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[GRE写作] ISSUE文章开头写作方法之观点法

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金币

大家网小学二年级

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发表于 2012-3-13 14:55 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
III. 观点法

文章开门见山,直截了当提出作者对文章要讨论的问题的观点,也即文章的中心思想。以下就是常用的句型。

25 Nothing / Few things
No idea / opinion belief / view / attitude  is
are more / as foolish
dangerous
untrue
undesirable
basic
important
essential
25 than
as ... (which is widely
commonly
generally  held by...).
  25.1 Nothing, we have been told these years, is more educative than participating in or listening to an
exchange of opinion. The seminar, the conference, the lecture, the panel discussion on the radio ------ how
fine, how liberating, how instructive they are to us all, to the participants and to those at their receiving
sets. They can not only acquaint one with many facts, but help deepen one's understanding of social phenomenan and relationships, and broaden one's outlook.
  这些年来我们都感到没有什么比参加一个讨论或听听别人的思想交流更有教育意义的了。大型讨论会,大型会议讲座以及电台直播室的讨论对我们所有人,对参加者或是听众都是那么美妙,那么有意义,有启迪作用。这些讨论不仅使我们了解了许多事实,而且有助于加深对各种社会现象和关系的理解,开阔眼界。
  25.2 Few things seem to stir up more fear among today's young people than the prospect of a military draft.
Feelings of patriotism are articulated much more freely now, but there seems little enthusiasm for military
conscription, and no one wants to spend several years in the armed forces engaged in activities which have
nothing to do with their future work.
  似乎没有什么比要服兵役更使青年人担心了。现在到处洋溢着爱国主义的情感,但对服兵役却没什么热情,没有人想在部队里待几年,去从事与他未来的工作没什么关系的活动。
  25.3 Perhaps no issue in this world is as basic to individual and national survival as food. But China in
recent years has experienced a serious waste of food in one way or another. Especially in many big cities,
this waste has become habitual and traditional, to the extent that people are seldom aware of it in their
daily life.
  可能在这个世界上没有什么问题比粮食对一个人乃至整个国家的生存更为重要的了。但在中国,近年来各种各样严重浪费粮食的现象比比皆是。尤其在许多大城市里,这种浪费已成为习惯性和传统性了,以致人们在日常生活中已习以为常了。
26 Never
Nowhere in history
the world
China has the issue
change
idea of .... been more
as visible
evident
popular than ...
as ...
  26.1 Nowhere in the world has the issue of birth control been more evident than in China. The nation is
faced with such serious situation as the one in which its population is increasing much faster than the
supply of food and available resources.
  世界上没有一个地方比中国的计划生育问题更突出的了。这个国家正面临着十分严峻的形势,其人口增长的速度正大大超过粮食供应的速度和自然资源供应的速度。
  26.2 Nowhere has the great principle of equality been so thoroughly put in practice as in China, and nowhere
have such persistent efforts been made to improve the legal status of women. In spite of this, however, women in many places are still denied the right to compete with men for jobs on equal terms and the right to equal opportunities for promotion.
  世界上没有一个地方比中国把平等这个伟大的原则更彻底地贯彻到实践中去,没有像中国作出如此坚持不懈的努力来提高妇女的法律地位。尽管如此,在许多地方中国的妇女还是没有权利和男子在同等条件下竞争工作,没有平等的机会得到晋升。
  26.3 Never in the nation's history have the stakes involving our education been higher than rim. From energy
crises to air pollution, and from the improvement of the standard of living to space exploration, the approaching world of the 21st century bristles with challenges whose resolution, for better or worse, will depend largely on the quality of education.
