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很全的分类词汇

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发表于 2008-5-2 22:44 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式




一.名词( n. )

1.时间名词(Nouns for time)

present  now  second  minute  hour  day  morning  noon  afternoon  evening ( night) tonight    date  week  weekday  weekend  month  year  season  term(semester)  century  future

------月份 January  February  March  April  May  June  July  August  September  October  November  December  

------星期Monday  Tuesday    Wednesday   Thursday   Friday  Saturday  Sunday

------季节spring  summer  autumn(fall)  winter                                             ------表示将来的单词(The n. expresses future)                                               tomorrow  the day after tomorrow  one day  this(next)+ year等时间名词

------表示过去的单词(The n. expresses past)                                           yesterday  the day before yesterday  once  ago  just now  a moment ago   before 1970  last+year等时间名词   one morning(afternoon)    a year等时间单位n..+ago

------食物链线性单词(The n. which can form the line)       century—year—term —  season —month—week—day—night—evening—afternoon—noon—morning—hour—minute—quarter—second      —moment--while  

------其他类时间单词(The n. can’t be formed easily) today  ago  childhood  boyhood  girlhood  holiday (vacation) harvest-time  all day and night  at first  at last  at once  start( beginning)   end (ending) Halloween                                                                                                

2.学习用品名词(Nouns for  study use)

book textbook  note(notebook)exercise-book pen  pencil  knife glasses sun-glasses  ball-pen  fountain-pen  ink  ruler chalk eraser blackboard-brush  screen  projector rubber  desk (table) backpack  school-bag  letter  word  vocabulary sentence lesson(class) unit text  article essay passage poem title(topic)story fiction  legend  autograph  autobiography  envelope  stamp mail fax  Internet  picture(drawing)  card  postcard  flashcard  dictionary  paper  homework(assignment)schoolwork  list   name  address  tape tape-recorder  record  cassette music song lyric dance rock show party  lecture-platform  number  soccer(football)  conversation  dialogue  survey  documentary  speech  talk talk-show  blank  description  contest competition match game  bingo exam  test  quiz  example  question  problem  answer  reply  solution  resolution  strategy fact clue key way means plan advice suggestion opinion instruction  report mark grade result success failure try reason  prize present(gift) program play performance  TV-show  call-in  wish  hope  newspaper  newsletter  magazine poster  slogan glue  diary  comic  TV (television)  color TV  abacus computer composition form order   break(rest)

3.生活用品名词(Nouns for life use)

desk (table)  chair (armchair)  sofa  couch  bench  stool  seat  wheel  cigarette  book-shelf bookcase  cupboard  furniture  equipment  washing- machine  refrigerator  popper  blender  gas  microwave-oven  watch  clock bell  ring  earring  accessory(decoration)  souvenir  shell  fan  bat(racket) bed  calendar  case  chess   drawer  dresser  e-mail (letter)  chat-line  movie(film)(thriller film) phone (telephone call)  pay-phone  photo(photograph)album camera  film  sale  shower player  video  TV  DVD  radio  battery  collection  room  key door gate window brick tile broom trash(garbage) litter  rubbish  junk  floor  hobby  favorite  trip bulb  light  lamp  mat  balance  fork pot pan  bowl  plate dish  chopsticks  glasses cup mug  spoon  scoop  teaspoon napkin menu recipe guidebook  license thermos basin towel soap mirror comb toothpaste toothbrush shampoo  quilt pillow sheet blanket bedspread  umbrella  raincoat  cover  string  rope  thread  needle pin toy  kite  net web  plough  gun  goods  wallet  purse key-ring  coin  check(bill) tip  money pound dollar franc  treasure bargain robot flight invitation advertisement(ad)advertising sign symbol mark slogan

4.食品(Nouns for Food)

rice  noodles spaghetti  butter  cheese  bread  sandwich  cake  pancake  bun  pizza  pie  egg  junk-food  nut  cookie  dessert special course main-course  starter  side-dish hot-pot  biscuit  grain  cereal popcorn tortilla  nachos  baklava  phat-Thai  chicken  hamburger  sandwich  fat  pork  beef  steak  mutton  fish  kebab samosa dumpling porridge  minestrone-soup  ice-cream  kulfi  salad  chip hot-dog turkey  ingredient  relish  curry  oil  salt  sweet candy gum sugar chocolate honey  vinegar  sauce  bean-curd(tofu) protein  medicine

