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[2007.06.21]Fresh, but far from easy!

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发表于 2010-3-17 22:03 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Tesco

Fresh, but far from easy
新鲜,但不容易
Jun 21st 2007 | LONDON AND PHOENIX
From The Economist print edition

Armed with powerful retailing science, Britain's most successful supermarket is making an audacious bid to change the way America shops and eats
拥有先进的零售科学知识,英国最成功的超级市场正在豪赌一把,要改变美国人购物和饮食习惯



A FORLORN shop facing a dusty car park in one of the poorest parts of Phoenix, Arizona, is an inauspicious place to start a closely watched experiment in global retailing. Yet this is where Tesco, Britain's biggest supermarket group, will seek to establish its beachhead in the world's richest grocery market.
在亚利桑那州凤凰城最穷的一个地方,有一个尘土遍地的停车场,对面就是一个孤零零的商店。在这样一个全球零售业密切关注的国家把店开到这里肯定不是上上选。但英国最大的超市集团乐购就准备在这里建立起进入全球最富有的零售市场的桥头堡。

Later this year Tesco will open at least 21 stores in this arid city and plenty more—it will not say how many—in Las Vegas, San Diego and Los Angeles. It plans to pepper some of America's fastest-growing states with Fresh & Easy local groceries at a rate of three a week. Tesco has identified as many as 100 sites to begin its £250m a year ($500m) campaign. Rumour has it that a new warehouse just east of Los Angeles could alone supply some 400 stores.
今年晚些时候,乐购要在这座干旱贫瘠的城市里至少开21家店,在拉斯维加斯、圣地亚哥和洛杉矶还要开更多——具体多少没有说。它还准备以每周3个的频率在美国增长最快的某些州大量建设新易杂货店。乐购已经选好100个地址,准备发起每年250,000,000英镑(5亿美元)的运动。据谣传,洛杉矶东部的一个新仓库就能为400家商店供货。



By American retailing standards, Tesco is merely dipping a toe in the ocean. Even so, the consequences could be enormous. Tesco is a formidable retailer, having transformed itself from Britain's third-ranked supermarket by sales to the third-largest in the world, after America's Wal-Mart and France's Carrefour (see table). As it has done so, Tesco's share of the grocery market in Britain has climbed above 30% and, like Wal-Mart in America, it has begun to face criticism of its market power.
按照美国人的零售标准看,乐购只不过是刚把脚趾头伸进大海。尽管如此,影响巨大。乐购是一个强有力的零售商,从英国销售额排名第三一跃而成为全球第三,仅次于美国的沃尔玛和法国的家乐福(见图)。正因如此,乐购英国的杂货店股票上涨了30%,就象美国的沃尔玛,它开始面临市场权力过大的批评。

That is one reason why Tesco has to venture abroad. Another became clear this week, when the company reported how sales growth at its British stores slowed sharply in the first quarter, because of subdued consumer spending and increased competition. It shares fell by almost 5% on the news. But this was compensated for by international sales, which grew by 25%. Tesco is expanding in places like eastern Europe and China, where it tailors supermarkets to local conditions.
这是一个乐购必须走向海外的理由。公司报告因消费支出减少、竞争激烈,英国商店的销售额在第一季度急速下滑时,另一个原因就很明显了。新闻中说其股票下跌了几乎5%。但国际市场的销售额增加了25%,这样上述损失得以弥补。乐购正在东欧和中国这样的地方快速扩张,它在这些地方的超市都因地制宜,以适应当地条件。

In America it is trying something completely different. The operation is veiled in secrecy and furtiveness—Tesco is anxious not to tip its hand to competitors. When it tested the layout of a mock store in Santa Monica, it did so hidden from view in a warehouse. It stocked the shelves with food shipped in from America's East Coast and people were told it was just a film set.
在美国,它正在试验一种完全不同的东西。业务运营悄悄展开——乐购可不愿意给对手任何觉察的机会。当它在桑塔莫尼卡的一家模拟店中试验商品摆放时,是在一个人们很难发现的仓库里进行的。它货架上摆的食品是从美国东海岸运来的,而告诉人们的是这是电影拍摄现场。

