大家论坛

 找回密码
 注册
查看: 762|回复: 1

[经济学人] [2009.9.19]A history of Christianity-The greatest story, or the trickiest?

[复制链接]

200

主题

8146

帖子

3万

金币

大家网博士后

Rank: 22Rank: 22Rank: 22Rank: 22

积分
20207
发表于 2010-4-29 03:47 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
A history of Christianity
基督教发展史


The greatest story, or the trickiest? 最伟大或最棘手的故事?
Sep 17th 2009 写于2009年9月17日
From The Economist print edition


Two books reveal the challenges of chronicling religious history
两本书揭露了为宗教撰写编年史的困难



Eyevine

A History of Christianity: The First Three Thousand Years. By Diarmaid MacCulloch. Allen Lane; 1,184 pages; £35. To be published in America by Viking in March 2010. Buy from Amazon.co.uk
《基督教历史:最初的三千年》,作者:戴尔梅德•马克库罗奇

The Case for God: What Religion Really Means. By Karen Armstrong. Knopf; 432 pages; $27.95. The Bodley Head; £20. Buy from Amazon.com, Amazon.co.uk
《上帝的课程:宗教的真正含义》,作者:凯伦•阿姆斯壮

A PROBLEM arises in any attempt to describe the whole of Christian history. From “inside”—in other words, for somebody who sees the story as a providential unfolding of God’s relations with man—it is possible to construct a single narrative, albeit one that outsiders would find skewed. From “outside” the historian faces a problem of meanings and cohesion. Whatever a “bishop” was at Christianity’s dawn, he was something different from the princes of the medieval church, and different from Rowan Williams, today’s top Anglican. It is not just a matter of marshalling facts, but a question of seeing what, if anything, holds the story together.
在任何描述基督教通史的尝试过程中,都会遇到一个问题。以“局内人”的角度来看,换句话说,对那些把基督教的故事看做是上帝与人类关系的神性演变的人来说,要构造一个单一的叙述是有其可能性的,尽管局外人会认为这很离谱。而从“局外人”的角度而言,历史学家所遇到的问题是关于含义与凝聚力的问题。基督教萌芽时期,其中的任何一位主教都与中世纪教堂的亲王有区别,与今日英国坎特伯雷大主教若望•威廉斯亦不同。这不仅仅是关乎到要汇集资料,而且是要弄明白是什么让故事成为故事的问题。

So for Diarmaid MacCulloch, an Oxford don who specialises in the Reformation, the challenge of chronicling Christian history in just over 1,000 pages is manifold. His narrative may not quite hold together, but it has very good bits.
因此,对于专门研究宗教改革运动的牛津学者戴尔梅德•马克库罗奇,仅仅用1000多页来撰写基督教编年史则是困难重重。他的叙事也许无法体现其整体性,但有着很好的亮点。

During the period he knows best, it is hard to distinguish Christian history from European history. Since Europe’s wars were mostly fought in Christianity’s name, there is no bright line between the sacred and the secular. Mr MacCulloch describes the era with a skilful sweep, though little distinguishes this section from a more general account.
对于他最为熟悉的时期,很难将基督教历史与欧洲历史区别开来。由于大多数欧洲战争都是以基督教的名义发起的,因此在神圣与世俗之间就没有明显的界限。对于那个时代的描述,马克库罗奇先生颇具技巧地以流水帐的方式记录下来,尽管这部分记录与更为大概记录几乎无异。

