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[阅读] 名著双语阅读红字-第七章 总督的大厅

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发表于 2009-6-18 15:46 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Chapter 7


HESTER PRYNNE went, one day, to the mansion of Governor Bellingham, with a pair of gloves, which she had fringed and embroidered to his order, and which were to be worn on some great occasion of state; for, though the chances of a popular election had caused this former ruler to descend a step or two from the highest rank, he still held an honourable and influential place among the colonial magistracy.

Another and far more important reason than the delivery of a pair of embroidered gloves impelled Hester, at this time, to seek an interview with a personage of so much power and activity in the affairs of the settlement. It had reached her ears, that there was a design on the part of some of the leading inhabitants, cherishing the more rigid order of principles in religion and government, to deprive her of her child. On the supposition that Pearl, as already hinted, was of demon origin, these good people not unreasonably argued that a Christian interest in the mother's soul required them to remove such a stumbling-block from her path. If the child, on the other hand, were really capable of moral and religious growth, and possessed the elements of ultimate salvation, then, surely, it would enjoy all the fairer prospect of these advantages, by being transferred to wiser and better guardianship than Hester Prynne's. Among those who promoted the design, Governor Bellingham was said to be one of the most busy. It may appear singular, and, indeed, not a little ludicrous, that an affair of this kind, which, in later days, would have been referred to no higher jurisdiction than that of the selectmen of the town, should then have been a question publicly discussed, and on which statesmen of eminence took sides. At that epoch of pristine simplicity, however, matters of even slighter public interest, and of far less intrinsic weight, than the welfare of Hester and her child, were strangely mixed up with the deliberations of legislators and acts of state. The period was hardly, if at all, earlier than that of our story, when a dispute concerning the right of property in a pig, not only caused a fierce and bitter contest in the legislative body of the colony, but resulted in an important modification of the framework itself of the legislature.

Full of concern, therefore- but so conscious of her own right that it seemed scarcely an unequal match between the public, on the one side, and a lonely woman, backed by the sympathies of nature, on the other- Hester Prynne set forth from her solitary cottage. Little Pearl, of course, was her companion. She was now of an age to run lightly along by her mother's side, and, constantly in motion, from morn till sunset, could have accomplished a much longer journey than that before her. Often, nevertheless, more from caprice than necessity, she demanded to be taken up in arms; but was soon as imperious to be set down again, and frisked onward before Hester on the grassy pathway, with many a harmless trip and tumble. We have spoken of Pearl's rich and luxuriant beauty; a beauty that shone with deep and vivid tints; a bright complexion, eyes possessing intensity both of depth and glow, and hair already of a deep, glossy brown, and which, in after years, would be nearly akin to black. There was fire in her and throughout her; she seemed the unpremeditated offshoot of a passionate moment. Her mother, in contriving the child's garb, had allowed the gorgeous tendencies of her imagination their full play; arraying her in a crimson velvet tunic, of a peculiar cut, abundantly embroidered with fantasies and flourishes of gold thread. So much strength of colouring, which must have given a wan and pallid aspect to cheeks of a fainter bloom, was admirably adapted to Pearl's beauty, and made her the very brightest little jet of flame that ever danced upon the earth.

But it was a remarkable attribute of this garb, and, indeed, of the child's whole appearance, that it irresistibly and inevitably reminded the beholder of the token which Hester Prynne was doomed to wear upon her bosom. It was the scarlet letter in another form; the scarlet letter endowed with life! The mother herself- as if the red ignominy were so deeply scorched into her brain that all her conceptions assumed its form- had carefully wrought out the similitude; lavishing many hours of morbid ingenuity, to create an analogy between the object of her affection and the emblem of her guilt and torture. But, in truth, Pearl was the one, as well as the other; and only in consequence of that identity had Hester contrived so perfectly to represent the scarlet letter in her appearance.

As the two wayfarers came within the precincts of the town, the children of the Puritans looked up from their play- or what passed for play with those sombre little urchins- and spake gravely one to another-

"Behold, verily, there is the woman of the scarlet letter; and, of a truth, moreover, there is the likeness of the scarlet letter running along by her side! Come, therefore, and let us fling mud at them!"

