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[经济学人] [2007.3.29] The Royal Shakespeare Company: All the world and its stage

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发表于 2010-4-29 03:47 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
The Royal Shakespeare Company
皇家莎士比亚公司


All the world and its stage
世界及其舞台


Mar 29th 2007 | STRATFORD-UPON-AVON
From The Economist print edition


Few people like the Royal Shakespeare Theatre. But in a major redevelopment, it will be remodelled as pictured below, rather than knocked down
没有什么人喜欢皇家莎士比亚剧院。但在一次重大的重新开发中,它将被重塑成下图所示模样,而不会被完全拆掉。



(Royal Shakespeare Company皇家莎士比亚公司提供图片)

AN IMPOSING theatre has stood on the banks of the River Avon in William Shakespeare's home town since 1879. The first theatre burned down in 1926; a second, now known as the Royal Shakespeare Theatre (RST), opened in 1932. From the start, the building was scorned by most of the directors and many of the actors who worked there. “Sink it and start again,” said Sir Tyrone Guthrie, a director, in 1950.
1879年以来,威廉•莎士比亚故乡的埃文河畔就一直屹立着一座壮丽恢宏的剧院。1926年第一座剧院焚于大火,1932年第二座剧院(现在称为皇家莎士比亚剧院)开张了。从一开始,这个建筑就被曾在此工作过的多数导演和许多演员嗤之以鼻。在1950年,导演蒂龙•古斯雷就说:“毁掉重来吧!”

They will soon have their way. After a final performance of a gripping production of “Coriolanus” on March 31st, the RST will close until 2010, and the theatre will be extensively remodelled before it reopens. However, instead of being a cause for celebration in the profession and among audiences, the closure is being accompanied by real regret. This imperfect theatre has been so influential in the lives of three generations of English theatre people that it has become the stuff of legend. Consequently, the fabric of the old building will be retained, wrapped around a newly designed theatre. “You wouldn't want to get rid of all your ghosts,” says Simon Harper, the deputy project director.
他们很快就会如愿以偿。在3月31日激动人心的戏剧《科里奥兰纳斯》的最后演出之后,皇家莎士比亚剧院将一直关闭到2010年,在重新开张之前剧院将会大幅改建。然而,这种关闭带来的是深深的遗憾,戏剧业和观众也无法欢欣鼓舞。剧院虽不完美,但它对三代英国戏剧人的生涯影响巨大,已经成为一个传奇。因此,旧建筑的结构将被保留,新设计的剧院将其包围于中。该工程副主任西蒙•哈珀说:“没人愿意抹去所有幻像。”

The old theatre was designed by a young woman called Elisabeth Scott in 1920s Modernist style. It was built of red brick and had fine art-deco decoration. The foyer box-office, for instance, is a gorgeous piece of early 20th-century design in stainless steel, green marble, bronze and silver bronze with ornamental grilles. The whole was rated Grade 2* (denoting a particularly important building of more than special interest) by English Heritage, the agency that lists historic buildings.
旧剧院是由一个名叫伊丽莎白•斯科特的年轻女人按照上世纪20年代的现代主义风格设计的。主要材料是红砖,并配以精美的艺术装修。例如:门厅的票房以不锈钢、绿大理石、青铜和银铜合金制成,配有装饰格子,是20世纪早期设计风格的绚烂结晶。登记历史建筑的机构“英国遗产”把整个建筑评为2*级(指拥有非常特殊影响的重要建筑)。

But the auditorium is like a cinema, with the circle and the balcony isolated from the stage. Although successive artistic directors insisted on internal alterations to create a closer relationship between the actors and their audience, the company has long regarded the internal space as a relic. For modern audiences, which have grown up with television, the relationship with the actors is not intimate enough.
但礼堂像是电影院,楼厅包厢与舞台分隔开来。虽然一代一代的艺术导演们坚持内部的改变来创造演员和观众之间一种更紧密的联系,公司却长期把内部空间作为遗迹看待。对伴随电视成长起来的现代观众来说,与演员的关系还不够密切。

Even so, audiences today remember a remarkable range of productions in the old theatre. “It's curious that such a dreadful theatre holds such memories of great events,” says Sir Peter Hall, whose own begin with Peter Brook's “Love's Labour's Lost” in 1946. Sir Peter became artistic director in 1960, and he immediately had a forestage installed, like an Elizabethan apron stage. His regime is probably best remembered for its version of Shakespeare's history plays. Most directors since then have repeated this testing exercise in producing Shakespeare. Michael Boyd, the present artistic director, is in the middle of his version of the histories right now.
即使这样,现在的观众仍然记得旧剧院上演的一系列著名的作品。彼得•霍尔爵士说:“很奇怪,如此糟糕的舞台却带给人们如此伟大作品的回忆。”他本人对剧院的记忆从1946年彼得布鲁克的《爱情急转弯》开始。彼得爵士在1960年成为艺术导演后立即安装了舞台前部,就像伊丽莎白一世时代突出于幕前的舞台。他的模式因对莎士比亚历史剧的精彩演绎而闻名天下。从那时起多数导演在制作莎士比亚戏剧作品时重复了这种尝试性运用。现在的艺术导演迈克尔•博伊德正在排演他自己的历史剧。