The secrecy and the speed with which Tesco is expected to open its new stores points to the risks. If Tesco gambles small and wins, competitors will have time to copy it before it reaches critical mass. Placing a big bet is more dangerous, but it may be the best way to exploit a model that can be scaled up rapidly into thousands of stores across a market that rewards innovation like no other. “In retailing there aren't huge barriers to entry,” says Sir Terry Leahy, Tesco's chief executive. “That's one of the reasons you can't hang around and trial this thing. You have to launch and go.”
乐购准备开新店的诡秘和速度也会带来风险。如果乐购小赌一把赢了,竞争对手在它达到临界质量之前有足够时间进行仿制。而大赌又很危险,但是在一个最为崇尚创新的市场里,推广一种有可能成比例增加为成千上万个商店的模式,这可能是最好的方式。“在零售业,没有跨不过的门槛儿。”乐购执行总裁说。“这就是为什么你不能被动等待试验结果。你必须现在开始,不要犹豫。”

Some people have already decided to bet on Tesco's success. Last year Warren Buffett, one of America's most successful investors, revealed that his Berkshire Hathaway company had bought almost 3% of Tesco to become one of its largest shareholders. Mr Buffett admires careful planning and Tesco has done plenty of that.
有些人已经决定赌乐购的成功了。去年,美国最成功的投资商之一的巴菲特透露说他的Berkshire Hathaway公司已经购买了乐购将近3%的股份,从而成为其最大股东之一。巴菲特先生崇尚周密计划,而乐购也正好精于此道。

Into their cupboards
厨房有天机

The company has spent years gathering detailed information on every aspect of American life. Most retailers would think they had done their homework after the usual focus groups and surveys, but Tesco went much further. Researchers, including a small cohort of top executives, spent two weeks living with 60 American families. They poked around in their kitchen cupboards, watched them cook and followed them as they shopped. “They'd been studying the city for about a year before they came to us,” says Scott Motley, who works for the city of Phoenix, which with the Greater Phoenix Economic Council helped Tesco find places to put stores.
公司已经花了数年时间,搜集美国人生活方方面面的信息。大多数零售商认为,只要确定了重点团体和进行了调研,就算完事大吉了,但乐购走的更远。研究人员,包括由高级总裁组成的团队,花了2周时间同60个美国家庭生活在一起。他们在厨房的橱柜了仔细检查,观察美国人做饭,跟着美国人买东西。“在来我们这里以前,他们就花了大约一年时间研究这座城市。”为凤凰城工作的Scott Motley说。凤凰城连同大凤凰城经济委员会帮助乐购寻找开店的地址。

Even the stores seem part of a grander plan to keep gathering data. Take the patchwork of districts where Tesco plans to build some of the first. In central Phoenix it has chosen some of the poorest parts of town. Families living within a mile of one store have a median annual income of just $37,500 (against about $44,000 for America as a whole). In nearby Chandler, a middle-class area, it will be building its stores within reach of the city's richest inhabitants. There, median incomes run to about $93,000. This torrent of comparative data is central to the plan: Tesco is setting out to change the way Americans shop and eat.
连商店都看起来象是不断搜集信息的宏大计划的一部分。就拿乐购计划开首批商店的那些地区来说吧。在凤凰城中部,它选的都是城市里最穷的地方。在一个商店周围一英里范围内,家庭年平均收入仅为37,500美元(全美平均数为44,000美元)。而在临近的中产阶级地区的Chandler,它会在这座城市最富有的居民周围开店。在那里,年均收入达到了93,000美元。这些大量相对数据对于计划的实施非常重要:乐购要改变美国人购物、饮食习惯。