-----蔬菜 (Vegetable) carrot  tomato  potato  broccoli  radish  onion green-onion garlic ginger pumpkin  bean  bean-pod  pepper  lettuce  mushroom    cucumber  cabbage  celery  leek  eggplant spinach

-----水果 (fruit)apple  orange  pear  peach  banana  watermelon  hamimelon  strawberry (blueberry)  pineapple  lemon  nut  cherry  coconut  date apricot fig  litchi  mango  grape grapefruit  olive  

-----饮料 (drink)  cold-drink  wine  water  tea  beer  soup  soft-drink  juice  coffee  mush  porridge  beverage  cola  milk shake yogurt soda  lemonade

5.服装(Nouns for clothes)

clothes clothing costume  hat (cap)  shirt  skirt  shorts  shoes slipper sneakers sandals  socks  gloves  slippers  stockings  trousers  sweater  pants  jeans belt  T-shirt  suit  tie  vest  jacket  coat raincoat  uniform  scarf  nightdress  pocket  blouse  boot

6.颜色 (Nouns for colors)

black  white  blue  grey(gray)  green  yellow  red  pink  orange  brown  purple  gold blonde silver  cream  coffee

7.职业或身份(Nouns for profession or identity)

Work(job) teacher tutor professor professional actor  actress  performer  film-star  student pupil graduate volunteer  learner listener audience  monitor classmate desk-mate  coach  player runner  athlete gymnast skater  surfer  golfer  singer  clerk bank-clerk  scientist  artist  musician  violinist pianist   doctor  nurse dentist  physician  waiter (waitress) customer passenger  cook(chef)  farmer  hero leader  president king queen emperor angel  soldier  captain pilot astronaut  policeman thief spy enemy terrorist murder friend  photographer  DJ(disc jockey) programmer reporter interviewer interviewee spokesperson agent  visitor tourist guide  buyer  manager  engineer  assistant  worker  keyboard- operator boss workmate dustman  peasant  barber(hairdresser)  fisherman  translator  writer  author  reader lawyer    chairman  premier  musician  judge  merchant  bus-driver  league-member  party-member  school-girl   milk-man  pioneer host hostess guest bride bridegroom vegetarian veterinarian(vet) optometrist  psychologist collector

8.学科(Nouns for subjects)

subject Chinese English  math (arithmetic geometry algebra)  history politics  civic–education geography  science computer-science  art (fine arts) biology botany zoology physiology opera  comedy  tragedy  P.E. law  chemistry physics manual-skill music  cleaning  class-cleaning  preparation  weekly-meeting make-up study self-study   

9.物质材料(Nouns for materials)

metal  steel aluminum  copper  silver  gold  stone  brick  wool cotton leather plastic paper

10.球类运动(Nouns for balls or sports)

sport ball  soccer(football) baseball  badminton  volleyball  ping-pong (table tennis)  tennis  softball  handball golf  hockey  ice-hockey(puck)

11.乐器(Nouns for instruments)

trumpet violin  piano  guitar  drum  flute  pipe  horn  organ mouth-organ accordion

12.工作单位(nouns for units of work)

school  club band  city  country family  grade class team  row  hotel  hospital  post-office  store  shop  bank charity  company (firm) organization government authority department association committee congress society Chinese-Young-Pioneer  the Ministry of Education

13.节日(Nouns for festivals)

Festival birthday The Spring-festival The Earth Day Christmas Halloween Thanksgiving Day Women’s Day  April Fools’Day  May Day(International Labor Day) Children’Day  Teachers’ Day  Mid-Autumn Day  National Day New Year’Day  Latern Festival  Valentine’Day

14.身体部位(Nouns for body)

hair head eye  nose  mouth tongue lip  teeth beard moustache fur  ear  face  jaw(chin)  neck throat  hand  toe  thumb  finger  arm  elbow  leg lap knee  foot  heel  shoulder  back  skin  muscle  flesh  stomach  heart  wing  chest  body  pimple hip

15.三餐 (Nouns for meals)

breakfast lunch  supper  dinner  meal  snack diet

16.文体活动(Nouns for the recreational activity)

get-together appointment conversation  dialogue  performances  folk-  song  pop-song  disco  chorus  solo jazz symphony karaoke comedy tragedy sitcom(situation comedy) soap-opera  opera Peking-opera  recitation  cross-talk  short- play flying-disk fun joke trick hoax  amusement  entertainment game rule  relay  high jump  discus  short-put safari picnic  barbecue  daily broadcast exercises  rings  swimming  bathing  diving  skating  skiing gymnastics  skipping  dash  400-meter-race speed-walking  marathon championship contest competition record tour journey sightseeing exhibition meeting cruise parade campaign  act interview backboard chore housework

