树上。

  A car was noticed to crash into a big tree nearby. (变为被动时加to)

  6、可用动词的-ing形式作宾补的动词有:

  see, hear, keep, catch, find, have, watch, smell, observe, look at, listen to等。强调宾语正在进行的行为。如:

  We last saw the boy playing nearby the river bank. 我们最近还看到那个小男孩在河边玩。

  7、可用动词的-ed形式作宾补的动词有:have, get, make, find, feel, see, hear, think, watch等。如:

  I saw the boy punished by his parents 我看见孩子被他父母惩罚了。

  8、可用as/for引出的介词短语作宾补的动词有:regard, consider, elect, treat, choose, recognize, use等。如:

  Taiwan is recognized as part of China. 台湾被公认为中国的一部分。

  9、可用副词作宾补的动词有: get, find, let, drive, shut, see, lead, show, invite, ask等。

  Please show Jack in. 请把杰克请进来。

  Mr. Rich drove me home safe. 瑞奇先生开车把我安全送到家。 (home为副词作me的宾语补足语)

  六、There + be/seem/happen, etc. + S (There + be/seem/happen, etc. +主语)

  常有于there be 结构中的动词有:be, seem, appear, happen, exist等。在这种句型中,谓语的单复数形式靠最贴近谓语的主语而定。如:

  There is a writing desk, a computer and piles of books in the room. 在屋子里有一张写字台,一台计算机和几堆书。

  There seemed to be no one who really understood me. 似乎没人能理解我。

  在There be句型中如果地点状语放于句首,there有些也可以省略。如:

  In front of our school (there) runs a clean and clear stream. 我们学校门前流淌着一条整洁、清澈的小溪。


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