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[2007-6-21]TESCO , Fresh but far from Easy

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发表于 2010-3-17 22:08 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Tesco
乐购
                Fresh, but far from easy


                      新鲜,但还不敢言轻松
Jun 21st 2007 | LONDON AND PHOENIX
From The Economist print edition
Armed with powerful retailing science, Britain'smost successful supermarket is making an audacious bid to change the way Americashops and eats
在装备了强大的零售业科技后,英国最成功的超市试图冒险改变美国传统购物与饮食的模式




A FORLORN shop facing a dusty car park in one of the poorest parts of Phoenix, Arizona,is an inauspicious place to start a closely watched experiment in globalretailing. Yet this is where Tesco, Britain'sbiggest supermarket group, will seek to establish its beachhead in the world'srichest grocery market.
似乎,把全球零售业的近距离观察试验,放到亚利桑那州凤凰城中最穷的地区,一个门口有着脏兮兮的停车场脏且人迹罕至的超市里,不是一个成功的好兆头。然而英国最大的超市集团——乐购,在进军美国这个全球最阔绰的百货市场时,却选择在这里进行“诺曼底登陆”。


Laterthis year Tesco will open at least 21 stores in this arid city and plentymore—it will not say how many—in Las Vegas, San Diego and Los  Angeles. It plans to pepper some of America'sfastest-growing states with Fresh & Easy local groceries at a rate of threea week. Tesco has identified as many as 100 sites to begin its £250m a year ($500m) campaign. Rumour has it that a new warehousejust east of Los Angelescould alone supply some 400 stores.
在今年的晚些时候,乐购将在这座干涸的城市上开至少21家分店,而在拉斯维加斯、圣地亚哥和洛杉矶,还将开设更多的分店,官方尚未公布具体的数目。它计划在美国一些经济快速增长的州内以一周三家的速度增开“新鲜轻松”的当地超市。乐购挑选了多达约100个地点以开启一年2亿5千万英镑(5亿美元)的战役。有消息说,它在洛杉矶东部的新仓库,就足以供应400家分店了。


ByAmerican retailing standards, Tesco is merely dipping a toe in the ocean. Evenso, the consequences could be enormous. Tesco is a formidable retailer, havingtransformed itself from Britain'sthird-ranked supermarket by sales to the third-largest in the world, after America's Wal-Mart and France'sCarrefour (see table). As it has done so, Tesco's share of the grocery marketin Britain has climbed above30% and, like Wal-Mart in America,it has begun to face criticism of its market power.





按照美国零售业标准,乐透才仅仅刚入行。但即使这样,它所造成的影响也是庞大的。乐购是家让人敬畏的零售公司,它的所占的超市份额从英国市场的第三位,一直拼到世界的第三位,仅排在美国的沃尔玛和法国的家乐福之后。它在英国的零售市场份额也扶摇直上到30%,而且,和美国的沃尔玛一样,它也开始因自己足以垄断市场的实力而被人批评。
That isone reason why Tesco has to venture abroad. Another became clear this week,when the company reported how sales growth at its British stores slowed sharplyin the first quarter, because of subdued consumer spending and increasedcompetition. It shares fell by almost 5% on the news. But this was compensatedfor by international sales, which grew by 25%. Tesco is expanding in placeslike eastern Europe and China,where it tailors supermarkets to local conditions.
这是乐购被迫在国外冒险的原因之一。而另一个原因在本周也变得明朗起来,公司报告在第一季度,因为消费疲软和竞争激烈的原因,它在英国销量的增长速度大幅下降。消息传出后,它的股票几乎跌了5%。不过乐购公司却从25%的国际销量增幅中得到了补偿。特别是在东欧和中国等地,乐购根据当地条件因地制宜,并大肆扩张。
In Americait is trying something completely different. The operation is veiled in secrecyand furtiveness—Tesco is anxious not to tip its hand to competitors. When ittested the layout of a mock store in Santa  Monica, it did so hidden from view in a warehouse. Itstocked the shelves with food shipped in from America's East Coast and peoplewere told it was just a film set.
在美国,它正在尝试一种完全不同的方式。乐购非常希望竞争对手对自己一无所知,因此一切行动都在隐秘中进行。当它在Santa Monica的模拟商店测试超市布局时,就藏在一个从外面看起来像仓库的地方。它把从美国东海岸运来的食物上货架时,却告诉人们那只是电影胶片。