  在这个国家的历史上教育从来没有像现在这样对我们如此利害攸关。从能源危机到环境污染,从生活水平的提高到空间探索,即将到来的21世纪充满了种种挑战。要战胜那些挑战,不论怎么样,在很大程度上取决于教育的质量。
27  It is about/high
time we  exploded
shattered
freed ourselves from  the myth
illusion
fiction about ...
  27.1 It's about time somebody exploded that old myth about childhood being the happiest of your life. Childhood may certainly be fairly happy, free from financial worries and the anxiety about social ladders. But have you heard our children today groaning under the ever-increasing burden of studies? Have you seen them stay up almost every night simply to finish a day's homework?
  现在应该是揭穿长期来认为童年是人的一生中最幸福的时代这个古老神话的时候了。童年固然很幸福,孩子们没有经济上的忧愁,也没有争名夺利的焦虑。但是人们是否听到现在的孩子在日益沉重的学习负担下发出的呻吟声?人们是否看到孩子们为了完成一天的功课,几乎天天熬夜?
28 Perhaps
Maybe we should
it is time to rethink
reexamine
have a fresh look at the idea
values
attitude
wisdom
desirability that ...
  28.1 Perhaps we should rethink an idea fast becoming an undisputed premise of our life that
a college degree is necessary ------ and perhaps even a sufficient ------ precondition for success.
I do not wish to quarrel with the assumptions made about the benefits of orthodox education.
I want only to expose its false god; the four-year, all-purpose, degree-granting college, aimed
at the so-called college-age population and by now almost universally accepted as the stepping-stone
to "meaningful" and "better" jobs.
  可能我们应当重新考虑一下这个很快成为我们生活毋庸置疑的前提:对成功来说,大学文凭是必要的,或许是先决的条件。我不想反对正统的大学教育带来种种好处的观点。我只想揭示把大学文凭捧上天的虚假性:对象是所谓读大学的适龄青年,目的是培养各种人材的颁发学位的四年制大学现已差不多被公认为是找到"有意义的”、“好的”工作的跳板。
  28.2 Maybe it is time to reexamine our present values of life and try to figure out why life
today becomes so difficult, and what can be done about it. Not only are things often not what
they seem, they may be just the opposite of what they seen. People are discontented these days,
for example, not because things are worse than ever, but because things are better than ever.
Everything is paradoxical.
  也许现在该是重新检查一下我们现在生活流行的价值观,弄清楚今天的生活为何变得如此艰难,以及该用什
么办法加以解决的时候了。现在的事情常常不仅不是它们看上去的那样,事情可能正好与看上去的相反。譬如说,如今人们的不满往往不是因为情况比以往任何时候都糟,而是因为情况从未这么好过。一切事情都变得似是而非了。
29 Now people in growing
increasing
significant numbers are beginning
coming to realize
recognize
understand
accept
be aware that....   
  29.1 Now people in growing numbers are coming to recognize that the business spirit, which carries
in its torrential course so many of the talents and energies of men into money-making, has shaped our
culture and influenced our ideals and aspirations as a people.
  现在越来越多的人开始认识到这股下海从商的浪潮把许多人卷进去,使他们把自己的才干和精力都耗在赚钱上。这个重商的风气改变了我们的文化,影响了作为一个民族的我们的理想和抱负。
  29.2 In recent years an increasing number of people are getting to realize that much of the technology
being developed today neither respects the earth's delicate ecosystem nor is adequately controlled by
social institutions. As the social costs of the technological development (e. g environmental pollution,
unemployment) become so obvious, it is time that our society should make efforts to reassess the direction
of our development in the view of radically different and increasingly complex socioeconomic circumstances.
  近年来日渐增多的人开始意识到当今正在开发中的许多技术 既没有考虑到地球上微妙的生态系统,也没有受到社会机构的有 效控制。由于开发技术所付出的社会代价(如环境污染和失业现 象)十分明显,该是到了我们的社会作出努力,从完全不同的,越来 越复杂的社会经济环境来重新评估技术发展的方向的时候了。
30 Now there is a growing awareness / recognition on the part of people
people become increasingly aware / conscious of the need
necessity
importance to
of ...