17.教学术语(Nouns for the teaching- technical terms)

test quiz exam(examination)  final-term (mid-term)exam  oral-exam written-exam open-book-exam experiment excellent superior normal fail revision(review) phonetic symbol syllable letter word phrase sentence pattern(drill)  article topic  title  plural (singular) exclamation tag programming aim task magic step structure abbreviation contraction homophone synonym antonym term idiom riddle statement requirement suggestion advice comment idea method way(means) meaning pronunciation grammar punctuation comma colon full-stop(point)  bracket theme activity skill ability model element point key(clue) infinitive participle gerund direct-speech reported-speech subject predicative predicate object attribute adverbial complement parenthesis irony hyperbole repetition

18交通工具 (Nouns for the traffic tools)

bus  train  plane(fly airplane )jet-plane  bike(bicycle)tricycle  motorbike(motorcar)  boat  ship  car truck van tractor engine  helicopter  spaceship rocket  UFO  jeep  telegraph elevator(escalator lift) subway roller coaster transportation

19.自然现象(Nouns for the nature)

wind  cloud rain snow  drizzle shower thunderstorm fog  mist rainbow breeze gale hurricane tornado typhoon  fine  smoke  thunder  light shine(lighting)  moon earth  globe  equator  earthquake  star planet satellite orbit comet Venus Mars Saturn universe(cosmos) dust sky space  air   river  lake brook (stream) bay(gulf) tide waterfall wave reservoir  mountain hill  valley island channel land  fire  sea  ocean continent sand  desert swamp  forest stone death lagoon(lagune) nature  

20.植物(Nouns for the plants)

plant  flower  weed  straw tobacco  tree  forest bush  corn  wheat  cotton  rice  sunflower  pea bean sesame lily  rose  violet mangrove  grass  crop  leaf root trunk  wood oak willow stick  grain  castor vegetation herb

21.动物(Nouns for the animals)

snake  spider  butterfly  mosquito  dinosaur  crocodile  bear  dolphin  whale shark octopus shrimp seal cheetah chimpanzee  parrot  peacock  owl hawk bird  tortoise (turtle)  pigeon  swallow  pig  dog  horse  cow  ox(bull) sheep goat lamb  hen (rooster chick chicken cock)  duck  goose  swan  cat  tiger  frog  hare  rabbit  donkey mule monkey  deer  panda  fox  mouse (rat)  hamster  elephant  lion  camel  cattle  giraffe zebra  puma  wolf  koala  kangaroo  seagull  ant  bat  locust  manatee insect creature pet

22..国家名称 (Names for the country)

China  America(the U.S.A)  Canada  Japan  Korea  India  Singapore Thailand Vietnam France Germany  Italy  Britain (England the United Kingdom) Brazil  Russia Greece Spain Sweden  Turkey  Colombia Peru  Switzerland Poland Holland(Dutch) world

23.城市及地区名称(Names for the city and area)

Sydney New York Paris Toronto Tokyo London Moscow Boston Berlin White House Hawaii San Francisco Lausanne California Chicago  Los Angeles Washington D.C.  Florida  Amazon Alice Spring Disneyland Eiffel Tower  Tibet  Hong Kong Forbidden City Qomolangma  Harbin Asia Africa Europe North America South America Oceania Antarctic  the Atlantic Ocean  the Pacific Ocean  the India Ocean  the Artic Ocean

24.语言(Nouns for language)

Chinese English  Russian French  Japanese  German  Indian   Spain   Arabic  

25.容器(Nouns for container)

bag  box  pocket suitcase pack   tin(can) jar cup  mug  glasses  bowl  plate dish  bottle  basin  pot  basket cage   dustbin  memory   well tube teaspoon

26.声音 (nouns for voice)

Sound voice noise  call  laugh  cry  footstep bark explosion murmur click whistling ding-dong echo splash ring giggle cheer sigh

27.表示玩具的名词(The n. expresses toy)

Toy kite gun ball ship train toy mini-bus hoop rattle cradle mobile teddy-bear video-game

