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2010年11月驻美国大使张业遂在美国内布拉斯加大学的演讲双语

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发表于 2011-1-10 09:33 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
2010年11月10日,张业遂大使应邀在美国内布拉斯加大学林肯分校“汤普森世界问题论坛”上就“全球化时代的中国与中美关系”发表演讲。


全球化时代的中国与中美关系
——驻美国大使张业遂在美国内布拉斯加大学的演讲
2010年11月10日


China and China-US Relations in the Era of Globalization
-- Speech by Ambassador Zhang Yesui at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln
November 10, 2010



尊敬的珀尔曼校长,
尊敬的哈格尔前参议员,
女士们,先生们:

Chancellor Harvey Perlman,
Senator Chuck Hagel,
Ladies and Gentlemen,

首先,我感谢珀尔曼校长的盛情邀请和热情介绍。我很荣幸同哈格尔前参议员一起出席今天的“汤普森世界问题论坛”。

Let me start by thanking you, Chancellor Perlman, for your kind invitation and warm introduction. It is a great privilege to join Senator Hagel in attending tonight's E.N. Thompson Forum on World Issues.

这是我第一次访问内布拉斯加州。我知道,内布拉斯加大学林肯分校非同一般,是内布拉斯加州最大的公立大学和教育学术文化中心。你们的 “Cornhuskers”橄榄球队也非同一般,曾五次荣获全美冠军,而且目前在联盟联赛中表现出色。我相信你们会在不远的时间内再次获得冠军。祝你们好运!

This is my first time in Nebraska. I understand that the University of Nebraska-Lincoln is very special. It is Nebraska's biggest public university as well as an educational, academic and cultural center. Your football team, the Cornhuskers, is also very special. You have won five national championships and you currently are doing very well at the Big 12. I trust you will win back the national championship again very soon. So good luck!

今晚论坛的主题是“全球化的前景”。我愿先谈一下全球化与中国,再就全球化时代的中美关系谈些看法。

As tonight's theme is "Globalization's Promise", I would like to speak first on globalization and China and then on China-US relations in the era of globalization.

2008年国际金融危机爆发以后,许多人开始质疑全球化进程:全球化的趋势会不会逆转?如何看待全球化的影响?如何应对全球化带来的种种问题?

Since the outbreak of the international financial crisis in 2008, many people have started to question the globalization process. Will the trend of globalization be reversed? How to view the impact of globalization? And how to deal with the various issues arising from globalization?

虽然这几年世界经济遭受重创,但经济全球化的大趋势并没有改变。推动全球化进程的科技进步、跨国贸易和投资、全球产业结构调整这三大因素仍然在发挥作用。以环保、新能源、低碳经济和低碳技术为核心的新技术继续成为新一轮经济全球化的动力。在应对国际金融危机的过程中,全球产业结构调整和产业转移也在深化。

In spite of the heavy blow to the world economy by the international financial crisis, the main trend of economic globalization has not changed. This is because the three major drivers of globalization remain effective, namely, scientific and technological advances, cross-border trade and investment, and international industrial restructuring. New technologies, with environmental protection, new energy, low-carbon economy and technology at the core, will continue to drive the new round of globalization. In responding to the international financial crisis, there has been more profound industrial restructuring and relocation of resources world wide.

经济全球化的“双刃剑”效应继续显现。一方面,毋庸置疑,由于生产要素在全球范围内的流动和配置,降低了成本,提高了效率,进一步提升了世界生产力的总体水平。但另一方面,它也造成了世界经济失衡加剧,不仅南北差距进一步拉大,一些发达经济体也受到全球化的冲击。一些国家的民众对全球化的不满和质疑在增多,贸易和投资保护主义情绪在上升。金融全球化过度发展的风险性和危害性进一步凸显。

The effects of economic globalization as a double-edged sword have become more obvious. On the one hand, the worldwide flow and distribution of elements of production has undoubtedly lowered costs, increased efficiency and further improved overall productivity; but on the other hand, it has aggravated world economic imbalance and widened the gap between different economies. There is growing public discontent and suspicion in many countries, and the mood for trade and investment protection is on the rise. The risks of excessive financial globalization have also been recognized.