Thesecrecy and the speed with which Tesco is expected to open its new storespoints to the risks. If Tesco gambles small and wins, competitors will havetime to copy it before it reaches critical mass. Placing a big bet is moredangerous, but it may be the best way to exploit a model that can be scaled uprapidly into thousands of stores across a market that rewards innovation likeno other. “In retailing there aren't huge barriers to entry,” says Sir TerryLeahy, Tesco's chief executive. “That's one of the reasons you can't hangaround and trial this thing. You have to launch and go.”
乐购计划中的开店速度和暗渡陈仓的行动,是源于零售业的高风险。如果乐购谨慎地小赌,即使它赢了,在它达到临界规模之前,竞争对手将有充足的时间复制它的战略。大赌虽然危险,但对充分利用一个模式并将其快速应用遍及市场的上千家商店而言,却可能是最好的办法,而市场是最回报创新的。“零售业没有很高的门槛,”乐购的CEO Terry Leathy先生说,“这也是你不能四处招摇并慢慢试验的原因之一。你必须快速决定并行动。”


Somepeople have already decided to bet on Tesco's success. Last year WarrenBuffett, one of America'smost successful investors, revealed that his Berkshire Hathaway company hadbought almost 3% of Tesco to become one of its largest shareholders. Mr Buffettadmires careful planning and Tesco has done plenty of that.
有些人已经决定下注乐购成功了。去年美国最成功的投资家之一,华伦巴菲特公布他的Berkshire Hathway公司已经持有了乐购几乎3%的股份,并成为其最大的股东之一。巴菲特先生对乐购的精心策划赞不绝口,而乐购已经完成了很多类似的计划。


Into their cupboards
深入碗柜
Thecompany has spent years gathering detailed information on every aspect ofAmerican life. Most retailers would think they had done their homework afterthe usual focus groups and surveys, but Tesco went much further. Researchers,including a small cohort of top executives, spent two weeks living with 60American families. They poked around in their kitchen cupboards, watched themcook and followed them as they shopped. “They'd been studying the city forabout a year before they came to us,” says Scott Motley, who works for the cityof Phoenix,which with the Greater Phoenix Economic Council helped Tesco find places to putstores.

这家公司已经花费了数年时间,从美国人日常生活的每个方面收集细节信息。很多零售商在进行了常规的目标顾客群和市场调查后,就认为万事大吉了,但乐购所做的要多得多。调研人员,包括一个由顶级管理层组成的统计小组,花了2周的时间和60个美国家庭生活在一起。他们深入美国人的厨房和碗柜,看他们做饭并跟着他们购物。“在进军我们这里之前,他们花了一年的时间来研究这座城市。”Scott Motley说,他就职于凤凰城,并曾和高级凤凰城经济理事会一起帮助乐购寻找开店地址。


Even thestores seem part of a grander plan to keep gathering data. Take the patchworkof districts where Tesco plans to build some of the first. In central Phoenix it has chosensome of the poorest parts of town. Families living within a mile of one storehave a median annual income of just $37,500 (against about $44,000 for America as awhole). In nearby Chandler,a middle-class area, it will be building its stores within reach of the city'srichest inhabitants. There, median incomes run to about $93,000. This torrentof comparative data is central to the plan: Tesco is setting out to change theway Americans shop and eat.
甚至商店本身都是这个收集数据的宏伟计划中的一部分。就拿乐购首批建设商店的精心选址来说。在凤凰城中部,它选择了镇上最穷的部分。在商店一英里的范围内,居民年收入中位数仅仅是37,500美元(而美国的平均收入是44,000美元)。在钱德勒附近的中产阶级地区,它将把商店建在这座城市最富有居民伸手可得的地方。那里,收入中位数达到了93,000美元。如此多的比较数据直指这个计划的核心:乐购决心改变美国人购物和饮食的习惯。


As inmost retail markets, American stores are splitting into those that sell luxurygoods and those that sell cheap ones. Both Whole Foods Market (luxury) andWal-Mart (cheap) are among America'sfastest-growing stores (although they have slowed down a bit recently).Retailers catering to the mid-market such as Kroger, Safeway and Albertson,three of America'sbiggest grocers, have been squeezed. They come under pressure to cut prices andmargins when Wal-Mart moves into the area. And they are simultaneously pressedto invest in swanky wood-effect polished floors and sumptuous fresh-producedisplays to stop their richer customers decamping for posher places.


