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[经济学人] [2008.7.12]Jesse Helms

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发表于 2010-4-29 01:12 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
People OBITUARY


逝者Jesse Helms






Jesse Helms, a conservative American, died on July 4th, aged 86


Jesse Helms,一个保守的美国人,于74辞世,享年86岁。


SUPPORTERS put the best face they could on him. A real Southern gentleman, from owlish glasses to black wingtip shoes, who would hold the door for any woman and thank you, with a nod and a smile, for smoking North Carolinian tobacco in his office.
A kind-hearted soul, who had adopted a boy with cerebral palsy,
who bought ice-cream for his congressional pages and was delightful at dinner, both to Democrats and Republicans.


他的支持者对于他从不吝啬最好的溢美之词。他是一个真正的南方绅士,从让人感觉严肃的眼镜到黑色的系鞋带的皮鞋。他会为所有的女士开门,他会向你点头和微笑以示谢意,他还会在自己的办公室里抽North Carolinian的烟草。他是一个心肠非常好的人,收养了一个大脑麻痹瘫痪的儿童,他会给在议会里工作的服务生带来冰激凌。无论是对民主党和共和党人,他在就餐的时候总是很高兴。


A true patriot, who saw America as God’s country and the world’s hope, who defended its values against the liberal media and the “muck” of decadent artists, and who had no truck with arms control treaties, test-ban treaties, missile reduction, or any crimp on sovereignty. An anti-communist to make all others fade, convinced that the Soviets were irredeemable cheats and liars, determined never to deal with Fidel Castro’s Cuba but to make sure the tyrant left it “in a vertical position or a horizontal position”, preferably the latter. A doughty lover of liberty, who believed government, should be small, laws unobtrusive, and men left alone to take responsibility for their own lives and their own decisions.


他是一个真正的先驱者,他把美国视为天堂和世界的希望,并且当他的价值观受到自由媒体和那些堕落的艺术家的垃圾冲击时,他强烈捍卫自己的价值观。当论及武器消减协定、核试验禁止协定、消减导弹、和任何的任何侵犯国家主权的事情时,他是绝对赞成的。他是一个彻头彻尾的反共产主义者,在这方面其他人都自惭形秽。他坚信所谓的苏联的社会主义是不可能兑现的欺骗和谎言,他决心从来不和 菲德尔-卡斯特罗领导下的古巴打交道,并且他确信这个暴君把古巴搞成了一个处在“垂直的或者是水平的位置上”,而后者更可取。他是一个勇敢的热爱自由的人,他相信政府的规模应该小、法律应该不显得突兀,政府应该任由人们自己去承担自己生活的责任并且自己作出决定。


“Compromise, hell!” he wrote in 1959. “If freedom is right and tyranny wrong, why should those who believe in freedom treat it as if it were a roll of bologna to be bartered a slice at a time?” He would have said the same, with his unwavering gimlet glare, 50 years later. Yet there was no discounting the other side. Mr. Helms was a racist, who thought the Civil Rights Act of 1964 “the single most dangerous piece of legislation” ever to come before Congress; who blocked what he could of the Voting Rights Act; who made fast friends with apartheid South Africa, and turned his back on Nelson Mandela; who let his re-election campaign in 1990 send out cards telling blacks that they risked jail for voting “improperly”. When the rest of America had moved on, Mr. Helms still carried in his head the mores of old Monroe, North Carolina, where he was born: the hot, quiet streets among the cotton fields, flowers on the steps of the Confederate monument, Negroes stepping into the gutter to let whites pass. No mingling occurred there. God’s dictates were observed. Good conduct was rewarded, uppityness punished, with a horsewhipping if need be. In Monroe Mr. Helms learnt to play the race card, that fear of touching and that sense of suppressed disorder. “Do you want Negroes working beside you?” asked the first political campaign he worked for, in 1950. “You needed that job…but they had to give it to a minority,” ran one of the last, in 1990, as a white hand crumpled a rejection slip.