Some will be less happy with his treatment of Christianity’s early years, when basic doctrines were being hammered out. To this era Mr MacCulloch brings some baggage, and it can get in the way. A vicar’s son, he was ordained as a deacon but declined to become a priest in protest against a homophobic wave that gripped the Church of England in the 1980s. (He has been active in the gay Christian lobby.) More than once he makes the point that in telling the story of self-described Christians, one must look beyond texts by early Christian writers whose main purpose was to denounce heresy. Fair enough, but such is Mr MacCulloch’s preference for the heretical over the orthodox that a reader who relied on him alone might struggle at times to work out what the mainstream Christian view was, despite learning lots about those who were against it.
关于马克库罗奇先生对基督教早年的描述,那时基督教的教义都是苦心想出来的;对此,有些人则会不大高兴。马克库罗奇先生为让这个年代的描述详实,添加了不少的内容,不过这种做法会对后文的叙述产生阻碍。马克库罗奇先生做为一个教区牧师的儿子,他曾被任命为教区执事,但在之后拒绝抗议二十世纪八十年代侵袭英国教堂针对同性恋的不理智的恐惧思潮,他谢绝了担任牧师职位的机会。(在男性同性恋的基督教游说团中,他表现一直很积极。)他不止一次地表明自己的立场,讲道一个人要自称为基督教徒,那么他对基督教的理解则必须超越早期基督教作家写下的文字,因为这些文人的主要目的是谴责异教学说。这是人人都应该懂得的道理,但之于早期的基督教,这些正是马克库罗奇先生偏向异端学说的地方,致使仅依赖于他的读者也许时而要煞费苦心去弄明白什么才是真正的主流基督教观念,尽管在此过程中也能学习到一些异端学说。

Take one example: the Christian tradition—to which hundreds of millions of Catholics, Orthodox and Anglicans are heirs—holds dear the belief that Jesus Christ was both fully man and fully God, a single person with two natures, divine and human. It is a belief that generations of Christians have wept over, experienced mystically and died for. But Mr MacCulloch devotes little space to that teaching, and many pages (complete with his own misleading terms) to those who rejected it.
我们举例说明:被上百万的天主教徒、东正教徒与英国圣公会信徒继承的基督教传统坚信,耶稣基督是人,也同时是上帝,一个有着两种本性的人,即神性人格与人性人格。为了这个信念,几代的基督教徒历经了悲哀、神秘经历与死亡。但马克库罗奇先生却没有用多大的篇幅来讲解这种教义,而大部分的篇章(包含他自己那让人误解的措辞)却用来针对那些对此信念质疑的人。

He is better at describing the political and military uses of religion than religion itself. In writing of the Christian East, he makes good points about religious nationalism in the post-Ottoman world. But he stumbles in explaining the medieval split between East and West over mysticism.
在描述宗教的政治与军事用途上,马克库罗奇先生比在描述宗教方面做得更为淋漓尽致。在写道东方基督教的过程中,他对于前奥特曼帝国的宗教国家主义提出了很好的观点。但在解释东方与西方在神秘论上的分离,马克库罗奇先生却步履蹒跚。

Mr MacCulloch copes better with the challenges of writing about modern Christianity, relegated to the margins of social, political and scientific developments. Church leaders, conscious that the world can do without them, have had to act nimbly and tactfully if they were to have any influence at all. Mr MacCulloch’s tone changes sharply at this point, becoming lighter and more gossipy. He brings an insider’s wit to tracing the fate of official Christianity in an age of doubt, and to addressing modern surges of zeal, from Mormons to Pentecostals.
现代基督教可以说是社会、政治与科学发展的附属物,因此马克库罗奇先生对描写这部分所遇到的困难,处理得非常到位。教会领导人意识到,没有基督教的存在,世界仍旧可以发展;他们要想对世界产生任何影响的话,他们就必须小心谨慎,机智灵活。在这点上,马克库罗奇先生的笔锋突转,变得轻描淡写,胡话连天。在一个怀疑的年代,他运用了一位局内人的智慧去追踪正规基督教的命运,并从摩门教徒到圣灵降临节集会教徒入手,提出了现代的宗教热潮。