和大多数零售业市场一样,美国商店分裂为两级,卖奢侈品的和卖廉价品的。其中奢侈的食品统一超市和廉价的沃尔玛都是美国发展最快的商店(尽管它们的发展速度近来下降了不少)。而中档零售超市,比如Kroger,Safeway和Albertson,三家美国最大的零售商则遭到了挤压。一旦沃尔玛进入了它们的领域,它们就承受着削减价格和利润的压力。而且,他们同时还被迫购置时髦锃亮的木制地板和华丽崭新的显示屏,不然富有的顾客就会流失到更豪华的超市。


Social shoppers


社会化顾客


Tesco'soffering in Americawill swim against this tide. It is aiming Fresh & Easy squarely at themiddle market. The firm is hoping to repeat its success in attracting shoppersfrom all the main social groups in Britain, where social class untilrecently played at least as big a role in determining where people shopped asprice and convenience did. Tesco will also be a pioneer in two other importantways: the size of its stores and their range of goods.


乐购将在美国逆流而上。它的“新鲜轻松”店的目标直接对准了中档市场。公司希望能够复制在英国的成功,在那里它吸引了各个阶层的消费者。在英国,起码到现在为止,决定顾客选择超市的因素很大程度是他们所属的社会阶层,至少和价格与便利程度等因素一样重要。乐购在经营面积和经营范围这两个重要的问题上,同样是开拓者。


MostFresh & Easy outlets will be relatively small, at about 10,000 square feet.Although about the same sales-floor size as the average Walgreen's, a chain ofdrugstores, most food retailers in America are either much bigger (six Fresh& Easy's would fit into a typical supermarket and ten into the averageWal-Mart), or much smaller (each is about three times the size of a 7-Elevenconvenience store).


大多数“新鲜轻松”将会相对较小,大约就是10000平方英尺。尽管它和沃尔格林连锁药店的平均店铺面积大致相同,但和大多数美国食品零售店比,它要么是太小了(6家“新鲜轻松”才能等于一家典型的超市,10家才相当于沃尔玛超市的平均大小),要么是太大了(每一家都相当于7-11便利店的3倍面积)。


Does sizematter? In America'slightly regulated supermarket industry, most shoppers in all but the deepestbackwoods live just a few minutes' drive from a large supermarket. The chancesare the store has acres of parking, is open all night and has a good selectionof whatever you might need: prescription medicines, dog food and piping-hotmeals that have been cooked in the store.


面积重要么?美国的超市产业的法律规范不多,除了最与世隔绝的偏远地区,大多数顾客从居住地到一家大型超市只需几分钟的车程。大超市的吸引力包括庞大的停车场,24小时营业和任何你可能需要的琳琅满目的商品:比如处方药,狗食和商店现场做熟的热气腾腾的晚餐等等。


Convenience,however, has many dimensions. Tesco is betting that there is demand for smallerstores closer to home with fewer products, making it easier to find things.People in too much of a rush to stop at a supermarket use tiny outlets such as7-Eleven, of which there are close to 1,200 in Californiaalone. But their range is limited. Retail Forward, an American consultancy,reckons nearly 40% of convenience sales come from cigarettes and tobacco,followed closely by beer and wine. As for nutrition, most offer little morethan snacks and frozen pizza. “The typical American convenience-store consumerwould be Homer Simpson,” says Ira Kalish, a retailing expert at Deloitte, anaccounting firm. “No one has done convenience and quality food together.”


当然,便利是包含不同层次的。乐购把赌注押在市场需要更小的面积、更近的距离、货品虽少但更容易寻找的商店。人们太繁忙时,就不会去大超市而是去7-11这样的小商店。7-11仅在加利福尼亚就开了1200家分店。美国一家顾问公司,零售业前进表示,近40%的便利店销量来源于香烟和烟草,啤酒和葡萄酒则紧随其后。在营养物上,恐怕除了点心和冰冻皮萨之外,它们就没有更多的选择了。“最典型的美国便利店顾客可能就是Homer Simpson1了”,德勤会计事务所的零售业专家,IraKalish称,“便利和高质量,没有人可以二者兼得。”


As forproducts, Tesco's second innovation will be a range of preservative-free “readymeals” that are familiar to British consumers yet barely exist in large partsof America.“There's a big hole in the American market,” says Rajiv Lal, of Harvard Business School.“American supermarkets have not been innovative with prepared foods. You can'teat them more than three days in the week without eating the same stuff. But Isuspect there are people in Britainwho live off prepared meals from Marks & Spencer for three weeks on end.”