1959年,他写到“妥协?见鬼去吧!”接着写到“如果自由是正确的,专制是错误的,那么为什么那些信仰自由的人把它看成是一卷粗香肠并且不时的讨价还价般的切一片?”他应该在50年后说出相同的话,伴随着他的坚定不移的如鹰眼般的目光。然而在另一方面是没有折扣的。Helms先生是一个激进主义者,他认为1964年的人权法案是在国会之前的“所有法律中最危险的法律”,他尽自己的所能去阻止选举法案。他和那个令人毫不关心的南非迅速成为了朋友,然后又阻止尼尔森-曼德拉。他在其1990年他的重新选举的运动中向黑人发放纸片告诫他们如果投票思考不恰当的话就有去蹲大狱的风险。当剩下的美国人已经行动起来的时候Helms先生仍然在自己的家乡North CarolinaOld Monroe想着更多的事情。在这里炎热的、安静的接到从棉花地里穿过,鲜花落在战争联盟纪念碑上,那帮黑鬼必须走到路旁的水沟里来给白人让路。在这里我们看不到民族的融合,在这里上帝的命令被遵循,在这里好的行为将受到奖赏。在这里高傲的人将受到惩罚,如果有必要将受到鞭刑。在Monroe Helms学会了打种族牌,这就是对于感动的恐惧和受压制而导致的混乱的感觉。在他1950年的第一次政治运动中他问道“你愿意黑鬼在你旁边工作吗?”,在1990年最后一次政治运动中,他问道“你需要工作,但是这工作是为少数人准备的。”


His bigotry also spread further. As a radio and TV commentator in the 1960s he railed against the welfare-scrounging poor, socialists and draft-resisters, as well as blacks. His five terms in the Senate, from 1973 to 2003, saw him set firm against government payments for the disabled, free school lunches and anything that encouraged bums in their “bum-ism”. “Senator No” was powered by contempt, as well as small-government frugality.


他的顽固也同样广为流传。作为一个广播和电视评论员,他反对利用福利来救济穷人,反对社会主义者和不同意草案的人,当然还有黑人。在他的从1973年至2003年五届的参议院人气内,人们发现他强烈的反对政府为残疾人付费,反对免费的学校午餐等等一切以保护弱者的名义所进行的鼓励弱者的行为。人们用鄙视的目光看待他以及他的小型节俭政府的政策。


By the 1990s homosexuals had become his prime targets: “disgusting people”, who had brought AIDS upon themselves by their revolting behaviour. “Nothing positive”, he said, “happened to Sodom and Gomorrah.” Beyond those feckless, flouncing crowds, in the wider world he surveyed as chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he blocked aid from going down “foreign rat holes” and resisted for years paying money that was owed to the United Nations. Old age brought a mild repositioning, but no repentance, and no yielding on the subject of race. It was hard-wired into him.


20世纪九十年代的时候同性恋问题成为了他工作所关心的焦点,他认为那是一群“恶心的人”,认为他们那种恶心的行为有助于艾滋病的传播,他还说到“没有任何好处,只有在索多玛和额摩拉城才会发生这样的事情。”在关心这些挣扎的、不负责任的群体之外,在更加宽阔的领域内,他作为参议院对外关系委员会的主席,他阻止继续为那些“外国的鼠洞”继续提供援助3并且数年以来来反对向那些欠美国钱的国家付款。随着年纪的增大,他在立场上变得很温和但是从来没有反悔,在种族问题上也从来没有让步。他一向是如此的强硬作风。


Towards the culture wars


对于文化战争


The truth was that American conservatism owed much to Mr. Helms. He demonstrated, in 12 years of peak-time broadcasts for the Tobacco Radio Network and WRAL-TV, the power of talk radio to move minds, well before Rush Limbaugh caught on to it. He developed, in his North Carolina Congressional Club and later through Richard Viguerie (a direct-mail maestro), an independent donor base that raised millions for his campaigns and became a template for the Christian right. The efforts of the NCCC in 1976 delivered North Carolina to Ronald Reagan at a point where his primary campaign was collapsing, and stiffened his spine for subsequent runs for office. Mr. Helms, therefore, helped to give America its greatest conservative president. He also prefigured the Republican renaissance in the South and across the country, changing parties in 1970 and luring working-class Democrats in overalls and pickup trucks to vote for him, the first Republican senator from North Carolina for more than a hundred years.


事实是美国的保守派欠Helms太多的东西。在Tobacco Radio WRAL-TV12年广播的巅峰时光内,他证明了广播对于改变人们认识的作用,这远远的早于拉什-拉姆巴斯发现这一点的时间。他首先在北卡议会俱乐部,稍晚一点通过理查德-维古瑞建议了一个独立的捐赠基金会,这个基金会为他的运动筹集了数百万美元的资金。在罗纳德-里根首站竞选失败的时候,NCCC1976年的努力为他在北卡州的选举中获得了胜利。这次胜利也加强了罗纳德-里根在以后竞选中的信心。因此,Helms先生帮助美国获得了其历史上最保守的一个总统。他也预言到了共和党在南方以及整个国家的复兴,于1970年改投了政党并且迷惑可代表工人阶级的民主党,让他们在选举中为他投票,并且产生了北卡100多年来第一个民主党的参议员。


For that assistance there was a price to pay. Mr. Helms was a polariser: so much so, that he never won more than 55% of the vote in North Carolina. With such a man let loose in the Senate, there was no hope of bipartisanship. Legislation and appointments alike were blocked on conservative principle. The wounds of the Johnson and Nixon years opened again and became the culture wars: one half of the country against the other, unable to understand, sympathise or compromise. In Jesse Helms, Southern charm personified, American conservatism embraced its own dark side.