To work really well, a grand history of a religious tradition has to blend an account of the faith itself with the ways this faith has influenced behaviour and the various historic conditions in which it has been articulated. Karen Armstrong is a good blender, which has made her a successful ambassador of religion in a generally irreligious age. In over a dozen books she has delivered something people badly want: a way to acknowledge that faith can be taken seriously as a response to deep human yearnings without needing to subscribe to the formality of organised belief.
要让作品更具效果,那么宗教传统的宏大历史就需要将信念本身的记录与信念影响人类行为与各种历史环境的方式融合起来。凯伦•阿姆斯壮在这一点上做得很好,这也让她在一个普遍无宗教信仰的年代里,成为了一位成功的宗教使者。在她撰写的10多本书中,他传达了人们迫切需要的东西,即传达了一种方式去认同一种道理,即信仰在被人们严肃对待的时候,这种行为则可以做为一种对人类心里深处向往的反应,而无需我们去对某种既定信念履行正规仪式。

Despite the title, her latest book is not so much a case for God as a case against atheism. Those who do not already have faith will not come away with a logical reason to believe. But she argues that modern atheism is as one-dimensional and transient a phenomenon as the modern varieties of theism (including fundamentalism) to which it responds. She praises the best of contemporary theology for the way it manages, like the mystics of early Christianity and Islam, to stress the limits of human discourse in addressing the divine.
尽管书名如此,但她最新的这本书做为反对无神论的案例并不一定是上帝要学的课程。那些没有宗教信仰的人们不必找寻一种信仰的逻辑理由去追随上帝。但他主张,现代无神论正如有神论的其它现代表现形式(包括正统派基督教)一样,是一种短暂的现象,且是没有深度的,也是对后者的回应。她大肆称赞当代神学的至高点在于其传播信仰的方式,就像早期基督教与伊斯兰教的神秘主义,以此来强调人类在谈论神性时所存在的局限性。

But she, like Mr MacCulloch, has baggage. An ex-nun, she too is “on the rebound” from old-time Christianity, and she deals more ruthlessly than he does with the classical axioms of faith. She insists that Jesus of Nazareth made no claim to be divine: a famous New Testament passage that expounds both his self-abasement and divine glory does not mean what Christians think it means, she adds.
但他和马克库罗奇先生一样,在书中添加了过多的修饰。之前做为修女的阿姆斯壮女士,也是从早期的基督教“反弹”过来的,而她在对待宗教信仰的古典公理时表现得比马克库罗奇先生更为冷酷无情。她坚持自己的立场,即拿撒勒的耶稣并未宣称自己是神:新约全书中著名的一段详细说明耶稣的自卑与其神性荣耀的文字并不意味基督教徒就认为事实如此,她后来说道。

Ms Armstrong has won admiration from Muslims and Jews for expounding their traditions in ways that earn respect from outsiders. But such is her animus against traditional Christianity that she cannot render quite the same service for the faith she was once devoted to. This is a shame, not just for Christians but for secular readers too. Perhaps one day an interesting history of Christianity will be written by somebody who is neither a Christian nor an ex-Christian.
阿姆斯壮女士赢得了穆斯林与犹太人对她的敬仰,因为她解释两大民族的传统的方式让他们获得了局外人对他们的尊敬。但这也是她对传统基督教的敌意,也即是她无法对自己曾献身的基督教信仰提供同等服务。呜呼!这真是个悲哀,不仅仅对基督教徒如此,对无神论的广大读者也是这样。也许有一天,某个人会撰写一段关于基督教有趣的历史,这个人不是基督教徒,也不是无神论者。
回复

使用道具 举报

239

主题

8122

帖子

3万

金币

大家网博士后

Rank: 22Rank: 22Rank: 22Rank: 22

积分
20122
发表于 2010-4-29 04:32 | 显示全部楼层
I found some places that need to be more accurate – however, as usual, I did not translate them; I just point out the ideas.

Things that are related to religions are not easy to translate; so, it is a good start.