As in most retail markets, American stores are splitting into those that sell luxury goods and those that sell cheap ones. Both Whole Foods Market (luxury) and Wal-Mart (cheap) are among America's fastest-growing stores (although they have slowed down a bit recently). Retailers catering to the mid-market such as Kroger, Safeway and Albertson, three of America's biggest grocers, have been squeezed. They come under pressure to cut prices and margins when Wal-Mart moves into the area. And they are simultaneously pressed to invest in swanky wood-effect polished floors and sumptuous fresh-produce displays to stop their richer customers decamping for posher places.
想在大多数零售市场一样,美国的商店也分为销售奢侈品和销售廉价品的商店。健康食物市场(Whole Foods Market,奢侈品)和沃尔玛(廉价品)都是美国成长最快的商店(尽管最近速度有所减慢)。专门迎合中间市场口味的美国三大杂货店Kroger,Safeway和Albertson,都受到挤压。沃尔玛来了之后,它们面临着减价和收益减小的压力。它们被迫花钱铺上有木质效果的闪光的地板,设立豪华的新鲜产品展示台,防止有钱的顾客抛弃它们,投入豪华商店的怀抱。

Social shoppers
社会化的顾客

Tesco's offering in America will swim against this tide. It is aiming Fresh & Easy squarely at the middle market. The firm is hoping to repeat its success in attracting shoppers from all the main social groups in Britain, where social class until recently played at least as big a role in determining where people shopped as price and convenience did. Tesco will also be a pioneer in two other important ways: the size of its stores and their range of goods.
乐购在美国的做法是逆流而动。它将鲜易食品的对准中间市场。公司希望能够重复在英国的成功,即将顾客从所有主流社会团体中吸引过来,而在英国直到最近,社会阶级在决定人们去哪里购物方面的作用至少同价格和便捷性起的作用一样大。乐购在其他两方面也是先行者:商店的规模和商品的范围。

Most Fresh & Easy outlets will be relatively small, at about 10,000 square feet. Although about the same sales-floor size as the average Walgreen's, a chain of drugstores, most food retailers in America are either much bigger (six Fresh & Easy's would fit into a typical supermarket and ten into the average Wal-Mart), or much smaller (each is about three times the size of a 7-Eleven convenience store).
大多新易店都相对很小,大约10,000平方英尺。尽管同普通药品销售连锁机构Walgreen的销售面积差不多,美国大多数食品零售商要么巨大无比(6个新易店才能装满一个典型超市,10个才能装满一家普通的沃尔玛),要么小的可怜(每一个是711连锁店的3倍)。

Does size matter? In America's lightly regulated supermarket industry, most shoppers in all but the deepest backwoods live just a few minutes' drive from a large supermarket. The chances are the store has acres of parking, is open all night and has a good selection of whatever you might need: prescription medicines, dog food and piping-hot meals that have been cooked in the store.
大小重要吗?在美国这样监管宽松的超市行业,除了那些住在深山老林里的人,大多数顾客离大型超级市场只有几分钟的车程。常见的情况是商店有几公顷的停车场,整夜营业,想要什么有什么:处方药、狗食、商店里现做现卖的热乎乎的便餐。

Convenience, however, has many dimensions. Tesco is betting that there is demand for smaller stores closer to home with fewer products, making it easier to find things. People in too much of a rush to stop at a supermarket use tiny outlets such as 7-Eleven, of which there are close to 1,200 in California alone. But their range is limited. Retail Forward, an American consultancy, reckons nearly 40% of convenience sales come from cigarettes and tobacco, followed closely by beer and wine. As for nutrition, most offer little more than snacks and frozen pizza. “The typical American convenience-store consumer would be Homer Simpson,” says Ira Kalish, a retailing expert at Deloitte, an accounting firm. “No one has done convenience and quality food together.”
然而,便利也分多种。乐购赌的是,离家近的地方,对规模小、商品种类少的商店有需求,这样找起东西来容易。匆匆忙忙找超市的人会去象711那样的小店,仅在加州这种小店有1,200家。但它们的商品范围实在太小。美国一家咨询公司Retail Forward认为,便利店销售额中有几乎40%来自香烟和烟草,紧随其后的是啤酒和葡萄酒。至于营养品方面,大多数提供的不过就是零食和冷冻比萨。“典型的美国便利店消费者就是Homer Simpson那类人。”德勤零售业专家Ira Kalish说。“没有谁能在食品方面做到质量和便利的完美统一。”

