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[笔译] 经验之谈:CATTI笔译实务复习攻略

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 楼主| 发表于 2019-11-3 17:24 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
经验
笔译复习经验之谈

先说几句题外话吧。

翻译永远没有一个标准答案,翻译考试跟平时练习也不同,只要意思忠实原文,表达顺畅就行。考生们不要觉得总是跟参考译文相差很远而产生自卑心理。毕竟,大家遇到的全部都是没有遇到过的文章!这样,会不会越战越勇哦?
在备考和练习阶段,在我们到达一定的水平之前,要争取练习的每一篇文章都要亲自动笔进行笔译,这样考试的时候心里就更有数啦。千万不能只看不写,不能只做视译不做笔译。要知道,学翻译做翻译,如果平时只是读读看看、只追求心理上的理解的,跟那些真正翻译出来并亲自写下来感觉会相去甚远。所选择的这些文章一定要有参考译文,除非你只是忙着要挣钱,否则最好还是别耽误时间翻译了吧。
考生可以用指定教材或者自己用得顺手的资料来复习。在具体的练习量上,根据自己的时间和精力安排即可。临近考试的前一个月,建议每隔一天做一次英汉互译练习,不需要长篇翻译,选取优质内容。每翻译完一篇,可以对照着答案整理出常见的表达。练习时严格控制长度和时间。这样在考试之前可以持续保持一种良好的备考状态。
另外,在日常练习中,建议多使用纸质词典,因为翻阅纸质词典所耗费的时间也要计算在考试时间之内。要尽可能熟悉词典,也要减少翻阅词典的次数。
攻略
英译汉和汉译英复习实用攻略
重点来了,敲黑板!
翻译能力用进废退,关键在于练习。
如果条件允许,可以从外刊中选取素材进行翻译练习。文章表达地道,用词精炼,难度等同或略高于考试难度,对英语能力是极大的提高。
1、英译汉时:
第一,比较你的翻译和参考译文在意思方面的差异,如存在差异,很有可能是你理解原文就有差距了。
第二,看参考译文的用词是不是有可借鉴的地方,学学中文。
第三,一定要注意:
(1)汉语所要表达的是英语原文的内容, 即句子或文章的意义, 而不是句子结构;
(2)在翻译过程中, 英语原文的内容要准确而完整地重新表达出来而不是将两种语言结构进行简单的转换。
2、汉译英时:
第一,看看你定的主干结构跟参考译文的有什么不同,为什么它这么定。
第二,它把一个一节一节类似于竹子似的汉语小碎句在整合到一个大树似的英文结构中,各个树枝的节点是怎么连接、整合起来的。
第三,我的用词为什么跟它的不一样,是不是它的用词更地道。
如何利用教材中的技巧部分?不少教材都列出了翻译技巧,有的挺实用的,有时间可以看看。不过这些只是起锦上添花的作用,真正英译汉、汉译英的最基本、最实用、最易学的技能,这最实在!
说再多没有用,最重要的实干,现在就开练吧,从以往的考题开始。下面的彩蛋你肯定喜欢。
顺便练习
笔译实务试题和参考译文

2018.05CATTI 三笔实务试题


英译汉

Improvedhuman well-beingis one of thegreatest triumphsof the modern era.The age of plenty has also led to an unexpected global health crisis:two billionpeople are either overweight or obese. Developed countries have been especiallysusceptible tounhealthy weight gain.However, developing countries are now facing a similar crisis.Obesity rates have peaked in high income countries but are acceleratingelsewhere.The combined findings of the World Health Organisation and the World Bank showed that in 2016 Asia was home to half the world’s overweight children. One quarter were in Africa. Residents of developing nation cities are increasingly susceptible to obesity. According to India’s National Institute of Nutrition,overa quarter of urban-dwelling men and nearly half of women are overweight.

The majority of the world’s future urbanisation is projected to occur in developing countries, particularly in Asia and Africa.This crisis will test the political resolve of governmentsthat have historically focused on ending hunger.These governments must understand that the factors making cities convenient and productive also make their residents prone to obesity. Urbanites enjoy a variety of food. Additionally, international fast food chains are flourishing in developing countries.The health risks of such dietsare compounded bythe sedentary lifestyles of urban dwellers.People’s leisure time is also beingoccupied by television, movies, and video games in the growing number of households.The alarming implication of these trendsis that developing countries may become sick before they get rich.That sickness may, in turn, cripple health systems.The yearly health care costs in Southeast Asia of obesity-related complications like diabetes and cardiovascular disease are already as high as US $10 billion. Such diseases are an added burden on countries already struggling to manage primary health care needs.Policies related to taxation, urban design, education and awareness and the promotion of localised food systems may help control obesity at a lower cost than eventual medical treatment for an ageing and increasingly overweight population.Some governments have already experimented with direct interventions to control obesity, such as taxation on unhealthy foods and drinks.The USpioneeredthe soda tax movement.Thailand, Brunei, and Singapore have adopted similar measures. South Africa is likely to introduce a sugar tax beginning in April 2018.The city of Berkeley in California recognizes that taxes alone are not enough to address obesity.Proceedsfrom the city’s sugar tax are used to support child nutrition and community health programmes.This underscores the importance of education and awareness.

There is also promise in initiatives. Urban design holds significant power to reshape lifestyle patterns and public health. Improving the attractiveness of public space can draw residents out of their cars and living rooms.A recentstudyof urban neighbourhoods in Shanghai and Hangzhou found that middle-income residents living in less walkable neighbourhoods had significantly higher Body Mass Indices than both richer and poorer residents who lived in walkable neighbourhoods in urban China.