It is worth the effort -- knowledge about Christianity and Buddhism are crucial for understanding world culture. There are other religions, of course, but knowledge about those two is a good start and it can lead us to a good understanding of other religions too.


-----------------
as a providential unfolding of God’s relations with man
是上帝与人类关系的神性演变的人来说
-- “神性” should be “神助性”

Whatever a “bishop” was at Christianity’s dawn, he was something different from the princes of the medieval church
基督教萌芽时期,其中的任何一位主教都与中世纪教堂的亲王有区别
-- 亲王?

describes the era with a skilful sweep
颇具技巧地以流水帐的方式记录下来
-- sweep means 粗线条

when basic doctrines were being hammered out.
那时基督教的教义都是苦心想出来的;
-- “hammered out” means “created”, “shaped”

To this era Mr MacCulloch brings some baggage,
马克库罗奇先生为让这个年代的描述详实,添加了不少的内容
-- “baggage” means bias, 思想包袱

declined to become a priest in protest against a homophobic wave that gripped the Church of England in the 1980s.
但在之后拒绝抗议二十世纪八十年代侵袭英国教堂针对同性恋的不理智的恐惧思潮, 他谢绝了担任牧师职位的机会
--但在之后为了抗议二十世纪八十年代侵袭英国教堂针对同性恋恐惧狂思潮, 他谢绝了担任牧师职位的机会


in the gay Christian lobby
在男性同性恋的基督教游说团中,他
-- “男性”is not necessary

in telling the story of self-described Christians
讲道一个人要自称为基督教徒
-- 要讲一个自称为基督教徒的人的故事

Fair enough
这是人人都应该懂得的道理
-- 公平
a single person with two natures, divine and human
一个有着两种本性的人,即神性人格与人性人格
--一个有着两种本性的人格,即神性人格与人性人格


He is better at describing
更为淋漓尽致

he stumbles in
马克库罗奇先生却步履蹒跚

Mr MacCulloch copes better
处理得非常到位

轻描淡写,胡话连天
becoming lighter and more gossipy
-- 轻快和饶舌

to addressing modern surges of zeal, from Mormons to Pentecostals.
并从摩门教徒到圣灵降临节集会教徒入手,提出了现代的宗教热潮。
--并讨论了从摩门教徒到圣灵降临节集会教徒的现代的宗教热潮。

historic conditions in which it has been articulated
与各种历史环境的方式融合起来
-- which it has been articulated

generally irreligious age
普遍无宗教信仰年代里
-- 一般来说无宗教信仰年代里

a successful ambassador of religion
成为了一位成功的宗教使者
-- 大使

a way to acknowledge that faith can be taken seriously as a response to deep human yearnings without needing to subscribe to the formality of organised belief.
一种方式去认同一种道理,即信仰在被人们严肃对待的时候,这种行为则可以做为一种对人类心里深处向往的反应,而无需我们去对某种既定信念履行正规仪式。


her latest book is not so much a case for God as a case against atheism
她最新的这本书做为反对无神论的案例并不一定是上帝要学的课程。


Those who do not already have faith will not come away with a logical reason to believe.
那些没有宗教信仰的人们不必找寻一种信仰的逻辑理由去追随上帝

(including fundamentalism)
包括正统派基督教


for the way it manages
在于其传播信仰的方式

has baggage
在书中添加了过多的修饰

old-time Christianity
也是从早期的基督教
-- old-time, for old time’s sake, old timers: 传统老式基督教

does not mean what Christians think it means
并不意味基督教徒就认为事实如此

secular readers
无神论的广大读者
-- 世俗

nor an ex-Christian.
也不是无神论者
-- 前基督徒
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册

本版积分规则



诚聘英才|移动端|Archiver|版权声明|大家论坛 ( 京ICP备06071611号,京公网安备11010802018363号 )

GMT+8, 2020-11-27 08:11 , Processed in 0.176202 second(s), 7 queries , Redis On.

Powered by Discuz!

© Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表