在产品方面,乐购的第二个创新是一系列的不含防腐剂的“现成饭”,英国顾客很熟悉它,但美国的大部分地区却缺乏此类产品。“美国市场有很大的空缺,”哈佛商业学校的Rajiv Lal说:“美国超市的现成饭缺乏创新。你即使一周内不吃任何类似的东西,也不可能吃它们超过三天。但我怀疑,在英国没有人可以坚持三周不碰麦莎的现成饭。”


So whyhave British supermarkets led America'sin easy meals? Generals like to say that amateurs study tactics andprofessionals study logistics. The same is true for retailing. In trying tocompete with discount retailers such as Wal-Mart and Costco in a large countrywith good roads and cheap land that lends itself to big-box retailing, America's supermarketshave concentrated mainly on trying to take costs out of their supply chains.Labour is also cheaper in America.This has encouraged supermarkets to make two sorts of food: that which lastslong because it has been dried, canned, frozen or otherwise preserved, and thatwhich is prepared from raw ingredients on site.


如此,为何在“现成饭”上英国的超市可以领先于美国呢?军事上有句名言,初学者研究战术,专家研究后勤。零售业也是这个道理。美国这样广袤的国土上有着良好的交通和廉价的土地,是最利于超市“巨无霸”的。要想在美国和沃尔玛或Costco这样的折扣零售商竞争,美国超市业必须把主要精力都放在了努力降低供给链的成本支出上。美国的人工成本也相对较低。因此超市里逐渐形成了两种类型的食物,一类用风干、罐装、冰冻或者其他方式长期保存;另一类则是在超市现场由原料现做成的熟食。


Sandwiches to ready meals
从三文治到现成饭


Britishsupermarkets, in contrast, operate on a small, crowded island with restrictiveplanning laws. Whereas American stores are good at moving goods hundreds ofmiles and keeping them cheap, British retailers specialise in regular, frequentdeliveries to heaving city-centre stores. Their supply chains are moresophisticated because they have to be. Stores can be so small that they have toswitch from selling sandwiches at lunchtime to selling ready-made suppers inthe afternoon.


而英国超市则相反,它们生存在狭小拥挤的岛上,忍受着严格的规划限制。当美国商店善于将商品从百里之外运送过来并保持低价时,英国零售商专注于有规律、频繁地为市中心商店供货以保证其运营。他们的供给链必须更加精致。商店因为实在太小,它们只有不停地更新,在中午的时候卖三文治,到了下午就卖晚餐的半成品。


Expensivelabour and a shortage of space have encouraged British retailers to seekeconomies of scale from centralised food preparation. Rather than cooking onsite, they make a wide range of meals that can last for a couple of days. Theseare not just staples such as macaroni cheese or lasagne. A typical London supermarket nowstocks more than 50 different meals, including treats such as organic beef inwine, Keralan prawn curry and Asian noodles with vegetables.


人工昂贵和空间短缺也促使英国零售商集中食物制作以寻找规模经济。他们不在现场制作,而是提供种类繁多且可以存放数天的食物。这些可不仅仅是诸如通心粉、奶酪或lasagne等热销品。一个典型的伦敦超市如今存放了超过50种晚餐,包括一些美食享受,比如葡萄酒泡有机牛肉,喀拉拉的咖喱虾和亚洲的蔬菜面条。


Althoughsome British supermarkets have done a better job at seizing the top of themarket and others the bottom, none has surpassed Tesco at concocting a wideenough range of meals to suit every taste. Once, Tesco was stuck downmarketselling cheap fodder to working-class mums. Now its market share is almost aslarge as the combined share of its two closest rivals: Asda, which is owned byWal-Mart, and J. Sainsbury.


尽管有些英国超市更擅长于抓住高端顾客,有些则抓住低端顾客,但没有人能像乐购那样包含了如此广泛的食物足以适应每个人的口味。以前,乐购也曾困在低端市场,出售廉价饲料给工人阶级的妇女。现在它的市场份额几乎和它的两大竞争对手之和一样大:是J.sainbury和沃尔玛旗下的Asda.


