大家论坛

 找回密码
 注册
查看: 841|回复: 9

[经济学人] [2010.03.18]electric supercars电动超级车

[复制链接]

199

主题

8039

帖子

3万

金币

大家网博士生

Rank: 21Rank: 21Rank: 21

积分
19998
发表于 2010-4-29 00:49 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Electric supercars
电动超级车


Highly charged motoring
电力十足的驾车

Fast cars will go even faster with electric power
高速车有了电能辅助将跑的更快。

Mar 18th 2010 | From The Economist print edition




SOME people think sports cars are threatened with extinction by tightening restrictions on carbon-dioxide emissions and unacceptable fuel-guzzling. They fear the roar of the V8 will be replaced by the whirr of the electric armature—and that motoring will never be the same again. Well, it ought to be quieter, that is true. But the Jeremy Clarksons and J. Bonington Jagworths of this world need not fear that it will be slower.

一些人认为越发严格的碳排放限制和自身难以接受的高油耗将会对跑车造成很大威胁,甚至被淘汰。他们担心V8引擎的轰鸣声会被电枢的呼呼声所代替——开车方式也将完全不同。
好吧,声音是可能轻些,这是事实。但Jeremy Clarksons和J. Bonington Jagworths认为世人没必要认为它会变慢。

The secret (whisper it, lest puritanical greens find out) is that electric motors are better than combustion engines. They have more oomph, and no need of a gearbox to deliver it. No self-respecting supercar should be without them. And, at this month’s Geneva motor show, at least three supercar-makers showed that they had got the message. Lotus, Porsche and Ferrari each unveiled vehicles driven partly by electric motors. These cars have petrol engines, too, to back the electric ones up; technically, therefore, they are hybrids. But that should change in the future as batteries’ storage capacity goes up, and charging time comes down. Most importantly they show that, sometimes, doing the right thing can be fun.

秘密在于(小声点,以免极端环保主义者发现这一点)电动引擎比燃动引擎优越。更有动力,还不需要变速箱传动。没有一个自持身份的超级跑车会没有这东西。这个月的日内瓦车展上,至少有三家超级跑车厂商展示出他们已经了解这一点。莲花、保时捷、法拉利都发布了部分由电能驱动的车型。这些车当然也有汽油引擎,以备电动引擎不时之需。从技术上讲,他们是混合动力车。但在未来随着电池蓄电能力上升,充电时间缩短,这些都会发生改变。最重要的是,他们展示出,有时候,做正确的事也很有趣。

The launch of the Tesla roadster two years ago demonstrated that electric cars do not have to be slouches. The Californian company’s small plug-in sports car can accelerate from zero to 96kph in 3.7 seconds. It has a range of 393km (244 miles) once its lithium-ion battery pack is fully charged (which, admittedly, takes several hours). The Tesla’s rapid acceleration comes from the ability of an electric motor to deliver its maximum amount of torque at whatever speed the motor is turning.

2年前Tesla双座敞篷车的面世证明电动车并不总是没精打采。这款加州公司研发出的小型充电汽车0到96公里加速时间只有3.7秒。锂电池充满电(不可否认,这需要几个小时)以后巡行里程393公里(244英里)。Tesla的强劲加速力来自一款无论在何种转速下都能释放最大扭矩的电动引擎。

Torque is the scientific term for turning force, and it is measured in newton-metres (Nm). The Tesla’s motor has a torque of 400Nm all the way to 5,100 revolutions per minute. An internal-combustion engine, by contrast, produces maximum torque only at certain speeds. The 2.0 litre engine of a Lotus Elise S2, for instance, peaks at 213Nm at 4,400rpm. And, whereas a gearbox is needed to use the torque from a combustion engine efficiently, it is unnecessary with the heft of an electric motor.