28.表示长度,尺寸,时间,货币等“单位”名词(数量单位)

meter  kilometer mile kilogram  size  time  second  minute  hour week month  year  century  ton  rank  block  o’clock(sharp)  pile  piece band gang pair  half  few  little bit  plenty  lot  many  any  some  team  group  pound  penny  part queue line row roll slice build end amount rating degree rank type class kind length height width

29.表示方位的名词(The nouns for position)

front back  left right edge corner side crossing direction east  south  west  north  north-east top bottom middle center

30.抽象名词—属于不可数名词(The n. expresses abstract)

Work homework housework(chore) politics  business heat smell taste beauty importance difference advice exercise training  education culture  achievement  success experience expression yin-yang pro-con  progress population darkness temperature environment attention health silence influence quality fat manner friendship talent compliment future traffic purpose popularity energy etiquette inspiration entertainment relaxation pressure pleasure delight  situation attraction invitation cost hunger mess stress mystery disagreement disadvantage feeling emotion enthusiasm thought  behavior step shortcoming(fault)mistake  management worry attitude panic hit challenge opportunity consequence(result) style lifestyle custom hobby habit pop fashion clean-up circle decision  permission  balance thing matter junk safety danger risk trouble fever pain(ache hurt) cancer  aid(first-aid) solution resolution conclusion  laugh  apology service turn order care try distance instance route truth donation feature commitment pity duty goal secret stuff material pollution  change fact product plastic finding  way  science  rest  regret  repeat  rise  news  rule  breath  defense  pardon  pay  fun  problem(question) attention hope lookout look interest  joy  promise spirit  pronunciation chance  war  noise  death  condition  visit

31.表示“人”的名词(The n. expresses persons)

(1)家庭成员(family member)

father (dad daddy papa) mother(mom mum mummy)children  son  daughter  brother  sister auntie aunt uncle grandparents  grandfather(grandpa) grandmother(grandma)granny grandson  granddaughter  husband wife  nephew  niece cousin  father-in-law  mother-in-law  stepmother  baby  kid  adult  relatives(relations) folks

(2)职业或职务类 (nouns for professions)具体见7

(3)性别(The n. expresses sex)

man  woman  boy  girl child kid baby adult older youth teen(teenager) guy(lad) people  person  friend girlfriend miss Mr. Mrs. Ms  enemy  female  male lady gentleman sir madam guide fan member monster attendant volunteer character alien leader reader writer public owner sports director favorite staff clown villager fool  human(beings)mankind ancestor foreigner westerner passenger visitor customer vegetarian learner owner fool champion winner scientist Jew                                                                                             

(4)与本人具备某种关系

pal pen-pal comrade monitor classmate schoolmate desk-mate partner company companion neighbor

(5)外国人的名字(The n. expresses the name of foreigners)

Jack  Joan  John  Kate  Mike  Betty  Alice  Green  Tom  Rose  Marry  Peter  Lenin  Black  Bob  Hill  Howe  Carl  Washington Hemingway Mark Twain

32.食物链线性单词(The n, which can form the line)

    (1) telephone—call—message—Mrs. Black—nobody

    (2) table-tennis—bat—match—ticket—team—between

    (3) library—assistant—lend—bring-return

33.类属于某一范围或公共场所的名词(The n. expresses pubic places)

family  home  dump apartment(flat) dormitory habitat  house yard court fence  room bedroom sitting-room meeting-room dinning-room diner  bath-room rest-room(toilet closet lavatory) kitchen hall hallway passage corridor  roof  ceiling  society  school  grade  class  group  classroom  building  lab play-ground prison empire country motherland (homeland) hometown village hamlet  countryside outskirts(suburb)  factory  university(college) work-room(work-shop)  post-office  hospital  shop(store)  cinema theatre stage scene  library laboratory  restaurant  bar  steak-house deli drugstore laundry bakery hotel bank supermarket mall airport(airfield) park  garden farm  stop  station garage  street avenue  block district area part neighborhood  way  road bridge  zoo  railway  track  palace  stadium gym  museum gallery  aquarium capital province town city  floor  office nature earth world  space  heaven pyramid  works  temple church cathedral  tomb(grave) cemetery   monument beach desert camp border board chance spotlight spot  pool pond hole  wall palace Hutung tunnel

34.疾病类名词(The n.for sickness)

cold fever cough headache sore-back stomachache toothache illness(sickness)