Tesco'srise is at least partly thanks to its knack of quickly responding to trends. Itwas the first of Britain'sbig supermarkets to embrace convenience stores. And it has been a cleverinnovator with its supply chain. Take, for example, its introduction of truckswith internal partitions for frozen, chilled and ordinary goods. As simple asthe idea sounds, Tesco could thus replace three deliveries with one, which madeit possible to sell groceries profitably in small stores at supermarket prices.


乐购的崛起至少一部分要归于他们对潮流趋势的敏锐反应。它是英国大超市中第一家采用便利店模式的。在供给链上它也是一个聪明的创新者。举例而言,它在卡车内部发明了隔板,这样可以同时运送冷冻、冷藏和普通货物。就象听起来的那么简单,乐购通过这种办法用一次运输代替三次,使它有可能在小商店里卖到超市低廉的价格,并能获得可观的利润。


ButTesco's biggest innovation has been in the way it collects and uses customerdata from its Clubcard, a loyalty programme. Many retailers use clubs toprovide nothing more sophisticated than a discount to customers as they pay fortheir goods. Because rivals can easily match this, it reduces profit marginsfor all, says Deloitte's Mr Kalish.


但乐购最大的发明是它利用会员卡收集和使用顾客资料,即忠诚计划。许多零售商的会员卡除了在顾客买单时打点折,就没有更多的作用了。因为很容易引发竞争对手的价格战,所有商家的边际利润都降低了,德勤的Kalish先生说。


The Tescoscheme mails discount vouchers to customers to encourage them to return. Moreimportantly, it tracks every purchase to build one of the world's largestdatabases. This finds correlations between purchases, allowing Tesco to finelytune the product range in each store. Sales of pickled vegetables, forinstance, may suggest Polish immigrants have moved in, prompting it to stock barszcz,meatballs and sauerkraut.


乐购的计划是将折扣券寄给顾客,以鼓励他们回来。更为重要的,它收集了每一笔购物记录并建造了世界上最大的数据库之一。由此数据库可以发现购物之间的相关性,乐购便可依此精细地调整每一家商店的货品类型。比如说,泡菜的热销,也许暗示着附近迁入了波兰移民,商店就会因此而常备巴尔什奇,肉丸和腌菜。


As aresult, its stores in Asian areas of Britain offer Bollywood movies,curry spices and large sacks of rice and flour. Its stores in London's wealthiest parts, meanwhile, arestocked with ripe organic avocados, dainty packs of mange tout and steaks infancy sauces.


这样的结果是,在英国的亚裔区,它储备宝莱坞电影、咖喱调料和大袋大袋的米和面粉。同时,在伦敦的富人区,它储备成熟的有机鳄梨、精巧包装的美食和撒满美味调料的牛排。


Tesco'sdatabase also provides insights into how customers see the company. When itrevealed that families were not buying nappies or other baby supplies in theirweekly shop, further research showed they were instead paying some 20% more tobuy these items at nearby Boots pharmacies because they trusted the Boots brandwhen it came to looking after their babies. So Tesco began a baby club,offering advice on pregnancy and mothering. Within two years almost four ofevery ten expectant parents in Britainwere members and the firm had seized almost a quarter of the mother and babymarket, according to “Scoring Points”, a book on the Clubcard scheme.


乐购的数据库还可以提供了顾客如何看待公司的深度资料。当数据揭示家庭在他们每周一次购物中不再购买婴儿尿布或其他的婴儿用品时,而更进一步的调查显示他们转而在附近的Boots药店购买此类用品,并宁愿多支付20%。这说明,大多数人在照料自己婴儿方面更信任Boots品牌。于是乐购开设了婴儿俱乐部,为孕、育提供建议。据会员卡项目的一本书——《得分点》所说,只用了两年时间,大约40%的英国准父母就加入了俱乐部,公司也抓住了几乎1/4的母婴用品市场。


Somequirky correlations also pop out of the data. Take the fact that familiesbuying baby wipes also buy more beer, mainly because fathers of young childrenhave less time to go to the pub. Tesco's response: mailing families withinfants discount coupons for toys and beer.


还有一些意料之外的相关性也由数据所揭示。比如一个现象是购买婴儿擦拭巾的家庭同时也买了更多的啤酒,这可能是因为有婴儿的父亲往往逛酒吧的时间都比较少。乐购的反应是:给有婴儿的家庭邮寄玩具和啤酒折扣券。


Tesco'sentry into Americawill be “a wake-up call to the rest of the supermarket industry, including us,”says David Lannon, president of the North Atlantic Region for Whole FoodsMarket. “Tesco is better than the major supermarkets in the US. They'recleverer and more efficiently run.”