Finally, healthier lifestyles begin in grocery store aisles. Governments should encourage tighter connections between agricultural production systems, urban grocers and food vendors.Suchinitiativescan also help urban residents better understand the mechanics of food sourcing.This raises awareness about the relationship between natural foods and healthy lifestyles. Combining controls on unhealthy foods with policies that incentivise healthy eating and active lifestyles constitute a promising response to rising obesity rates. Improving public health is an important policy developing countries should take from both an economic and social point of view. To quote the recent Global Nutrition Report, reducing obesity will boost global development.

参考译文:

民生改善是现代最伟大的成就之一。这样一个富足的年代也导致了难以预料的全球健康危机:有20亿人要么超重,要么肥胖。发达国家的人则更易长胖,引起健康问题。然而,发展中国家目前正面临着相似的危机。肥胖率在高收入国家已经达到顶峰,但在其他国家也正不断上升。世界卫生组织和世界银行的综合调查结果显示,2016年,亚洲的肥胖儿童占据世界总数的一半,非洲则占据了1/4。发展中国家的城市居民越来越易胖。根据印度国立营养研究所(India’s National Institute of Nutrition)的数据,城镇人口中有超过1/4的男性和将近1/2的女性超重。

这场危机将会考验各国政府的政治决心,他们曾把工作重心放在如何消除饥饿上。这些国家的政府必须明白,让城市便捷、生产力提高的因素同样会使其居民容易肥胖。都市人能享受各种各样的美食。此外,国际快餐连锁店在发展中国家迅速扩张。城市居民久坐不动的生活方式加剧了这种饮食习惯的健康风险。

在越来越多的家庭中,人们的休闲时光也被电视、电影和电子游戏所占据。这些趋势会引起令人担忧的后果,即发展中国家的人们可能未生财先生病。肥胖导致的疾病继而会破坏健康体系。每年,在东南亚国家,用于治疗糖尿病,心血管疾病等与肥胖相关的并发症所花费的医疗保健费用已高达100亿美元。

对于已经在奋力满足初级卫生保健需求的国家来说,这些疾病无疑增加了负担。相比于持续增长的超重人口最终所花费的治疗费用,制定与税收、城市设计、教育和健康意识以及促进本地化食品体系相关的政策可能有助于以更低的成本控制肥胖。一些政府已经尝试通过直接干预来控制肥胖,例如对非健康食品和饮品进行征税。美国率先开始实行苏打税。泰国、文莱和新加坡也采取了类似的措施。南非可能会在2018年4月开始征收糖税。加利福利亚的伯克利市政府则认识到,仅仅依靠税收还不足以解决肥胖问题。该市的糖类税收所得均用于支持儿童营养和社区健康计划。这凸显了教育和健康意识的重要性。

这些倡议中也包含着承诺。城市设计是重塑生活方式和公共健康的重要力量。提升公共空间的美观度可以吸引居民离开自己的汽车和客厅。最近,上海和杭州城市社区的研究发现,在中国城市中,相比于居住在步行街区较少的社区居民,那些居住在步行街区的中等收入居民要更为健康。

最后,追求更健康的生活方式,从杂货店的货架通道入手。政府应鼓励农业生产系统、城市杂货商和食品供应商之间更加紧密联系。这些倡议还可以帮助城市居民更好地了解食物采购机制。这提高了人们对天然食品和健康生活方式之间关系的认识。将控制不健康食品与鼓励健康饮食和积极生活方式的政策相结合,是对肥胖率上升的积极回应。改善公共卫生,是发展中国家应该从经济和社会角度考虑的一项重要政策。在此引用最新的《全球营养报告》,减少肥胖将推动全球发展。


汉译英

煤炭是地球上储量最为丰富的能源,但反对使用煤炭的声浪日益高涨。煤炭巨大的碳排放量引起气候变化,从而引起公众的担忧。煤炭与其他能源相比,竞争力已经有所下降了。以美国为例,页岩气的出现造成部分出煤量因价格过高而被挤出市场。美国去年煤炭需求接近9.2亿吨。由于天然气价格下跌,今年美国煤炭需求将减少6000万到8000万吨。

数据显示,煤炭满足了全球大约30%的能源需求,提供40%以上的电力。在人口第一和第二大国中国和印度,煤炭所满足的能源需求比例甚至达到70%左右。中国的煤炭消费量在去年已经下滑,煤炭进口下降了11%,这是十年来的首次下降。中国经济增速已经放缓,同时也做出极大努力削减煤炭使用以减少煤炭污染。由于燃煤发电厂没有满负荷运行,再加上煤炭供应充足,造成国际煤炭价格压低。煤出口价格从去年的峰值下跌了约60%。

参考译文:
Coal is the most abundant energy in the world, but opponents to its use are growing louder. Huge carbon emissions have caused climate change, leading to public concerns. Compared with other types of energy, coal has become less competitive. In the US, for example, the emergence of shale gas has resulted in the fact that some coal output has been priced out of the market. US coal demand last year was close to 920 million tons. However, falls in the price of natural gas will cut US coal demand by 60 to 80 million tons this year.  

Figures show that coal meets about 30 percent of global energy needs and generates more than 40 percent of the world’s electricity. In the world’s most populous countries, China and India, the percentage of energy needs met by coal even reaches to about 70 percent. Coal consumption in China fell last year, with imports down 11 percent, the first fall in a decade. With its economic growth having slowed down, China is making strenuous efforts to cut coal use to reduce pollution. As coal-fired electricity plants are not running at their full capacity, combined with adequate coal supply, the global coal prices have been pushed down. Export prices of coal have fallen about 60 percent from last year’speak.



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