扭矩是衡量转向力的科学参数,单位是牛-米。Tesla的引擎在每分钟转速不高于5100的情形下可以一直保持400Nm。相对的,一个燃动引擎,只能在特定转速下才能输出最大扭矩。例如2.0升的莲花Elise S2,4400转速下最大扭矩213Nm。此外需要一个变速箱使燃动引擎更有效率,而这对于电动引擎就是不必要的累赘。

The motorist’s liberation front
驾驶者的解放前线


Of three hybrid systems seen at Geneva, Lotus’s is the most electrified. The British company’s experimental Evora 414E uses two electric motors, each providing 400Nm of torque. They power the rear wheels independently. In addition, the car is fitted with a small “range-extending” combustion engine. This does not drive the wheels, but tops up the batteries if they are in danger of going flat. Like the Tesla (which is based on a small Lotus), the Evora does not need a gearbox. Nevertheless, it has been fitted with a “virtual” one. This is to provide the driver with the familiar sensations he would expect from a petrol engine. So, even though no actual gears are being changed, using the paddle-shift modulates the torque to provide the jolts of acceleration and deceleration that would happen if there were a real gearbox.

日内瓦车展三款混合电动车中,莲花是最电动化的。该英国公司的试验车型Evora 414E配备2个电动引擎,每一个都可以提供400Nm的扭矩。两个引擎独立驱动后轮。此外,这款车还装有小型“距离延展”燃动引擎。这不会驱动轮子,但会在电池面临耗尽危险时为其充电。和Tesla(这车基于一款莲花小型车)一样,Evora也不需要变速箱。然而,却有一个“虚拟”的。用来为驾驶者提供使用汽油引擎时熟悉的体验。因此,尽管事实上没有变动齿轮,使用可调节滑杆调节扭矩以提供加速和减速时的震动,就像有个真实的变速箱似的。

It is not all made up. The paddles also give the driver control of regenerative braking, which translates the kinetic energy that is dissipated when the car slows down into electricity that tops up the batteries. This slowing effect is used by Lotus to simulate engine braking, in which resistance inside an internal-combustion engine decelerates the car. “Shifting” down into a corner will thus slow the car in the same way it would a car with a gearbox. “We believe it will be completely intuitive to drivers,” says Colin Peachey, one of Lotus’s senior engineers.

这并不只是装饰。滑杆还能使驾驶者控制可再生的刹车,把车辆减速时损耗的动能转换成电能为电池充电。莲花使用减速效果来模拟引擎制动,内燃机的内部有一个阻挡物为车辆减速。向下调到某角落就会使车慢下来,就像有变速箱的车做的那样。“我们认为这完全是驾驶者的直觉”莲花一位高级工程师Colin peachey说。

Porsche has adopted a different approach with its 918 Spyder. Its petrol engine, a V8, is connected to the rear wheels via a seven-speed automated gearbox. It also, though, has an electric motor that provides additional power to the rear wheels (through the same gearbox) and a second electric motor connected directly to the front axle.

保时捷在其918 Spyder上采用了不同的方式。其V8汽油引擎通过一个7速自动变速箱与后轮相连。它有一个电动引擎为后轮提供额外的动力(通过同一个变速箱)而另一个电动引擎则直接连接前轴。

Four different running modes are available. “E-Drive” powers the vehicle using only the electric motors for a modest 25km—enough for commuting. “Hybrid” mode uses electric motors and combustion engine separately or in combination, according to the driving conditions. “Sport hybrid” emphasises performance. “Race Hybrid” really lets rip. It includes a “push-to-pass” button that boosts acceleration by piling on the electrical power.

有四种驱动形式可供选择。“电驱动”只用电动马达驱动,可以行使大约25km——足够上下班之用。“混合驱动”电动马达和汽油引擎根据不同的情况分开或者同时工作。“运动混合”强调性能表现。“竞速混合”就奔放到底。它有一个“按压开启”按钮,通过堆叠电能增加加速度。

Porsche expects the 918 Spyder to emit 70 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometre travelled, which is about the same as the output of a tiny city car. Yet it will be able to accelerate to 100kph in under 3.2 seconds (a second faster than a Porsche GT3 with a combustion engine) and will have a top speed of more than 320kph. Moreover, if driven carefully, it will consume just 3 litres of petrol per 100km (or 78 miles per American gallon).