乐购进军美国被看作是“惊醒了世界其他的超市业,包括我们,”食品统一超市北大西洋区的总裁David Lannon说:“乐购比美国的大型超市都要好。他们行动起来更聪明也更有效率。”


That doesnot mean that the British model will be easy to transfer. At least one reasonbehind the success of Tesco's convenience stores is public transport. Many arenear, or sometimes even inside, underground and railway stations, making iteasy for commuters to pop into a store to grab a meal on their way home.


但这并不意味着英国的模式可以很轻易的移植到美国。至少乐购便利店成功的一个背景因素是公共交通。大部分店距地铁和铁路站都很近,有时甚至就在里面,上下班的顾客们很容易就踱进一家商店,然后抓一份晚餐带回家。


Publictransport also seems to shape consumer behaviour in two other ways. The firstis that it encourages many small shopping trips, because purchases have to becarried. This in turn prompts consumers to favour perishable produce overfrozen. The second is that it discourages the purchase of hot meals, either ofthe sort sold in many American supermarkets or fast-food outlets. Some,however, worry that this accident of British geography may have colouredTesco's view of the ready meals it is proposing to sell through its Fresh &Easy stores in America.


公共交通在两个不同的方面塑造了顾客消费模式。第一个是顾客倾向于购买小份商品,因为必须得带在身上。在另一个意义上说,顾客也更倾向于新鲜产品而不是冷冻品。第二个是它制约了热食的销售,其中包括在大多数美国超市所和快餐店所热销的。然而,某些人却担心英国地理上的巧合有可能让乐购公司高估了新鲜轻松店和现成饭在美国的前景。


Feeding the kids


蹒跚学步
Will America'ssoccer moms be as willing to stop their cars to grab a ready meal on the wayhome as British mums are when they jump off the Tube? Tesco thinks they will.For a start, worries about obesity have spawned more interest in healthy eatingin America.Demand for organic products is soaring—even Wal-Mart has introduced them. WholeFoods Market has revolutionised the way fresh produce is sold in America,partly by stealing some merchandising tactics from the clothing industry, suchas the use of stage lighting and arranging fresh fruit and vegetables intocomplementary blocks of colour.


虽然在回家的路上,英国母亲一下地铁就会顺手带一份“现成饭”,但美式球员的母亲会特意停车去购买么?乐购相信她们会。由于开始担忧肥胖问题,美国人对健康饮食产生了更多的兴趣。有机食物的需求非常旺盛——甚至沃尔玛也开始引进了它们。而食品统一超市新鲜食品在美国的销售带来了革命性的变化,有一部分是偷师服装业的一些营销策略,比如使用舞台灯光和把新鲜水果和与菜排入互补色块中。







Tesco isalso reacting to environmentalism by presenting itself as both healthy andgreen. Its distribution centre will have the largest solar-panel roof in California, its storeswill use low-energy LED lighting and its refrigerated trucks are designed to useless fuel.


乐购还通过把自己表现得健康和绿色来回应环保主义。它的分销中心将拥有加利福尼亚最大的太阳能板屋顶,它的商店将采用低能耗的LED灯,而且它的冷藏卡车也是按省油标准设计的。
Tesco isoptimistic that shopping habits in America point its way. “When youlook at Americans, they shop more frequently than British people and they haveto shop around many more retailers, because no one retailer gives them whatthey want,” says Sir Terry. “The opportunity [for us] is that they will shopless often if they get more of what they want in one place.”


乐购的乐观主义也源自美国人的购物习惯。“当你研究美国人,你会发现他们购物要比英国人更频繁而且他们必须逛很多家零售店,因为没有一家能提供所有他们想要的东西,”Terry先生说,“如果他们在一个地方就满足了而无需频繁的逛商店。我们也就没机会了。”


Yet forall Tesco's confidence, few retailers have successfully broken into a maturegrocery market in a developed country. Sainsbury's, Marks & Spencer andCarrefour are among the many European retailers that have tried their luck in America andwalked away in frustration. This is in part because food retailing, with a fewexceptions, is still a local industry. Laxman Narasimhan and Tim McGuire, ofMcKinsey, a consulting firm, reckon that economies of scale in groceryretailing, such as distribution and advertising, are mostly local. “A 40%market share in one market is far more profitable than 10% shares in fourmarkets,” says Mr McGuire.