解决全球化带来的问题,需要全球共同作出努力,尤其需要推动全球化向普惠、协调、均衡的方向发展。为更好地应对全球性挑战,应改善全球治理,建立健全相应的机制和规则。二十国集团机制是加强全球治理的独特平台。同时,要继续改革国际货币基金组织和世界银行等机构,加强国际合作。

Global efforts are needed to address the challenges of globalization. It is necessary to make globalization more universally beneficial, coordinated and balanced. Global governance, with corresponding rules, regulations and mechanisms that can rise to global challenges, needs to be improved. The establishment of the G20 provided a unique platform for enhanced global governance. The reforms of the IMF and World Bank are also necessary steps to improve international cooperation.

自1978年实行改革开放政策以来,中国积极参与国际分工与合作,积极引进外资、先进技术和管理经验,促进了产业升级和优化经济结构。30多年来中国的经济发展,从根本上讲靠的是改革开放,当然也得益于抓住了经济全球化带来的机遇。

Since the policy of reform and opening up was adopted in 1978, China has actively participated in international division of labor and cooperation, attracted foreign capital, advanced technology and management expertise, upgraded industrial structure and improved economic pattern. China's economic development over the past 30 years and more is, in essence, attributable to reform and opening up; but at the same time, it has also benefited from the opportunities presented by economic globalization.

中国在发展自己的同时,积极地促进世界经济的发展。现在,中国经济日益成为世界经济增长的重要引擎。据预测,2010年中国对世界经济增长的贡献率将超过30%。在应对国际金融危机的过程中,中国率先实现经济回升向好,为推动世界经济尽快企稳复苏发挥了重要作用。

While we pursue our own development in China, we are also making contributions to the growth of the world economy. The Chinese economy has increasingly become an important engine for world economic growth. It is estimated that China will account for more than 30% of world economic growth in 2010. In the wake of the international financial crisis, China was one of the first to recover and has played an important role in promoting an early world economic recovery.

随着中国经济日益融入世界经济,中国经济也面临全球化带来的越来越多的风险与挑战。国际金融市场的波动,使中国不少企业和个人手中的资产大幅缩水。国际能源、粮食价格的起落,也直接影响到中国人的生活。中国经济总量虽居世界前列,但人均国内生产总值只有3700美元,不到美国人均国内生产总值的十分之一,排在世界第100位以后。中国每年城市需要就业人口达2400万。中国在前进道路上还面临经济结构不合理、科技创新能力不强、资源环境约束强化、城乡区域发展不平衡、经济社会发展不协调等问题和挑战。这些问题和挑战在全球化的背景下正变得越来越突出。

As China's economy is more integrated with the world economy, it is also exposed to more risks and challenges associated with globalization. Due to the fluctuations of the international financial market, many Chinese companies and individuals have seen the value of their assets drop significantly. The rise and fall of international energy and food prices also directly affect the life of the Chinese people. Although China's GDP is one of the biggest in the world, its per capita GDP is only 3,700 dollars, less than 10% of the per capital GDP in the US and ranking behind 100 other countries. Every year, 24 million people need jobs in Chinese cities. We still face such challenges as irrational economic structure, weak scientific innovation, worsening environmental and resource constraints, uneven development between urban and rural areas and between different regions, and imbalanced economic and social development. These challenges are becoming more acute in the time of globalization.

在中国,不管多么小的问题,乘以13亿就会成为很大的问题;不管多么可观的财力、物力,除以13亿就会成为很低的人均水平。这就是中国的实际。中国在发展进程中遇到的问题和挑战,无论是规模还是解决难度,在当今世界都是罕见的。中国实现现代化,还有很长的路要走。中国仍然是一个发展中国家,必须继续聚精会神搞建设,一心一意谋发展。中国始终不渝走和平发展道路,坚定奉行互利共赢的开放战略。我们将继续积极参与国际合作,履行国际责任和义务。

In China, any issue, no matter how small, will become a big one when multiplied by 1.3 billion, and any resources, no matter how abundant, will become very modest when divided by 1.3 billion. This is China's reality. In terms of magnitude and level of difficulty, the challenges and problems we have encountered in our development are rarely seen in the history of mankind. The road is still long for China to achieve modernization. As a developing country, China will continue to concentrate on development. China is firmly committed to the path of peaceful development and the strategy of mutually beneficial opening-up. We will continue to participate actively in international cooperation and fulfill international responsibilities and obligations.