As for products, Tesco's second innovation will be a range of preservative-free “ready meals” that are familiar to British consumers yet barely exist in large parts of America. “There's a big hole in the American market,” says Rajiv Lal, of Harvard Business School. “American supermarkets have not been innovative with prepared foods. You can't eat them more than three days in the week without eating the same stuff. But I suspect there are people in Britain who live off prepared meals from Marks & Spencer for three weeks on end.”
至于产品,乐购的第二个创意就是一系列没有保鲜剂的“成品饭”,这对英国消费者而言很常见,但在美国大部分地方几乎不存在。哈佛商学院的Rajiv Lal说:“美国市场有很大空间,美国超市对于成品食物没有什么创意。一周之内连吃三天这种食物就会重样。但我怀疑在英国肯定有这样仅靠Marks & Spencer成品食物连续生活三周的人。”

So why have British supermarkets led America's in easy meals? Generals like to say that amateurs study tactics and professionals study logistics. The same is true for retailing. In trying to compete with discount retailers such as Wal-Mart and Costco in a large country with good roads and cheap land that lends itself to big-box retailing, America's supermarkets have concentrated mainly on trying to take costs out of their supply chains. Labour is also cheaper in America. This has encouraged supermarkets to make two sorts of food: that which lasts long because it has been dried, canned, frozen or otherwise preserved, and that which is prepared from raw ingredients on site.
所以为什么英国超市在简易餐方面要引导美国?将军们常说外行学习战术,专业人士学习后勤。这对零售业也是如此。在同面积巨大的国家里的沃尔玛和Costco这样的折扣零售商竞争时,对方靠的是良好的道路、廉价的土地、大包装零售,美国超市主要关注的是从供应链中削减成本。劳动力在美国也很廉价。这就会鼓励超市制作两种食品:经过干化、罐装、冷冻或以其他方式保存持续时间长的食品,还有那些在原材料产地当场制作的食品。

Sandwiches to ready meals
从三明治到便餐

British supermarkets, in contrast, operate on a small, crowded island with restrictive planning laws. Whereas American stores are good at moving goods hundreds of miles and keeping them cheap, British retailers specialise in regular, frequent deliveries to heaving city-centre stores. Their supply chains are more sophisticated because they have to be. Stores can be so small that they have to switch from selling sandwiches at lunchtime to selling ready-made suppers in the afternoon.
与此形成鲜明对比的是,英国超市运营的地方是一座狭小拥挤、有限制性规划法律的岛屿。美国商店善于长途运输货物、低价销售,而英国零售商则善于将商品定时、频繁地向市中心拥挤的商店送货。它们的供应链更为复杂,因为它们必须这样。商店有时候很小,有时候中午卖三明治,到了下午就要快速转向销售简易晚餐。

Expensive labour and a shortage of space have encouraged British retailers to seek economies of scale from centralised food preparation. Rather than cooking on site, they make a wide range of meals that can last for a couple of days. These are not just staples such as macaroni cheese or lasagne. A typical London supermarket now stocks more than 50 different meals, including treats such as organic beef in wine, Keralan prawn curry and Asian noodles with vegetables.
昂贵的劳动力和狭小的空间,迫使英国零售商从集约化食品制造方面寻求规模经济效益。不是当场做,而是制造一系列可以持续几天的便餐。这些食品不仅仅是空心粉奶酪和烤宽面条。一个典型的伦敦超市现在通常储存有50种不同便餐,包括酒泡有机牛肉、克拉兰对虾咖哩以及带有蔬菜的亚洲面条。