  30.1 In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the necessary to improve our criminal justice system. A young thief who spends time in jail often receives there a thorough education in crime from his fellow prisoners, or perhaps tough criminals who drag him into more serious offenses and more prison terms , a vicious cycle that will do greater harm to the society.
  近几年来人们越来越意识到改进我们刑法制度的必要性。一 个初犯的小偷被关在监狱里,往往会从其他囚犯,甚至犯罪老手那里学到一整套作案的手法,结果他们把他拉人更深的犯罪深渊,以 至判更长的徒刑,如此恶性循环将对社会造成更大的危害。
  30.2 Now people become increasingly aware of the importance of acquiring a mastery of a foreign language. To them, the knowledge of a foreign language, say, English, often means a good opportunity for one's career, even a passport to a prosperous future. Many of them equate success in life with the ability of speaking a foreign language.
  现在许多人日益意识到掌握一门外语的重要性,对他们来说,外语知识,如英语往往意味着给他的职业带来好的机会,甚至给他带来光辉灿烂的前途。许多人把人生的成功与能讲外语相提并论。
31 we might marvel at
In spite of / Despite the great
giant
extraordinary
tremendous progress
stride
advance made in
31 science and technology
nearly every field , (but) ... remain basically unchanged.
the same as it was.
as ... as ever they were.
  31.1 We might marvel at the progress made in every field of study, but the methods of testing a person's knowledge and ability remain as primitive as ever they were. It is extraordinary that after all these years,
educationists have still failed to devise anything mere efficient and reliable than examinations. For all the pious claim that examinations test what you know, it is common knowledge that they mere often do the exact opposite. They may be a good means of testing memory, but they can tell you nothing about a person's true ability and aptitude.
  对各个学科所取得的进步我们或许会感到吃惊,但是测试人们知识和能力的方法仍像过去一样原始。经过这么多年,教育家们仍未能设计出比考试更可靠,更行之有效的方法,这真使人为之惊讶。尽管教育家们虔诚地宣称,考试能测验你懂得多少知识。但众所周知,它们通常是适得其反。用来测试记忆力,考试也许是种好方法,但它不能测出一个人的真正能力。
  31.2 This is a skeptical age, but although our faith in many of the things in which our forefathers deeply believed has weakened, our confidence in the curative properties of the bottle of medicine remains the same as theirs. This modern faith in medicine is proved by the fact that the annual drug bill of this country is mounting to astronomical figures and shows no signs at present of ceasing to rise.
  这是一个怀疑一切的时代。但是尽管我们已不大相信我们的祖先们所深信不疑的许多事物,我们对装在瓶中的药物却仍与我们的祖先一样确信无疑。现代人对药物的迷信可由这一事实得到证实:即这个国家每年的药费已到了天文数字,且目前尚无停止增长之迹象。
  31.3 Although great strides have been made in achieving social status and greater equality for women in the past decades, their role in the family remains basically uncharged. The double burden of work inside
and outside the home they are carrying renders them impossible to make full use of their talents and difficult to rise to positions of leadership.
  虽然在过去几十年里妇女在争取社会地位和更多的平等方面取得了很大的进步,但是她们在家里的角色仍没有得到多大的变化。她们在家里和外面都要干,这双重工作负担使她们不能充分发挥自己的才能,因之很难升到领导岗位。
  31.4 We continue to share with our remotest ancestors the most evasive attitudes about death, despite the great distance we have cane in understanding some of the profound aspects of biology. We have as much distaste for talking about personal death as for thinking about it; it is an indelicacy, like talking in mixed
company about venereal disease or abortion in the old days.
  尽管我们对生物某些方面的奥秘已有很多了解,但我们还是和祖先一样,对死是讳莫如深的。我们对自己的死不仅不敢想,而且不敢去谈论。这是一个不适宜的话题,就像过去在男女一起时谈论性病和流产一样不易启口。

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