在全球化背景下,中美两国的利益联系从未像今天这样紧密。目前,中美互为第二大贸易伙伴,中国是美国出口增长最快的海外市场。过去10年,美国对华出口增长了330%,今年前三季度又增长了33.8%。美国还是中国最大的外资来源地。中国公司到美国投资兴业也呈增长态势。

In this age of globalization, the interests of China and the United States have never been so closely connected. China and the US are now each other's second largest trading partner. China has been the fastest growing market for US export. US export to China has grown by 330% over the past decade. It grew by 33.8% in the first three quarters of this year. The US is the No. 1 source of foreign investment in China. Investment from Chinese businesses in the US has also been increasing.

中美经贸关系是互利双赢的。美国从对华经贸合作中获得了巨大实惠。

Economic and trade ties between China and the US are mutually beneficial. They have brought huge tangible benefits to the US.

首先,美国对华出口迅速增长,为美国创造了大量就业机会。美国商务部长骆家辉曾指出,美国对亚洲出口每增加1个百分点,就为美国创造10万个新的就业机会。据估算,2001年至2007年,美国对华出口为美国新增257万个就业机会。摩根斯坦利公司测算,美国400万至800万个就业机会与中美贸易密切相关。

First, the rapid expansion of US export to China has created many job opportunities in the US. According to US Commerce Secretary Gary Locke, for every one percent increase in US export to Asia, 100,000 new jobs are created. It is estimated that between 2001 and 2007, US export to China created 2.57 million new jobs in the US. Research by Morgan Stanley has concluded that between four to eight million US jobs are closely associated with China-US trade.

第二,中国向美国出口价廉物美的商品,既促进了中国经济发展,也满足了美国市场需要,使美国消费者节省了大量开支,据测算过去10年共节省了6000多亿美元。美中贸易全国委员会一项研究显示,对华贸易推动了美国经济增长,降低了美国通货膨胀率,意味着每年为每一个美国家庭增加1000美元可支配收入。

Second, China's export of good quality but affordable commodities to the US has not just promoted China's economic growth, but also met the needs of American consumers and saved them lots of money. A total of over 600 billion dollars have been saved in the past 10 years, according to one estimate. One study by the US-China Business Council shows that trade with China has boosted economic growth and lowered inflation rate for the US, and that this means an increase of around 1,000 dollars in real disposable income per US household annually.

第三,中国企业在美国投资,给当地带来了大量就业。这里仅举一例。中远集团安排货轮挂靠波士顿港,不仅避免了该港被关闭,而且为当地创造了9000个就业岗位。

Third, investment by Chinese companies in the US has helped to create many local jobs. Just to cite one example, when the China Ocean Shipping Company (COSCO) started direct service to the Port of Boston in 2002, it not only saved the Port from being closed down and but also kept 9,000 jobs.

第四,中国业务成为美国许多公司全球业务的重要增长亮点,有的公司在华企业甚至成为其唯一仍在赢利的分支。中国美国商会发布的《2010年在华美国企业商务环境调查》报告显示,去年71%的在华美国企业实现赢利,91%的在华美国企业对未来5年的发展前景感到乐观。以通用汽车公司为例,2009年通用汽车在美国申请破产保护,但当年其在华销量大幅增长67%,中国成为通用汽车全球第二大市场。

Fourth, the China business has become the highlight of growth for many American companies. For some, their China operation has been the only business generating profits. According to AmCham-China's 2010 White Paper on the State of American Business in China, 71% of US companies operating in China made profits in 2009 and 91% are optimistic about the prospect in the next five years. Taking General Motors for example, it filed for bankruptcy in 2009 in the US, but its sales in China went up by 67%, making China its second biggest overseas market.

当然,中美经贸合作发展快,规模大,领域多,难免出现问题和摩擦,关键是要坚持通过对话与协商妥善处理。一段时间以来,美国一些人把中美贸易不平衡归咎于人民币汇率被低估。但事实上,中美贸易不平衡的根本原因不是人民币汇率问题,而是贸易投资的结构性差异,这恰恰是全球化背景下国际产业分工和转移的结果。

Given the fact that our business ties are growing so fast in so many areas on such a large scale, problems and frictions are hardly avoidable. What is important is to address them properly through dialogue and consultation. For some time, there are some in the US who believe that the trade imbalance between us is caused by the under-valued exchange rate of the RMB. As a matter of fact, the root cause of the trade imbalance is the structural differences in trade and investment, rather than the RMB exchange rate. It is precisely the result of international division of labor and industrial transfer in the era of globalization.