But Pearl, who was a dauntless child, after frowning, stamping her foot, and shaking her little hand with a variety of threatening gestures, suddenly made a rush at the knot of her enemies, and put them all to flight. She resembled, in her fierce pursuit of them, an infant pestilence- the scarlet fever, or some such half-fledged angel of judgment- whose mission was to punish the sins of the rising generation. She screamed and shouted, too, with a terrific volume of sound, which, doubtless, caused the hearts of the fugitives to quake within them. The victory accomplished, Pearl returned quietly to her mother, and looked up, smiling, into her face.

Without further adventure, they reached the dwelling of Governor Bellingham. This was a large wooden house, built in a fashion of which there are specimens still extant in the streets of our elder towns; now moss-grown, crumbling to decay, and melancholy at heart with the many sorrowful or joyful occurrences, remembered or forgotten, that have happened, and passed away, within their dusky chambers. Then, however, there was the freshness of the passing year on its exterior, and the cheerfulness, gleaming forth from the sunny windows, of a human habitation, into which death had never entered. It had, indeed, a very cheery aspect; the walls being overspread with a kind of stucco, in which fragments of broken glass were intermixed; so that, when the sunshine fell aslant-wise over the front of the edifice, it glittered and sparkled as if diamonds had been flung against it by the double handful. The brilliancy might have befitted Aladdin's palace, rather than the mansion of a grave old Puritan ruler. It was further decorated with strange and seemingly cabalistic figures and diagrams, suitable to the quaint taste of the age, which had been drawn in the stucco when newly laid on, and had now grown hard and durable, for the admiration of after times.

Pearl, looking at this bright wonder of a house, began to caper and dance, and imperatively required that the whole breadth of sunshine should be stripped off its front, and given her to play with.

"No, my little Pearl!" said her mother. "Thou must gather thine own sunshine. I have none to give thee!"
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 楼主| 发表于 2009-6-18 15:46 | 显示全部楼层
第七章 总督的大厅


    一天,海丝特·白兰到贝灵汉总督的宅邸去交他订做的手套,这副绣了花并镶了边的手套是总督要在某个重大的庆典上戴的;因为这位前任统治者虽然在一次普选中从最高的品级上降了一两级,但他在殖民地的行政长官中仍然保持着举足轻重和受人尊崇的地位。

  
此时,还有比呈递一副绣好的手套远为重要的另一个原因,促使她去谋求晋见一位在殖民地事务中有权有势的人物的一次机会。她耳闻,有几位力主在宗教和政府的原则上要严加治理的头面人物,正在谋划夺走她的孩子。前面已经暗示过,珠儿既然可能是妖魔的孽种,这些好心肠的人们就不无理由地主张:为了对做母亲的灵魂表示基督教的关怀,他们应该从她的道路上搬掉这样一块绊脚石。反之,如果这孩子当真能够接受宗教和道德的教化,并且具备最终获救的因素,那么,把孩子移交给比海丝特·白兰更高明的监护人,珠儿就可以更充分地发挥这些条件,从而肯定享有更美好的前途。在推进这一谋划的人们当中,据说贝灵汉总督是最为热心奔走的一个。这类事情如果推迟若干年,最多交由市镇行政管理委员会这一级去裁处,而在当时,居然要兴师动众地加以讨论,而且还要有显要人物来参与,看来未免稀奇,也确实有点荒唐可笑。然而,在早年的纯朴时期,哪怕对公众利益来说,比起海丝特和她孩子的安置问题还要次要的事情,都要由立法者审议并由政府立法,岂不妙哉。就在我们这个故事发生之前并不很久的时期,曾经发生过涉及一日猪的所有权的争议,其结果,不仅在这块殖民地的立法机构中引起了不可开交的激烈辩论,而且还导致了该机构组织上的重大变更。