Although some British supermarkets have done a better job at seizing the top of the market and others the bottom, none has surpassed Tesco at concocting a wide enough range of meals to suit every taste. Once, Tesco was stuck downmarket selling cheap fodder to working-class mums. Now its market share is almost as large as the combined share of its two closest rivals: Asda, which is owned by Wal-Mart, and J. Sainsbury.
尽管有些英国超市在占领高端市场或低端市场方面做得不错,但没有哪一家能像乐购那样制造出那么多可以满足不同口味的便餐。曾几何时,乐购只能在低端市场向上班的妈妈提供食品。现在,它的市场份额几乎同两大对手(Asda,沃尔玛拥有;J.Sainsbury)结合起来的总和。

Tesco's rise is at least partly thanks to its knack of quickly responding to trends. It was the first of Britain's big supermarkets to embrace convenience stores. And it has been a clever innovator with its supply chain. Take, for example, its introduction of trucks with internal partitions for frozen, chilled and ordinary goods. As simple as the idea sounds, Tesco could thus replace three deliveries with one, which made it possible to sell groceries profitably in small stores at supermarket prices.
乐购崛起的部分原因在于它能对市场潮流作出快速回应。它是英国第一家接受便利店的大型超市。在供应链方面它也是独具匠心。比如,引入内部分为冷冻、保鲜和普通商品隔间的卡车。尽管这种做法听起来简单,乐购因此可以用三个隔间代替一个,这样就可能在小商店里以超市的价格销售商品。

But Tesco's biggest innovation has been in the way it collects and uses customer data from its Clubcard, a loyalty programme. Many retailers use clubs to provide nothing more sophisticated than a discount to customers as they pay for their goods. Because rivals can easily match this, it reduces profit margins for all, says Deloitte's Mr Kalish.
但是乐购最大的创意是其用于搜集、使用顾客资料的会员卡,该卡是一种鼓励顾客忠诚度的计划。很多零售商的会员卡提供的不过就是顾客买东西的时候给一点折扣。德勤会计事务所的Kalish说,因为对手很容易做到这一点,这就降低了所有人的利润率。

The Tesco scheme mails discount vouchers to customers to encourage them to return. More importantly, it tracks every purchase to build one of the world's largest databases. This finds correlations between purchases, allowing Tesco to finely tune the product range in each store. Sales of pickled vegetables, for instance, may suggest Polish immigrants have moved in, prompting it to stock barszcz, meatballs and sauerkraut.
乐购的计划是向顾客邮寄折扣优惠券,鼓励他们回来。更重要的是,它会跟踪每一宗交易从而建立起全球最大的数据库之一。这样它就能发现交易之间的关系,从而对每一家店里的产品种类作出微调。比如,泡菜的销售可能说明波兰移民来了,这样它就可以储存barszcz、肉团和德国泡菜。

As a result, its stores in Asian areas of Britain offer Bollywood movies, curry spices and large sacks of rice and flour. Its stores in London's wealthiest parts, meanwhile, are stocked with ripe organic avocados, dainty packs of mange tout and steaks in fancy sauces.
结果就是,在英国的亚洲人聚居区的商店,它销售宝莱坞电影、咖哩调料和大袋的稻米和面粉。而在伦敦最富有的地方,它的商店销售熟透的有机鳄梨、小袋的mange tout和豪华浆汤泡牛排。