中国从不追求贸易顺差。中国的货物贸易是顺差,但服务贸易是逆差。中国对美国和欧洲有贸易顺差,但对日本、韩国和东盟国家有贸易逆差。中国对美国出口的产品绝大部分是劳动密集型、低附加值的消费品,许多产品美国已不再生产,即使不从中国进口,也会从其他国家进口。靠人民币升值解决不了美国的贸易逆差问题,也不会显著降低美国的失业率。2005年至2008年,人民币对美元升值了21.1%,但同期美国贸易逆差继续增加。这充分说明,中美贸易不平衡问题不是人民币汇率造成的。尽管如此,中国将继续推进人民币汇率形成机制改革,但外部施压只会适得其反。

China does not seek trade surplus. China has a surplus in trade of goods, but runs a deficit in trade of services. China has a surplus in trade with the US and Europe, but runs a deficit in trade with Japan, Republic of Korea and ASEAN countries. The majority of China's export to the US are labor-intensive, low value-added consumer goods. Many of them are no longer produced in the US. Even if the US does not import them from China, it will have to buy from other countries. Appreciation of the RMB will not solve the issue of trade imbalance for the US, nor will it noticeably reduce the US unemployment rate. From 2005 to 2008, the RMB has appreciated by 21.1% against US dollar, but the US trade deficit continued to grow during this period. This proves that the RMB exchange rate is not the cause of trade imbalance. Nevertheless, China will further advance the reform of its exchange rate regime, but external pressure can only be counterproductive.

我们主张通过综合的办法缓解中美贸易不平衡问题。贸易战、货币战将使双方都成为输家。我认为,双方在以下三个方面加强合作至关重要:

We stand for a comprehensive approach to ease the trade imbalance between China and the US. Both sides will be losers should a trade war or currency war break out. In my view, it is of vital importance for us to cooperate in the following three areas:

一是继续支持彼此的经济结构调整。中国正立足扩大内需拉动经济增长,目前正在制订“十二五”规划,强调要坚持扩大内需战略,转变经济发展方式,走科学发展的道路。预计今年中国国内市场规模将超过2万亿美元,远远超过中国的出口总额。同时,美国也在改变高负债、低储蓄的增长方式。两国应支持彼此的结构调整,特别是拓展在清洁能源、节能减排、环境保护、基础设施建设和现代服务业等领域的合作。

First, to continue to support each other's economic restructuring. China is trying to achieve economic growth through boosting domestic demand. The 12th Five-Year Plan, which is being drafted, lays emphasis on continued effort to expand domestic demand, transform the mode of economic development and embark on the path of balanced development. The size of China's domestic market is expected to surpass two trillion US dollars this year, far more than China's total export. At the same time, the US is also changing its high spending, low saving mode of growth. We should support the restructuring efforts of each other and explore cooperation in such areas as clean energy, energy conservation and emission reduction, environmental protection, infrastructure and modern services industry.

二是扩大美国高技术产品对华出口。中国将继续增加自美国的进口。但2008年中国进口的高技术产品中,自美国进口比重只占6.9%,这与美国科技大国、强国的地位很不相称。如果美国放宽高技术产品对华出口限制,真正推动自由贸易,美国对华出口将大幅增加。

Second, to increase US export of hi-tech products to China. China is prepared to further increase its import from the US. However, among the hi-tech products we imported in 2008, only 6.9% were from the US. This is not commensurate with the standing of US as the leading nation in science and technology. US export to China will be greatly enhanced if restriction on high-tech export to China be eased and real efforts be made to promote free trade.

三是促进中国企业对美国投资。现在中国企业来美国投资面临很多障碍和不确定性。希望美方为中国企业来美国投资提供公平竞争环境,这将有利于鼓励更多中国企业到美国投资,促进美国经济增长和创造就业。

Third, to encourage Chinese businesses to invest in the US. Currently, many Chinese companies face obstacles and uncertainties when making investment in the US. A level playing field needs to be created. This will encourage more Chinese companies to invest in the United States, which will be conducive to job creation and the growth of the economy in this country.