35.其他类单词(The n. which can’t be formed easily)

nothing NO.=number  wish  talk  need  fight  reply repair meeting  example  accident incident event drive ride  sightseeing interest dream cost prize congress hiccup sneeze top haircut freedom shape prediction proverb(saying)

二.冠词  ( art. )

a  an  the      

三.代词 ( pron. )

A. 人称代词 ( Personal pronoun )

case  格  the nominative case 主格  the objective case 宾格

number 数  singular number 单数  plural number  复数

person 人称  the first person 第一人称  the second person 第二人称  the third person  第三人称

a. 第一人称  主格 I(单数)we(复数) 宾格 me (单数) us(复数) 定格 my(单数)our(复数)  主宾格 mine(单数)ours(复数)

b.第二人称  主格 you(单数)you(复数) 宾格 you(单数)you(复数) 定格 your(单数)your(复数) 主宾格 yours(单数)yours(复数)

c.第三人称  主格 he  she  it(单数) they(复数)宾格 him  her  it(单数)them(复数)  定格 his  her  its(单数)their(复数)  主宾格 his  hers  its(单数)theirs(复数)

B. 指示代词 (demonstration pronoun )

this  that  these  those  

C. 反身代词 ( reflexive pronoun)

myself  yourself  himself  herself  itself  ourselves  yourselves  themselves oneself

D. 相互代词 ( mutual pronoun )

each other  one…another  one…the other

E. 疑问代词 (interrogative pronoun )

what  who  whom  whose  which

F. 不定代词 ( infinitive pronoun )

  a.只可修饰不可数名词的不定代词 (only modify uncountable noun)

much  more  most  little  less  least  a little

  b.只可修饰可数名词单数的不定代词 (only modify the single countable noun)

one  each  every  other neither

  c.修饰可数名词复数的不定代词 (modify the plural countable n.)

both  many  few  a few several

  d.修饰可数名词复数或不可数名词 (modify the plural countable n. or uncountable n. )

all  some  any

  e.可作主语,宾语的复合代词 (compound pronoun )

everything  everybody  everyone  something  somebody  someone  anything  anybody  anyone  nothing  nobody  none whatever whoever

四.形容词 ( adj. )

A. 表示颜色的形容词 ( The adj. expresses color )

black  white  black and white  red  yellow  blue  green  grey  brown  purple  orange  pink blonde(gold)  black- and- blue colorful

B. 表示心理状态及情感的单词 ( The adj. expresses the state of mind )

sorry  afraid  worried  angry  glad  pleased  good  bad  ill hungry  thirsty  excited  exciting  surprised  joy  disappointed sore calm happy unhappy unpleasant sad sorrow upset interested injured annoyed scared bored exhausted relaxed disgusted  embarrassed  embarrassing tired tiring dull anxious terrible cheerful fantastic excellent great wonderful perfect frustrating okay nervous awful delicious thrilling uncomfortable amazing

C. 个性化形容词(The adj. expresses characteristic)

clever bright fool stupid silly active creative outstanding honest dishonest still friendly unfriendly shy lazy diligent talented trendy rude polite impolite modest proud brave patient gentle lovely loving pushy crazy mad mysterious serious kind guilty cool easy realistic energetic confident knowledgeable aggressive hardworking careful wild smart strict

D. 表示天气状况的形容词 ( The adj. expresses the state of weather )

windy  cloudy  sunny  rainy  snowy  cool  fine  warm  hot  cold  humid

E. 表示方位的形容词 ( The adj. expresses position )

front  back  right  left  east  west  north  south  middle southern northern western rural outback central polar underground underwater  worldwide overseas polar next

F.表示某一个国家的形容词 ( The adj. expresses country )

Chinese English  French  American  Japanese Italian Australian Canadian Indian Greek British Brazilian Jewish European Thai

G. 表示时间的形容词 (The adj. expresses time )

last  late last  first final latest following(next) present past recent daily

H. 表示年龄新旧的形容词 (The adj. expresses age, new and old )

old  new  young kid

I. 表示度量(大,矮,长,短,胖瘦等)及形状的形容词( the adj. expresses tolerance)

big  large(huge enormous)  small  little(tiny) plenty short  long  tall thin thick fat slim medium curly square straight bent same