然而尽管乐购有如此的信心,但真正打入发达国家的成熟百货市场,并获得成功的零售商寥寥无几。许多欧洲零售商都试图在美国碰碰运气但最终失望地离开,其中包括Sainsbury、麦莎集团和家乐福。主要原因是,尽管有少许例外,但食品零售业基本还是一个当地的产业。Mckinsey顾问公司的Laxman Narasimhan 和Tim McGuire相信,百货零售业的规模经济效应,比如分销和广告,大部分来源于本地。“在一个市场上占据40%的份额,要比在4个市场上各占10%的份额利润大得多。”McGuire先生说。


Andunlike the world of clothing, where a global consumer culture has createdglobal brands such as Zara, Gap and H&M each with thousands of storesacross the world, the internationalisation of grocery retailing is constrainedby the way that food tastes and shopping habits differ vastly from country tocountry.


而且和世界服装业不同,全球的消费文化制造了全球品牌,比如Zara、Gap和H&M各自在世界开设了上千家分店,而百货零售业的国际化却受到国与国之间食物口味和消费习惯之间的天壤之别的制约。


Untilrecently few retailers had been good at changing their offering to take accountof so many foreign quirks while still enjoying the benefits and efficiencies ofbeing big. This is especially true of American retailers, which have grown fastat home by finding a format that works and then rapidly cloning it. But theytoo have often stumbled abroad: for instance, Wal-Mart had to give up in Germany.“Europeans are better at this because they benefit from their history ofcolonisation,” reckons Harvard's Mr Lal. “They have learned the lesson that youhave to let the local people run the local business; that you can collect thetaxes but you don't run the local administration.”
到目前为止,零售商享受着巨型超市带来的利润和效率,却很少愿意改变自己的服务以迎合千奇百怪的外国风俗。美国的零售商更是如此,他们在本土发现了一种快速发展的模式,然后立刻就四处克隆它。但他们也经常在国外跌跤:比如沃尔玛就被迫放弃德国。“欧洲人更善于这类事情,他们从殖民史中受益不少。”哈佛的Lai评论说。“他们明白了你必须让本地人去经营本地业务;就像殖民时你可以收税,但是不要亲自管理当地一样。”


Even ifTesco has read the American market correctly, it will still face stiffcompetition from two sources. The first is from American supermarkets whichwill try to copy Tesco's ideas, despite having supply chains that are poorlyconfigured for doing so. Some are already trying to get ahead: Ralphs, a chainowned by Kroger, recently opened a new store in Irvine, California,as part of a concept it calls Fresh Fare. The other source of competition isthe thousands of fast-food outlets dotted across the areas it is trying to enter.As convenient as the new Fresh & Easy outlets will be, it is still hard tobeat a drive-through window if you want a quick meal.


就算乐购对美国市场的解读是正确的,它还是必须面对两种来源的强力竞争。第一类来源于试图复制乐购创意的美国超市,尽管他们的供应链为此毫无经验。而且有一些已经走在了前面:比如Kroger旗下的连锁店Ralphs,最近在加利福尼亚的Irivne开了家新店,其中的一部分理念它称为“新鲜饮食”。另一类竞争来源是星罗密布般地分布在乐购目标区域内的上千家快餐店。不管“新鲜轻松”店有多舒适,当你真正要份快餐时,恐怕还是难以抗拒免下车的窗口服务吧。


“Clearlyit's high risk,” agrees Sir Terry. “But we've carefully balanced the risk. Ifit fails it's embarrassing. It might show up in my career [and] it'll cost anamount of money that's easily affordable by Tesco—call it £1 billion if youlike. If it succeeds then its transformational.”
“很明显这是很高的风险,”Terry先生说。“但我们已经很小心的平衡了风险。如果失败的话我们会有失颜面,但职业生涯里避免不了失败的,而且乐购可以很轻易支付这笔损失——如果你喜欢,就称它为10亿英镑罢。可一旦我们成功了,零售业就会天翻地覆。”
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发表于 2010-3-17 22:08 | 显示全部楼层
发现自己还是太懒了,抓紧一点时间的话可以提前好几天做出来。

另外,排版怎么弄都不对头,不好意思大家将就着看哈。
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发表于 2010-3-17 22:08 | 显示全部楼层
原来乐购是英国的,我常去的啊,很不错。
这篇文章要好好看看:loveliness:
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