保时捷希望918 Spyder行驶中没公里排放二氧化碳量为70克,仅相当于一个小型城市车的排放量。但它仍可以在3.2秒内加速到100kph(仅次于装备然动引擎的保时捷G3),最高时速320kph。此外,如果驾驶的当,每100公里油耗仅为3升(1美制加仑可以跑78英里)

Porsche and Lotus both use a trick called “torque vectoring” to improve handling. When wheels are being driven directly by electric motors, different levels of torque can be applied to improve stability on corners. At low speeds, torque vectoring can be used on the Porsche to assist with steering by powering the rear wheels at different rates to create a turning action. This can make parking easier.

保时捷和莲花都用了一种叫做“扭矩矢量”的小把戏提升操控性。当车轮由电动引擎直接驱动时,会用不同层级的扭矩改善转角处的稳定性。低速条件下,保时捷上的扭矩矢量可以通过给后轮提升动力来协助转向系统拐弯。这可以使停车更简便。

Ferrari’s experimental 599 has the car’s V12 engine coupled to a seven-speed automated gearbox which also contains an electric motor. The same design could be used in both Ferrari’s front and mid-engined cars. With the batteries below the floor pan, the car’s centre of gravity has been lowered, which improves handling. Performance is enhanced, says the firm, and carbon-dioxide emissions are cut by 35%. Luca di Montezemolo, Ferrari’s boss, expects hybrid systems to be available on all its models within five years.

法拉利在其试验车型599上为V12引擎配备了含有电动马达的7速自动变速箱。这种设计可以用于引擎前置或中置的法拉利车型上。由于电池位于车身底盘下面,车子重心降低,从而操控性。该公司还说其节能表现大大提升,碳排放量降低了35%。法拉利老板蒙特泽莫罗Montezemolo希望5年内可以推出其混合动力车型。

Many of these features will make their way into all-electric cars too. Some firms are already looking at all-electric high-performance models. The Audi e-tron, for instance, is an experimental sports coupe that relies on a battery alone to drive four electric motors—one for each wheel. By using torque vectoring, it will be capable of an even more responsive version of the brand’s famous “quattro” four-wheel drive system.

许多这样的特点都将汽车朝着全电动车方向前进。一些公司已经着眼于全电动高性能车型。例如奥迪的E-tron就是一款实验性质的双座敞篷跑车,靠一个电池驱动四个电动引擎——每个引擎驱动一个轮子。借助扭矩矢量,它可以成为比该品牌著名的“quattro”四轮驱动更灵敏。

The quiet future that electric cars could usher in, though, may have to be postponed. Lotus is adding simulated engine noises to the Evora. In part this is to meet expected pedestrian-safety legislation, because hybrid and electric cars can be hard to hear at low speeds. But it also provides drivers with an audible feedback similar to that produced by a combustion engine, which makes driving easier—at least, that’s their story and they’re sticking to it. And the noise will be selectable. A gentle, futuristic spaceship-type hum on the way to work, perhaps? And the rumble of a mighty V12 on the way home.

在不久的将来引入电动车,也许,可能会被推延。莲花正为Evora增设模拟的引擎噪声。部分是由于行人安全法规的要求,因为混合动力和电动车在低速行驶时声音微不可闻。但这也是为驾驶者提供一个与使用燃动引擎相似的听力作用,这可以驾驶更简便——至少,这是他们的说法并且他们坚持如此。噪音将具有选择性。上班路上用柔和的,未来主义太空船类型的曲调,也许,下班时候就用强劲的V12引擎的轰鸣。
回复

使用道具 举报

240

主题

8300

帖子

3万

金币

大家网博士后

Rank: 22Rank: 22Rank: 22Rank: 22

积分
20628
发表于 2010-4-29 01:14 | 显示全部楼层
楼楼主,帖子的标题调整一下吧,应该是 [2010.03.18] Electric supercars 电动超级车
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

262

主题

8256

帖子

3万

金币

大家网博士后

Rank: 22Rank: 22Rank: 22Rank: 22

积分
20495
发表于 2010-4-29 01:39 | 显示全部楼层
好的,我一直以为下面那个是标题的说。
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