J. 一般描绘性的形容词 ( The adj. expresses commonly description )

handsome  pretty  beautiful ugly great interesting athletic sticky shiny super helpful playful peaceful fascinating touristy homeless necessary important polluted crowded good-looking personal native foreign spotted balanced must well-known unusual funky lovely fit professional online endangered disabled pot-bellied normal home-made extra specific complete medical organized convenient impossible adjustable strange aquatic irregular regular popular original international traditional educational wooden furry

K. 表示物质性质的形容词 ( The adj. expresses the nature of matter )

a.同义词 ( the adj. expresses the same meaning )

all—whole   some—any   many—much   each—every  close—near such—so  few—little—several major—main general—common particular—special spare—free basic—elementary no—none ill—sick famous—well-known similar—the same crispy—fragile fresh—unfamiliar proper—suitable—fit-appropriate

b.反义词 ( antonym )

big—little(large—small)   new—old   young—old   bad—good (nice fine )   long—short   tall—short   right—wrong   right—left   thin—thick   thin—fat   slow—fast/quick  light—heavy   bright—dark   bright—fool   clever—foolish(stupid)   late—early  difficult(hard)—easy  hard—soft   cheap—expensive(dear)  free—busy  living—dead  near(nearby)—far  different—same   beautiful—ugly   careful—careless  last—first modern—ancient safe—dangerous enough—scarce common—special asleep(sleepy)—awake low—high main—secondary loud—silent noisy—quite rude—polite wet—dry strong—weak most—least rich—poor clean—dirty fresh—ripe empty—full safe—dangerous spoken—written huge(enormous)—tiny true—false thirsty—hungry crispy—hard dull—interesting modest—proud(conceited) inside—outside deep—shallow wide—narrow simple—complex  strange—familiar negative—positive slight—crucial part-time—full-time  correct—incorrect fair—unfair lucky—unlucky certain—uncertain important—unimportant own—other on—off alive—dead in-style—out of-style

L. 表示级别的形容词 ( The adj. expresses degree )

good—better—best        

bad—worse—worst  

little—less—least   

old—older(elder)—oldest(eldest)

many—more—most                    

far—farther(further)—farthest(furthest)

M. 表示味觉的形容词(The adj. expresses taste)

sour bitter sweet peppery salty sandy blind deaf lame

N. 其他类形容词(The other adj. )

other what which dear ready sure balanced musical central local primary traditional national scientific side opposite necessary another unhealthy unable serious twin either electric okay no most mobile

注:多个adj.同时修饰同一个名词时,其位置按下列顺序:

限定词(冠词或物主代词或指示代词等)--序数词--基数词--般描绘性的adj--度量性adj.--形状adj.--年龄新旧adj.--颜色adj.--国籍地区adj.--物质材料adj.--用途类别adj.--n.

但若属同一类别则多音节的adj.一般在后

eg. a great French Scientist  

a beautiful little red flower  

the little pink plastic doll   

a tall fat young man

五.副词 ( adv. )

A. 频度副词 ( frequent adverb )

always  usually  often  sometimes  seldom  never once twice again

B.时间副词 ( The adv. expresses  time )

now  then  today  soon  ago  before  just  once  when  tomorrow  yesterday  tonight later late early yet ever finally recently

C.地点副词 ( The adv. expresses place )

up  down  near  right  left  over  here  there  where  nearby  home somewhere everywhere anywhere out outside outdoor indoors

D.程度副词 ( The adv. expresses degree )

much  quite  so  still  yet  too  very  well  better  best  only  more  most  again even already just hard pretty a lot maybe perhaps possibly probably

E.修饰性副词 ( modified adv. )

out  down off  up  about  around else nearly loudly

F.疑问副词 ( The adv. expresses question )

why  where  how  

G.表示动作状态的副词 ( The adv. expresses the state of act )

early  late  fast  slowly  carefully  quickly  hard  high  away  together   over right certainly  yes  no  not  indeed downstairs upstairs casually clearly aloud easily mostly mainly luckily straight instead back ahead again alone

H.评价性副词

particularly gradually specifically frankly generally personally exactly actually normally strongly especially fairly extremely specially fortunately luckily  politely sincerely really well alright anyway                                      I.否定副词

hardly never seldom few little no anymore

J.其他类 ( Other adv. )

all  both  o’clock sure therefore ever yeah away together seriously differently



六.动词 ( v. )

A.情态动词 ( Modal Verb )

can  may  able  must  need  have to  could  might should  can’t  mustn’t  needn’t  shouldn’t