中美两国的合作具有日益重要的国际影响。在应对国际金融危机方面,中美两国加强了宏观经济政策协调,共同推动四次二十国集团金融峰会取得积极成果,为促进两国经济和世界经济复苏作出了重要贡献。两国在反恐、防扩散、气候变化、朝核、伊朗核等一系列国际地区和全球性问题上也开展了富有成效的磋商与合作。

China-US cooperation has assumed greater international significance. In response to the international financial crisis, China and the US have stepped up macro economic coordination, worked together within the G20 framework, and made important contribution to economic recovery in both countries and in the world. We have also had productive consultation and cooperation on a series of regional and global issues such as counter-terrorism, non-proliferation, climate change, the Korean and Iranian nuclear issues.

胡锦涛主席和奥巴马总统已就共同努力建设21世纪积极合作全面的中美关系达成重要共识,为两国关系的发展指明了方向。随着中美两国共同战略利益不断增加,两国合作领域不断拓展,中美关系发展的基础将更加牢固,前景更加广阔。

President Hu Jintao and President Obama have agreed to work together to build a positive, cooperative and comprehensive China-US relationship for the 21st century. This has set the direction for our bilateral relations. The China-US relationship will grow more solid and stronger as our two countries share more common strategic interests and cooperate with each other in more areas.

最后,我想谈谈中国与内布拉斯加州的关系。

Finally, I wish to say a few words on China's relations with Nebraska.

近年来,中国与内布拉斯加州的交流合作不断增强。内布拉斯加州与中国贵州省结有友好省州关系。2000年至2009年,内布拉斯加州对华出口增长了306%。2009年,内布拉斯加州整体对外出口同比下降10%,但对华出口2.11亿美元,同比增长6%。这充分说明了内布拉斯加州对华出口的活力和潜力。中国已成为内布拉斯加州第四大出口市场。今天下午,我同海涅曼州长进行会见时,就加强中国与内布拉斯加州的交流合作很好地交换了看法。

In recent years, China and Nebraska have increased mutual exchanges and cooperation. The state of Nebraska and Guizhou province of China have established sister relations. From 2000 to 2009, Nebraska's exports to China increased by 306%. In 2009, Nebraska's total export fell by 10%, but by contrast, its export to China rose by 6% to reach 211 million US dollars. This fully testifies to the strength and potential of Nebraska's export to China. China has become the fourth biggest export market for Nebraska. This afternoon, Governor Heineman and I had a good meeting and we explored ways to enhance cooperation Nebraska and China.

教育文化交流是中国与内布拉斯加州联系的重要桥梁。目前,约12万中国留学生正在美国学习深造,其中在内布拉斯加州有1500人,在这里就有500多人。美国在华留学人数已达到近2万人。美国政府已开始实施未来4年向中国派遣10万留学生的计划。我们欢迎更多的美国学生包括内布拉斯加大学林肯分校的学生到中国学习和研究。我高兴地得知,内布拉斯加大学系统詹姆斯·米利肯校长正在中国访问,这是他首次访华,是推进同中国高校交流合作的重要步骤。我祝愿贵校同中国高校开展的联合培养博士生项目、联合科研合作项目和孔子学院等越办越好,为促进中美教育文化交流和人民友谊作出新贡献。

Educational and cultural exchanges can serve as an important bridge between China and Nebraska. At present, 120,000 Chinese students are studying in the US. There are 1,500 in Nebraska, including over 500 in UNL. Currently, there are about 20,000 American students studying in China. The US government has launched a 100,000 Strong Initiative by which it will send 100,000 American students to China in four years. We welcome more American students, including from UNL, to study and do research in China. I am pleased to learn that as we speak, President James Miliken is visiting China. This is his first trip to China, and it represents a major step to enhance exchanges and cooperation with Chinese universities. I hope that the Joint PhD programs, the Joint R&D projects and the Confucius Institute that the UNL has in partnership with Chinese universities will be more and more successful, thus making fresh contribution to the growth of our educational and cultural exchanges and friendship between our two countries.

谢谢大家!

Thank you all very much.
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