187

主题

8385

帖子

3万

金币

大家网博士后

Rank: 22Rank: 22Rank: 22Rank: 22

积分
20618
发表于 2010-4-29 02:04 | 显示全部楼层
楼主翻的很棒,赞一个.很准确到位.
有几点小问题,提出供参考:
1.This slowing effect is used by Lotus to simulate engine braking, in which resistance inside an internal-combustion engine decelerates the car.
resistance 这里翻成阻挡物不准确吧? "内燃机内部的减速机构"可不可以.毕竟这只是个模拟的功能,类似于传动系里的差速器.

2.It includes a “push-to-pass” button that boosts acceleration by piling on the electrical power.
  Push to pass不仅仅是个按压开关吧,这种机构辅助开关通常瞬间加速. "推进按钮"妥当点吧.其实"触式加力按钮"比较贴切.
这里电能的叠加好象不太妥当吧.

竞速模式通过一个"触式加力"按钮.可以通过集蓄的电能辅助,实现瞬间的加速.
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

176

主题

8099

帖子

3万

金币

大家网博士后

Rank: 22Rank: 22Rank: 22Rank: 22

积分
20022
发表于 2010-4-29 02:29 | 显示全部楼层
1. Fast cars will go even faster with electric power
高速车有了电能辅助将跑的更快。

可譯: 跑車用了電能會跑得更快

2. SOME people think sports cars are threatened with extinction by tightening restrictions on carbon-dioxide emissions and unacceptable fuel-guzzling.
一些人认为越发严格的碳排放限制和自身难以接受的高油耗将会对跑车造成很大威胁,甚至被淘汰

可譯: 一些人认为越发严格的碳排放限制和难以接受的高油耗将会对跑车造成很大威胁,甚至將其淘汰

3. But the Jeremy Clarksons and J. Bonington Jagworths of this world need not fear that it will be slower.
声音是可能轻些,这是事实。但Jeremy Clarksons和J. Bonington Jagworths认为世人没必要认为它会变慢

評: the Jeremy Clarksons and J. Bonington Jagworths of this world 是像他們這樣的人
可譯: 像Jeremy Clarksons 和 J. Bonington Jagworths 這樣的人没必要擔心電動車会比較慢
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

203

主题

8162

帖子

3万

金币

大家网博士后

Rank: 22Rank: 22Rank: 22Rank: 22

积分
20208
发表于 2010-4-29 02:54 | 显示全部楼层
[:cheeky:]
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

270

主题

8230

帖子

3万

金币

大家网博士后

Rank: 22Rank: 22Rank: 22Rank: 22

积分
20551
发表于 2010-4-29 03:19 | 显示全部楼层
[:cheeky:]
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

198

主题

8321

帖子

3万

金币

大家网博士后

Rank: 22Rank: 22Rank: 22Rank: 22

积分
20618
发表于 2010-4-29 03:44 | 显示全部楼层
[:cheeky:]
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

238

主题

8235

帖子

3万

金币

大家网博士后

Rank: 22Rank: 22Rank: 22Rank: 22

积分
20485
发表于 2010-4-29 04:09 | 显示全部楼层
Fast cars will go even faster with electric power
在电力驱动下高速汽车会跑的更快
Well, it ought to be quieter, that is true.
话说回来,它应该更安静点,这点倒是真的

个人理解啊~~~~
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

1万

主题

2万

帖子

10万

金币

大家网幼儿园

Rank: 1

积分
0
发表于 2010-4-29 04:34 | 显示全部楼层
从汉语表达习惯上,题目改为“超级电动车”比较好;看了下文章内容,感觉似乎应该改为“超级电动跑车”
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册

本版积分规则

诚聘英才|移动端|Archiver|版权声明|大家论坛 ( 京ICP备06071611号,京公网安备11010802018363号 )

GMT+8, 2022-1-26 14:05 , Processed in 0.368902 second(s), 22 queries .

Powered by Discuz!

© Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表