眼前涉及海丝特·白兰自身权利的这件事,虽然一方面是广大公众,另一方面是只以自然的同情为后盾的弧身女人,双方众寡悬殊,难以对垒,但她还是忧心仲仲地从她那孤零零的小茅屋中出发去力争了。不消说,小珠儿仍然陪伴着她。珠儿如今已经长到能够在母亲身边轻快跑动的年龄,一天到晚不肯闲着,就是比这再远的路也能走到了。不过,她经常还要母亲抱着走,其实并不是因为走不动,而是想撒娇;可是没抱几步就又迫不及待地要下来,蹦蹦跳跳地在海丝特前面走着,跑着,不时还在长草的小路上磕磕绊绊,不过绝不会摔出伤来。我们曾经谈到珠儿洋溢着光彩照人的美丽,是个浓墨重彩、生动活泼的小姑娘:她有晶莹的皮肤,一双大眼睛既专注深沉又炯炯有神,头发此时已是润泽的深棕色,再过几年就几乎是漆黑色的了。她浑身上下有一团火,向四下发散着,象是在激情时刻不期而孕的一个子嗣。她母亲在给孩子设计服装时呕心沥血,充分发挥了华丽的倾向,用鲜红的天鹅绒为她裁剪了一件式样独特的束腰裙衫,还用金丝线在上面绣满新奇多采的花样。这种强烈的色调,如果用来衬托一个不够红润的面颊,会使容貌显得苍白黯淡,但却与珠儿的美貌相得益彰,使她成了世上前所未有的活跳跳的一小团焰目的火焰。

然而,这身衣裙,老实讲,还有这孩子的整个外貌,实在引人注目,使目睹者不可遏止也难以避免地想到海丝特·白兰胸前注定要佩戴的那个标记。孩子是另一种形式的红字,是被赋予了生命的红字!做母亲的头脑中似乎给这红色的耻辱所深深印烙,她的一切观念都采取了它的形式,才精心制作出来了这个相仿的对应物;她不借花费许多时间,用病态的才智创造出这个既象她的慈爱的对象又象她的罪孽和折磨的标志的作品。然而,事实上,恰恰是珠儿集二者于一身;而且,也正因为有了这个同一性,海丝特才能如此完美地用孩子的外表率象征她的红字。

当这两个行路人来到镇区之时,那些清教徒的孩子们停下了游戏——那些闷闷不乐的小家伙们其实也没什么可玩的,抬起眼来,一本正经地互相议论着:

“瞧,还真有个戴红字的女人;还且,一点不假,还有个象红字似的小东西在她身边跑着呢!这下可好啦,咱们朝她们扔泥巴吧!”

珠儿可是个谁也不怕的孩子,她在皱眉、跺脚、挥着小手作出各种吓人的姿势之后,突然朝这伙敌人冲去,把他们全都赶跑了。她怒气冲冲地追着他们,简直象个小瘟神——猩红热或某个羽毛未丰的专司惩罚的这类小天使,其使命就是惩处正在成长的一代人的罪孽。她尖呼高叫,其音量之骇人,无疑会使这些逃跑的孩子心儿狂跳不止。珠儿大获全胜,不声不晌地凯旋面归,她回到母亲身边,微笑着抬眼望着母亲的脸。

之后,她们便一路平安地来到了贝灵汉总督的住所。这是一座宏大的木造宅邸,那种建筑形式在今天的一些老城镇的街道上仍可见其遗风;不过如今已是盲苔丛生,招摇欲坠,其昏暗的房间中发生过并消逝了的那些悲欢离合,无论是记忆犹新还是全然忘却,都令人缀然伤感。然而在当年,这样的宅邸,外观上仍保持着初建年代的清新,从洒满阳光的窗中闪烁着人丁的欢乐,家中还没有人去世。确实,住宅呈现着一派欣然景象:墙面除着一层拉毛灰泥,由于里面掺和着大量的碎玻璃碴,当阳光斜照到大厦的前脸时,便会闪着熔目的光芒,好像有一双手在向它抛撤着钻石。这种夺目的光彩或许更适合阿拉丁①的宫殿,面对于一个庄重的清教徒统治者则并不相宜。大厦的前脸还装饰着当年显得情调古雅、怪模怪样、看着很神秘的人形和图象,都是在涂灰泥时画就的,此时已变得坚实耐久,供后世观赏了。

珠儿望着这幢灿烂而奇妙的住宅,开始雀跃起来,使劲要求从住宅前腿上把整整一层阳光给剥下来,好让她玩个痛快。

“不行,我的小珠儿!”她母亲说。“你要采集你自己的阳光。我可没有阳光可以给你!”
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They approached the door; which was of an arched form, and flanked on each side by a narrow tower or projection of the edifice, in both of which were lattice-windows, with wooden shutters to close over them at need. Lifting the iron hammer that hung at the portal, Hester Prynne gave a summons, which was answered by one of the Governor's bond-servants; a free-born Englishman, but now a seven years' slave. During that term he was to be the property of his master, and as much a commodity of bargain and sale as an ox, or a joint-stool. The serf wore the blue coat, which was the customary garb of serving-men at that period, and long before, in the old hereditary halls of England.