Tesco's database also provides insights into how customers see the company. When it revealed that families were not buying nappies or other baby supplies in their weekly shop, further research showed they were instead paying some 20% more to buy these items at nearby Boots pharmacies because they trusted the Boots brand when it came to looking after their babies. So Tesco began a baby club, offering advice on pregnancy and mothering. Within two years almost four of every ten expectant parents in Britain were members and the firm had seized almost a quarter of the mother and baby market, according to “Scoring Points”, a book on the Clubcard scheme.
乐购的数据库也能提供顾客如何看待公司的重要信息。当它发现某些家庭每周购物时不再在它们的店购买尿布或其他婴儿用品时,进一步研究表明顾客宁愿多花20%的钱去附近的Boots药店购买这些东西,这是因为当为孩子购买东西时,顾客更相信Boots药店。所以乐购开始组织婴儿俱乐部,提供怀孕和哺乳方面的建议。根据一本专门研究会员卡方案的名为《得分》的书的说法,在两年时间内,英国几乎每十个怀孕的母亲中就有四个成为俱乐部成员,公司已经占领了1/4的母婴市场。

Some quirky correlations also pop out of the data. Take the fact that families buying baby wipes also buy more beer, mainly because fathers of young children have less time to go to the pub. Tesco's response: mailing families with infants discount coupons for toys and beer.
数据也显示出一些奇怪的关联关系。看这样一个事实:购买婴儿尿布的家庭也会买更多啤酒,主要是因为年轻孩子的父亲没有时间去酒吧。乐购的回应:给有婴儿的家庭邮寄玩具和啤酒的优惠券。

Tesco's entry into America will be “a wake-up call to the rest of the supermarket industry, including us,” says David Lannon, president of the North Atlantic Region for Whole Foods Market. “Tesco is better than the major supermarkets in the US. They're cleverer and more efficiently run.”
健康食物市场北太平洋地区的总裁David Lannon说乐购进入美国“是对包括我们在内的超市行业的一个警讯。乐购比美国主要的超市都要好。它们更聪明、运营效率更高。”

That does not mean that the British model will be easy to transfer. At least one reason behind the success of Tesco's convenience stores is public transport. Many are near, or sometimes even inside, underground and railway stations, making it easy for commuters to pop into a store to grab a meal on their way home.
这并不说明英国模式容易照搬。至少乐购在便利店方面成功的理由之一是公共交通。很多便利店都靠近、有时甚至就在地下道或地铁车站里,这样乘客在回家的时候就很容易进入一个商店捎带一顿便餐。

Public transport also seems to shape consumer behaviour in two other ways. The first is that it encourages many small shopping trips, because purchases have to be carried. This in turn prompts consumers to favour perishable produce over frozen. The second is that it discourages the purchase of hot meals, either of the sort sold in many American supermarkets or fast-food outlets. Some, however, worry that this accident of British geography may have coloured Tesco's view of the ready meals it is proposing to sell through its Fresh & Easy stores in America.
公共交通似乎也在两个方面塑造了顾客的行为。第一就是它鼓励很多小型购物行为,因为购买的东西需要搬运。因此,这就会促使顾客购买易损品而不是冷冻品。第二就是它不鼓励购买热便餐,不管是在很多美国超市销售的那种还是在快餐店销售的那种。然而,有人担心英国的狭窄的国土面积也许影响了乐购对于通过美国的鲜易店销售便餐作出客观判断。

Feeding the kids
喂孩子

Will America's soccer moms be as willing to stop their cars to grab a ready meal on the way home as British mums are when they jump off the Tube? Tesco thinks they will. For a start, worries about obesity have spawned more interest in healthy eating in America. Demand for organic products is soaring—even Wal-Mart has introduced them. Whole Foods Market has revolutionised the way fresh produce is sold in America, partly by stealing some merchandising tactics from the clothing industry, such as the use of stage lighting and arranging fresh fruit and vegetables into complementary blocks of colour.
美国踢足球的妈妈愿意不愿意在回家的路上停车购买便餐,就像英国的妈妈跳下地铁就去买便餐一样?乐购认为她们会这样做。举个简单例子,人们对肥胖的担忧促生了美国很多健康饮食行业。对有机产品的需求更是飞速上涨——甚至沃尔玛也开始卖这些产品。健康食品市场(Whole Foods Market)对于生鲜食品在美国的销售方式产生过革命性影响,部分方法就是从制衣行业偷学了一些营销战术,如使用阶梯照明、将新鲜水果和蔬菜以颜色互相补充的方式放置。