对于援助总是要付出代价的。Helms是一个立场非常鲜明的人,以至于他从来没有在北卡洲的选举中获得55%的支持率。有这个不拘一格的人在参议院里,从来就没有两党主义生存的土壤。法律和指派都一样为保守主义的人所排斥的东西。约翰逊和尼克松总统多年来所积攒的厂商又开始显现出来并且演变成了一场文化战争。国家的一半人反对另一半人,并且互相之间不能理解,没有同情与妥协。对于象征着南方优雅风度的Jesse Helms来说,美国的保守派选择了他们自己的阴暗的一边。
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发表于 2010-4-29 01:42 | 显示全部楼层
个人感觉这文章的难度远远高于我的水平,但是既然开始翻译了,中途放弃又有点可惜,所以我就硬着头皮翻下来了,肯定有许多地方值得讨论,还请各位多多指教。
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发表于 2010-4-29 02:12 | 显示全部楼层
也晾了好几天了。都没人搭理一下,可叹。高手都不屑于来拍砖,我这个菜鸟试着拍两下。译文问题多多,主要是文章的难度太大,任谁来上,多半都会脱层皮。很多地方,我也没看明白:L 请教一下。

1、逝者版是写人的,里面又有很多牛人。译文能否将人名都翻出来,别一味图方便。

2、可能因为原文段落过长,被译文拆成两部分。那我就按译文的格式来。段1,A real Southern gentleman, from owlish glasses to black wingtip shoes, who would hold the door for any woman and thank you, with a nod and a smile, for smoking North Carolinian tobacco in his office. 译文“他还会在自己的办公室里抽North Carolinian的烟草。”北卡罗来纳州好像是美国的烟草大州。这句的翻译似乎看不出与A real Southern gentleman有什么关系。句子结构是不是who would hold the door for 女人……for 那些在他办公室里吸烟的人?这里究竟指别人吸,还是指他自己。不是很明白。

3、段2,A true patriot, who saw America as God’s country and the world’s hope, who defended its values against the liberal media and the “muck” of decadent artists, and who had no truck with arms control treaties, test-ban treaties, missile reduction, or any crimp on sovereignty.
一位货真价实的爱国者。上帝之邦国。译文“当论及武器消减协定、核试验禁止协定、消减导弹、和任何的任何侵犯国家主权的事情时,他总是没有一句废话。”他究竟是赞成,还是反对呢?没看出来。have no truck with,拒不接受……   crimp ,这个单词如何翻?
An anti-communist to make all others fade, convinced that the Soviets were irredeemable cheats and liars, determined never to deal with Fidel Castro’s Cuba but to make sure the tyrant left it “in a vertical position or a horizontal position”, preferably the latter。
使旁人相形见绌的反共大师。the Soviets ,苏联人。不可救药的……
Fidel Castro,菲德尔·卡斯特罗。left it “in a vertical position or a horizontal position”, preferably the latter.引号内的话,没去查,直译出来,似乎大家都不懂。难啊。
末句, take responsibility for  lives+decisions

4、段3,“Compromise, hell!” he wrote in 1959.   ”妥协?!见鬼去吧!”查一下此人的背景材料,大致可以知道他的政治立场罢。这跟他后半句的那个著名的火腿肠比喻才统一起来。 Yet there was no discounting the other side.译文“然而在另一方面是没有折扣的。”从这句的处理来看,译者应该是一头雾水。 然而,在别的方面,此公照样也不含糊。(原文从起先的赞赏,开始转为批判) racist,种族主义者。民权法案。
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发表于 2010-4-29 03:12 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢,果然是问题很多,暂时不翻逝者的文章了,太难,水平有限。:L
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发表于 2010-4-29 03:42 | 显示全部楼层
看来这次又挫伤别人的积极性了。罪过罪过,抱歉抱歉,掩面而下~~~~~
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发表于 2010-4-29 04:12 | 显示全部楼层
真的是水平有限,回家修炼了。
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发表于 2010-4-29 04:42 | 显示全部楼层
借宝地再啰嗦一句。想了想,讣告的难度可能被我夸大了。难是难,但还没难上天。lz的译文很多地方不是水平的问题,MS态度的问题。此话算我没说,赶紧溜之大吉:funk:
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