"Is the worshipful Governor Bellingham within?" inquired Hester.

"Yea, forsooth," replied the bond-servant, staring with wide-open eyes at the scarlet letter, which, being a new-comer in the country, he had never before seen. "Yea, his honourable worship is within. But he hath a godly minister or two with him, and likewise a leech. Ye may not see his worship now."

"Nevertheless, I will enter," answered Hester Prynne; and the bond-servant, perhaps judging from the decision of her air, and the glittering symbol in her bosom, that she was a great lady in the land, offered no opposition.

So the mother and little Pearl were admitted into the hall of entrance. With many variations, suggested by the nature of his building-materials, diversity of climate, and a different mode of social life, Governor Bellingham had planned his new habitation after the residences of gentlemen of fair estate in his native land. Here, then, was a wide and reasonably lofty hall, extending through the whole depth of the house and forming a medium of general communication, more or less directly, with all the other apartments. At one extremity, this spacious room was lighted by the windows of the two towers, which formed a small recess on either side of the portal. At the other end, though partly muffled by a curtain, it was more powerfully illuminated by one of those embowed hall-windows which we read of in old books, and which was provided with a keep and cushioned seat. Here, on the cushion, lay a folio tome, probably of the Chronicles of England, or other such substantial literature; even as, in our own days, we scatter gilded volumes on the centre-table, to be turned over by the casual guest. The furniture of the hall consisted of some ponderous chairs, the backs of which were elaborately carved with wreaths of oaken flowers; and likewise a table in the same taste; the whole being of the Elizabethan age, or perhaps earlier, and heirlooms, transferred hither from the Governor's paternal home. On the table- in token that the sentiment of old English hospitality had not been left behind- stood a large pewter tankard, at the bottom of which, had Hester or Pearl peeped into it, they might have seen the frothy remnant of a recent draught of ale.

On the wall hung a row of portraits, representing the forefathers of the Bellingham lineage, some with armour on their breasts, and others with stately ruffs and robes of peace. All were characterised by the sternness and severity which old portraits so invariably put on; as if they were the ghosts, rather than the pictures, of departed worthies, and were gazing with harsh and intolerant criticism at the pursuits and enjoyments of living men.

At about the centre of the oaken panels, that lined the hall, was suspended a suit of mail, not, like the pictures, an ancestral relic, but of the most modern date; for it had been manufactured by a skilful armourer in London, the same year in which Governor Bellingham came over to New England. There was a steel headpiece, a cuirass, a gorget, and greaves, with a pair of gauntlets and a sword hanging beneath; all, and especially the helmet and breastplate, so highly burnished as to glow with white radiance, and scatter an illumination everywhere about upon the floor. This bright panoply was not meant for mere idle show, but had been worn by the Governor on many a solemn muster and training field, and had glittered, moreover, at the head of a regiment in the Pequod war. For, though bred a lawyer, and accustomed to speak of Bacon, Coke, Noye, and Finch, as his professional associates, the exigencies of this new country had transformed Governor Bellingham into a soldier, as well as a statesman and ruler.

Little Pearl- who was as greatly pleased with the gleaming armour as she had been with the glittering frontispiece of the house- spent some time looking into the polished mirror of the breastplate.

"Mother," cried she, "I see you here. Look! Look!"

Hester looked, by way of humouring the child; and she saw that, owing to the peculiar effect of this convex mirror, the scarlet letter was represented in exaggerated and gigantic proportions, so as to be greatly the most prominent feature of her appearance. In truth, she seemed absolutely hidden behind it. Pearl pointed upward, also, at a similar picture in the head-piece; smiling at her mother, with the elfish intelligence that was so familiar an expression on her small physiognomy. That look of naughty merriment was likewise reflected in the mirror, with so much breadth and intensity of effect, that it made Hester Prynne feel as if it could not be the image of her own child, but of an imp who was seeking to mould itself into Pearl's shape.

"Come along, Pearl," said she, drawing her away. "Come and look into this fair garden. It may be, we shall see flowers there; more beautiful ones than we find in the woods."