During the closure of the RST, performances will take place in a new theatre up the road, called the Courtyard. This basic rusted steel box (it rises to 15.2 metres or 50 feet), which was built in 11 months and opened in the summer of 2006, is an ingenious way of managing the transition between the old and the new. Studies by a major accounting firm suggest that the presence of the Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC) benefits the local economy by £57m ($112m) a year. Complete closure for three years would have dire consequences for the smart shops in the town centre.
在皇家莎士比亚剧院关闭期间,演出将在路前方叫做“庭院”的新剧院进行。这个基本生锈的钢质剧场(15.2米或50英尺高)花了11个月建成,在2006年夏季开张,是新旧过渡的巧妙方式。一家大的会计师事务所的研究表明:皇家莎士比亚剧院的存在每年给当地经济带来五千七百万英镑(合一亿一千两百万美元)的收入。为期三年的完全关闭将给镇中心的雅致商店带来严重后果。

So Arts Council England released £6m from the £50m it is contributing to the whole project to build the Courtyard. (The Stratford theatre's commercial significance explains the contribution of £20m by Advantage West Midland, a regional development agency, to the £100m development budget. Only £15m has still to be found, and the RSC has not yet begun to tap its loyal supporters.)
因此英国艺术理事会从整个计划的五千万英镑中拨出六百万英镑用于建造“庭院”。(斯特拉特福德剧院的商业意义正是地区发展机构西米德兰经济发展署捐献两千万英镑的原因。开发预算是一亿英镑,目前还有一千五百万英镑的缺口,皇家莎士比亚公司还没有向它的忠实支持者伸手呢!)

The Courtyard is a model for the new auditorium. Because it is so different from the old, the directors and actors wanted to work out how best to perform in it. The audience of 1,050 sits in three shallow tiers of seats on three sides of a stage that juts out over ten metres from the proscenium. This is known as a thrust stage, and it is controversial—actors often have their backs to the audience, making audibility a problem. But, because of the intimacy it allows between audience and actors, the RSC is wedded to it. Sir Peter, for example, prefers the less prominent apron stage in his new theatre in Kingston upon Thames, but a thrust stage has been used successfully in the smaller Swan theatre, part of the old theatre building. (It will be mothballed during the redevelopment.)
“庭院”是新礼堂的模型。因为它完全不同于旧剧院,导演和演员们希望解决如何才能在里面演得最好的问题。舞台前部延伸十米的高台三面有三个浅层的座位,可容纳1050个观众。这就是所谓的伸出式舞台,它很有争议——演员经常背对观众,有时听不清楚。但因为它使得观众和演员更加密切,皇家莎士比亚公司坚持这样做。例如,彼得爵士更喜欢他在泰晤士河上金斯敦新剧院不太突出的幕前舞台,但伸出式舞台在属于旧剧院建筑一部分、小一点的天鹅剧院就运用得很成功。(重新开发期间天鹅剧院将被封存。)

Since the Swan has been where directors and actors have preferred to work and the audience has been enthusiastic, Mr Boyd decided to recreate it on a larger scale in the new theatre. “Our inspiration is the crowded, secular complexity of the Elizabethan courtyard,” he says.
由于导演和演员们都喜欢在天鹅剧院工作、观众们也对它情有独衷,博伊德先生决定在新剧院重建一个更大的。他说:“我们的灵感来自伊丽莎白一世时代庭院拥挤、世俗的结合。”

The final planning application for the project will be considered next month. Apparently, the only controversial item is a 35-metre tower with lifts and a bridge to the theatre to take the audience to the circle and balcony. On top of the tower is an observation platform that some councillors say is obtrusive. But there is no argument about plans for Scott's distinguished red-brick monument to the Bard. “Knocking it down would have been quicker and cheaper,” says Vikki Heywood, the RSC's executive director. But it was not an option. Thank goodness.
该工程的最终规划申请将在下月进行审核。显然,唯一有争议的项目便是一座带有电梯以及通向剧院桥梁(该桥用来把观众带到楼厅包厢)、高达35米的塔。在塔的顶部是一个瞭望台,一些议员认为过于招摇。但对于有关斯科特著名的莎士比亚红砖纪念碑的规划却无任何争议。皇家莎士比亚公司的常务董事维基•海伍德说:“全部推倒也许会更快、更省钱,”但这不是一个选择。谢天谢地!
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发表于 2010-4-29 04:17 | 显示全部楼层
图片好漂亮!
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发表于 2010-4-29 04:47 | 显示全部楼层
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