Tesco is also reacting to environmentalism by presenting itself as both healthy and green. Its distribution centre will have the largest solar-panel roof in California, its stores will use low-energy LED lighting and its refrigerated trucks are designed to use less fuel.
乐购也试图通过展现健康、绿色的形象对环保主义做出回应。它在加州的分销中心有最大的屋顶太阳能电池板,它的商店使用低能耗灯光照明,其冷冻卡车设计独特,能耗较低。

Tesco is optimistic that shopping habits in America point its way. “When you look at Americans, they shop more frequently than British people and they have to shop around many more retailers, because no one retailer gives them what they want,” says Sir Terry. “The opportunity [for us] is that they will shop less often if they get more of what they want in one place.”
乐购很乐观,认为美国人的购物习惯正在沿自己指定的方向发展。Sir Terry说:“你研究美国人时,会发现他们购物的次数比英国人多,他们必须去很多零售店买东西,因为没有一个零售店能给他们提供需要的所有东西。我们的机会就是如果他们能在一个地方找到比自己需要的还要多的东西,就不让他们来这么多次。”

Yet for all Tesco's confidence, few retailers have successfully broken into a mature grocery market in a developed country. Sainsbury's, Marks & Spencer and Carrefour are among the many European retailers that have tried their luck in America and walked away in frustration. This is in part because food retailing, with a few exceptions, is still a local industry. Laxman Narasimhan and Tim McGuire, of McKinsey, a consulting firm, reckon that economies of scale in grocery retailing, such as distribution and advertising, are mostly local. “A 40% market share in one market is far more profitable than 10% shares in four markets,” says Mr McGuire.
但是,尽管乐购信心十足,几乎没有一个零售商能够在一个发达国家成功成长为成熟的杂货市场。Sainsbury's、Marks & Spencer和家乐福是很多欧洲零售商中在美国试水的几家,但都是无功而返。这部分原因是因为食品零售,除了某些特例,还是一个地方性工业。咨询公司麦肯锡的Laxman Narasimhan和Tim McGuire认为杂货零售业的规模经济效益,如分销和广告,几乎都是地方性的。“在一个市场占有40%的市场份额,比在四个市场占10%的市场份额要更有利可图。”McGuire先生这样评价。

And unlike the world of clothing, where a global consumer culture has created global brands such as Zara, Gap and H&M each with thousands of stores across the world, the internationalisation of grocery retailing is constrained by the way that food tastes and shopping habits differ vastly from country to country.
同制衣行业不一样,在那里全球消费文化已将创立了诸如Zara、Gap和H&M等全球品牌,在全球成千上万个商店销售,而杂货零售业的国际化进程却受到各国食品口味、购物习惯不同的限制。

Until recently few retailers had been good at changing their offering to take account of so many foreign quirks while still enjoying the benefits and efficiencies of being big. This is especially true of American retailers, which have grown fast at home by finding a format that works and then rapidly cloning it. But they too have often stumbled abroad: for instance, Wal-Mart had to give up in Germany. “Europeans are better at this because they benefit from their history of colonisation,” reckons Harvard's Mr Lal. “They have learned the lesson that you have to let the local people run the local business; that you can collect the taxes but you don't run the local administration.”
直到最近,没有一家零售商为适应这么多外国人的偏好而成功改变了所售商品的种类,同时又能享受规模经济带来的利益和效益。对美国零售商而言尤其如此,这些商家在本国成长迅速的秘诀就是找到一种有效模式并进行快速仿制。但是他们经常在国外遭受滑铁卢:比如沃尔玛不得不放弃德国。哈佛的Lal先生认为:“欧洲人在这方面很擅长,因为他们从殖民历史中学到很多。他们学到的教训就是你必须让本地人掌管业务;你可以收税但你不能直接插手本地事务管理。”