Pearl, accordingly, ran to the bow-window, at the farther end of the hall, and looked along the vista of a garden-walk, carpeted with closely shaven grass, and bordered with some rude and immature attempt at shrubbery. But the proprietor appeared already to have relinquished, as hopeless, the effort to perpetuate on this side of the Atlantic, in a hard soil and amid the close struggle for subsistence, the native English taste for ornamental gardening. Cabbages grew in plain sight; and a pumpkin vine, rooted at some distance, had run across the intervening space, and deposited one of its gigantic products directly beneath the hall-window; as if to warn the Governor that this great lump of vegetable gold was as rich an ornament as New England earth would offer him. There were a few rose-bushes, however, and a number of apple-trees, probably the descendants of those planted by the Reverend Mr. Blackstone, the first settler of the peninsula; that half mythological personage, who rides through our early annals, seated on the back of a bull.

Pearl, seeing the rose-bushes, began to cry for a red rose, and would not be pacified.

"Hush, child, hush!" said her mother earnestly. "Do not cry, dear little Pearl! I hear voices in the garden. The Governor is coming, and gentlemen along with him!"

In fact, adown the vista of the garden avenue, a number of persons were seen approaching towards the house. Pearl, in utter scorn of her mother's attempt to quiet her, gave an eldritch scream, and then became silent; not from any notion of obedience, but because the quick and mobile curiosity of her disposition was excited by the appearance of these new personages.
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她们走近了大门;那建筑物有一座拱形门洞,两侧各有一座细高的塔楼或者说是突出的前脸,上面镶着格子窗,里面还有木制的百叶窗,必要时可以关上。海丝特·白兰举起吊在门口的腿于,敲了一下门;总督的一个家奴应声而至,他本是一个英国的自由民,但已当了七年奴仆了。这期间,他只是主人的财产,无非是和一头公牛或一把折椅一样可以交易和出售的一件商品。那奴仆按照当时和早先英国世袭击宅中仆人的习惯装束,穿着一件蓝色号衣。   

“贝灵汉总督大人在吗?”海丝特问。

“是的,在家,”那家奴一边回答,一边睁大眼睛瞪着那红字,他来到这地方只有几年,以前还从未见过那标记。“是的,大人在。只是他有—两位牧师陪着,还有一个医生。你此刻恐怕不能见大人。”

“不过,我还是要进去,”海丝特·白兰回答说,那家奴大概是从她那不容置辩的神气和胸前闪光的标志判断,把她当作了本地的一位贵妇,没有表示反对。

于是,母亲和小珠儿被引进了入门的大厅。贝灵汉总督是按照故乡广有土地的乡绅的住宅样式来设计他在殖民地的新居的,但又因他所使用的建筑树料的性质、此地气候的差异以及社交生活的不同模式,作了不少变动。于是,这座宅邸中就有了—座宽敞而高度恰到好处的大厅,前后贯穿整个住宅,形成一个公共活动的中心,与宅中所有的房间都直接或伺接地连通着。这座敞亮的大厅的一头,由两座塔楼的窗户透进阳光,在门的两侧各形成一个小小的方框。另一头,却由一扇让窗帘遮着一部分的凸肚窗照得十分明亮。这种凸肚窗——我们在古书中读到过,深深凹进墙中,而且还有铺了垫子的座位。在这扇窗子的座垫上放着一部对开本的厚书,可能是《英格兰编年史》这一类的大部头著作;正如同时至今,我们还会将一些烫金的书卷散放在室中的桌上,供来客翻阅消遣。大厅中的家具,包括几把笨重的椅子,椅背上精雕着团团簇簇的橡树花,还有一张与椅子配套的桌子,以及一整套伊丽莎白时代的全部设备,说不定还是从更早的年代祖传下来的,由总督从故土运到了这里。桌子上面,为表明英格兰好客的遗风犹存,摆着一个硕大的锡制单柄酒杯,如果海丝特或珠儿往杯里张望的话,还可看见杯底上残存着刚喝光的啤酒的泡沫。

墙上悬着一排肖像,都是贝灵汉家族的先祖,有的胸前护着铠甲,有的则穿着衬有环状皱领的乎日的长袍,但个个面露威严,这是当年的肖像所必备的特征,似乎他们都是已故的风云人物的鬼魂而不是他们的画像,以苛刻掘狭的批评目光审视着活人的活动和娱乐。

大厅四周全都镶嵌着橡木护墙板,正中位置上悬接着一副甲胄,那可不象画中的那种遗物,面是当时的最新制品;因为那是在贝灵汉总督跨海来到新英格兰那一年,由伦敦的一位技术熟练的工匠打造的,包括一具头盔、一面护胸、一个颈套、一对护腔、一副臂销和吊在下面的一把长剑。这全套甲胃,尤其是头盔和护胸,都擦得授亮,闪着白色的光辉,把四下的地板照得通明。这套明晃晃的盔甲,可不只是摆设,总督确曾穿着它多次在庄严的阅兵式演武场上耀武扬威,而且,更重要的,也确曾穿着它在皮廓德之战②中冲锋陷阵。因为贝灵汉总督虽是律师出身,而且惯于在谈到培根③、柯克④、诺职和芬奇⑤时,将他们引为同道相知,但这一新国家的事态已经将他变成了政治家和统治者,同时也变成了军人。

小珠儿就象她刚才对宅瞪闪光的前脸大为高兴一样,此时对那明晃晃的盔甲也兴奋异常,她在擦得缀亮的护胸镜前照了好长时间。

“妈妈,”她叫道,“我在这里面看见你了。瞧啊!。瞧啊!”

海丝特出哄孩子高兴的愿望,往里隔了瞧;由于这一凸面镜的特殊功能,她看到红字的映象极为夸张,显得比例极大,成了她全身最显著的特征。事实上,她仿佛完全给红字遮住了。珠儿还向上指着头盔中一个相似的映象,一边向母亲笑着,小脸上又露出了那常有的鬼精灵的表现。她那又调皮又开心的神情,也同样映现在盔甲的凸面镇中,显得益发夸张和专注,使海丝特·白兰觉得,那似乎不是她自已孩子的形象,而是一个精灵正在试图变作珠儿的模样,

“走吧,珠儿,”海丝特说着,便拉着她走开。“来看看这座漂亮的花园。我们也许能在那儿看到一些花,比我们在树林里找得到的还要好看呢。”

于是珠儿便跑到大厅最远端的凸肚窗前,沿着困中小径望过去,小径上铺着剪得矮矮的青草,两侧夹着一些由外行人粗粗种下的灌木。但花园的主人似乎已经看到:在大西洋的此岸,在坚硬的土地上和剧烈的生存竞争中,要把故乡英格兰的装点园艺的情趣移植过来,实在是枉费心机,从而决定放弃了这一努力。圆白菜长得平乎常常;远远种着的一株南瓜藤,穿过空隙,在大厅窗下,端端结下—颗硕大的果实,似乎在提醒总督:这颗金黄色的大南瓜,已经是新英格兰的土壤能够为他奉献的最丰富多采的点缀了。不过,园中还有几丛玫瑰花和几株苹果树,大概是布莱克斯通牧师先生⑥所栽植株曲质裔。这位波士顿半岛的第一位定居人和半神话的人物,在我们早期的编年史中,常可读到他骑在牛背上四处行走。

珠儿看见了玫瑰丛,开始叫着要一朵红玫瑰,而且怎么哄都不听,

“轻点,孩子,轻点!”她母亲正正经经地说。“别嚷,亲爱的小珠儿!我听见花园里有人说话。总督走来了,还有几位先生跟他在一起呢!”

事实上,可以看见从花园中曲林荫路的那头,有几个人正朝房子走过来。珠儿对母亲劝她安静下来毫不在乎,反倒发出一声怪叫,然后才不吱声,而且也不是出于听话,只因为她那种瞬息万变的好奇心此时被几个新出现的人激励起来了。

①见《一千零一夜》中阿拉丁与神灯的故事,他的宫殿是灯神所建,故辉煌异常。

②皮廓德本是印第安阿尔员钦人之部落,17世纪定居新英格兰南部,此战在1636—1638年。

③弗兰西斯·培根(1561—1636),英国著名散文家、哲学家和政治家,文艺复兴的杰出代表。

④爱德华·柯克爵士(1552—1624),英国法理学家和法律学作家。

⑤诺职(Noye)和芬奇(Finch),生平不详,当是与培根和柯克同时代的名人,多半是由作者故意杜撰出来,讽刺贝灵汉的。

⑥威廉·布莱克斯通牧师(1595—1675),原为英国教会牧师,是波士顿及罗德岛的第一位定居者,先于1623年到达波士顿,后因1635年教会论战令失败,迁居罗德岛。
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