Even if Tesco has read the American market correctly, it will still face stiff competition from two sources. The first is from American supermarkets which will try to copy Tesco's ideas, despite having supply chains that are poorly configured for doing so. Some are already trying to get ahead: Ralphs, a chain owned by Kroger, recently opened a new store in Irvine, California, as part of a concept it calls Fresh Fare. The other source of competition is the thousands of fast-food outlets dotted across the areas it is trying to enter. As convenient as the new Fresh & Easy outlets will be, it is still hard to beat a drive-through window if you want a quick meal.
即使乐购正确解读了美国市场,它仍然面临两方面的严厉竞争。第一就是美国超市,它们肯定会照搬乐购的做法,尽管供应链设计得很差,很难做到这一点。有些已经开始赶超了:Ralphs,一家Kroger拥有的连锁店,最近在加州Irvine新开一家店,作为其称为Fresh Fare概念的一部分。另外竞争来源是乐购试图进入的地区周围分布着的成千上万家快餐店。尽管新开的鲜易店也很便利,但如果有人想吃快餐,还是无法同可以开车进入买快餐的窗口店竞争。

“Clearly it's high risk,” agrees Sir Terry. “But we've carefully balanced the risk. If it fails it's embarrassing. It might show up in my career [and] it'll cost an amount of money that's easily affordable by Tesco—call it £1 billion if you like. If it succeeds then it's transformational.”
Sir Terry同意:“显然这里风险很高。但我们已经认真权衡了这种风险。如果失败,当然面子上不好看。这对我的职业也有不利影响,并且会花掉很多乐购负担得起的金钱——如10亿英镑。但如果成功了,简直就是改天换地。”
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发表于 2010-3-17 22:03 | 显示全部楼层
辛苦辛苦。。。。拜读中。
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发表于 2010-3-17 22:04 | 显示全部楼层
只看完一部分。。。

Fresh & Easy local groceries,翻成便利店好不好呢?当然,楼主翻译没错,这个纯属我较真而已。。。:lol

If Tesco gambles small and wins, competitors will have time to copy it before it reaches critical mass. 如果乐购小赌一把赢了,竞争对手在它达到临界质量之前有足够时间进行仿制。
critical mass 表示 发展过程中的关键阶段

“In retailing there aren't huge barriers to entry,” “在零售业,没有跨不过的门槛儿。”
我觉得是指零售业进入门槛低,要求低,比较容易


Into their cupboards
会员卡里有天机

cupboard是橱柜,碗橱什么的,根据下文的意思,我觉得into their cupboards应该是说走进美国人的日常生活

剩下的部分我在慢慢看。。。:loveliness:
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发表于 2010-3-17 22:04 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢点评!
fresh and easy,翻成便利店不好,因为国内已有比较认可的说法:convenience store.
临界质量,是原意,引伸一下更好。
意思一样,表达的口译不一样。原文强调"barriers",而你的翻译强调的是容易。举个例子:我不想吃东西——我没胃口。没什么能勾起食欲的东西——还是什么都没吃。
cupboards谢谢,眼花看错了。
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我同意楼主的想法,convenience store 是便利店的意思,只是根据全文,我感觉fresh and easy和我们中国人所说的杂货店有点区别。。。也大概我想的太多了:L 。。。呵呵

“In retailing there aren't huge barriers to entry,” says Sir Terry Leahy, Tesco's chief executive. “That's one of the reasons you can't hang around and trial this thing. You have to launch and go.”
这一句我们理解的的确差不多,表达方式的差别,上次没看清楚你的翻译

说的不对的地方,请见谅  :loveliness:
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发表于 2010-3-17 22:05 | 显示全部楼层
学术讨论,不必太在意。感觉国内好像没有人往这方面向,比如,物美这么做,别的拿来就用。沃尔玛有,我也有。怎么就没有专业人士象tesco这些人认真分析呢?
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