B. 助动词 (Auxiliary Verb )

have  has  had  do  does  will  would  haven’t  hasn’t  hadn’t  don’t  doesn’t  didn’t  wouldn’t  won’t

C.连系动词 ( Link Verb )

be  am  is  are  was  were get turn  become grow look sound fell smell  hear

D.行为动词 ( Acted Verb )

a. 表示移动的单词 (the expresses moving )

go  come  run  jump  walk  leave  move rush  hang(out) return  cross  chase  catch follow  slide escape trek  travel  turn  pass  hang  fly  fall                                                                b.体育运动类动词

race  hike  skate  swim  surf  fish  shop  star  camp  cook  climb  sail  jump run skateboard

c. 表示感觉的单词 (the expresses feeling )

feel see  look  watch  show  notice  find  read  listen hear  smell  taste fear consider worry hate seem mind discover realize stress

  d. 表示天气的单词 (the expresses weather )

rain  snow  shine  wind  thunder  cloud  

e.使役动词 ( made verb )

make(let have get)  surprise  worry  disappoint shock confuse terrify cause thrill please seat convince offend impress annoy hurt interest trouble frustrate

f.情感动词

like  dislike  hate  love  enjoy  appreciate  hope  allow permit promise  wonder

g.忆想动词

believe  guess  think  imagine  suppose  remind  expect

h...持续性动词 (延续性动词 continued verb )

stay  use  wait read  write draw keep lie sleep relax lay miss mind practice clean sweep wash drive visit travel wave change count play own chew press interview argue discuss improve collect encourage chat serve search ride share care grow obey fit complain compare explain mention communicate feed save stand cry hum fight pretend recycle exercise behave choose develop translate type pack try worry deal operate memorize pronounce wipe fry boil shower remain influence point tremble kiss bow peel laugh support rent baby-sit melt support check roll murder smoke perform describe cough destroy(ruin) continue build teach major exchange educate copy store organize raise  

i.非延续性动词 (瞬间性动词 continued verb )

stop  finish  begin(start) die kill leave bear lock drop refuse decide put freeze reveal bother retire land happen donate sneeze hiccup list forbid park toast arrive win beat

j.近义词 ( synonym )

know—understand—clear—see light—bake—burn—boil—roast—fry  realize—achieve

say—speak—talk—tell—ask—predict  aim—shoot—plan  cut—peel—chop  solve—work out

begin—start stay—stop keep—renew visit—go to see sb. call in+地名/call at+人cry—call—shout   like—love—prefer    want—need   answer—work out   get to—arrive—reach think—trust—believe take—bring—fetch—get  spend—take—cost  hold—get—catch  stick—pierce throw—cast—shoot—pull  knock—beat—strike  lift—raise—rise  perform—act—rehearse—appear receive—accept  notice—announce  happen—take place—occur  join—connect—combine  fit—suit joke—kid  produce—make  pour—water—sprinkle  seek—search  join—take part in—attend—enter guide—lead  suggest—advise  fix—repair—mend  invent—discover—create  build—establish rock—shake—tremble  focus—concentrate  dress—wear—put on—be in  offer—supply—provide collect—raise  win—beat  learn—study  divide—separate  pick—choose  try—attempt borrow—lend—keep—renew

k.反义词 ( antonym )

open—shut (close)   stand—sit   finish—begin (start)   bring—take   go—come   laugh—cry   buy—sell   borrow—lend—return   forget—remember   sleep—wake up   read—write (draw)   teach—learn (study)   eat—drink   keep—throw   stop—continue (go on )   sing—dance   hide—show(appear)  give—get   thank—excuse   rise—set down(sink)  love—hate like—dislike pick—discard  lose—find save—waste praise—criticize lead—mislead pay—earn increase—decrease cover—uncover agree—disagree(refuse) succeed—fail freeze—melt marry—divorce send—receive(accept)/hear from  

l.其他 ( others )

wish(hope) fly  fit  grow(plant) guess carry  add  hold  obey hurry  help  work    afford  ask  brush excuse  found  order tour mix include(contain) invite fold weigh  depend mean regard treat pierce express represent bear(stand) belong oversleep crowd urge

七.数词 ( num. )

A. 基数词 (cardinal numbers )

one  two  three  four  five  six  seven  eight  nine  ten  eleven  twelve  thirteen  fourteen  fifteen  sixteen  seventeen  eighteen  nineteen  twenty (twenty+数词“一,二…九”即二十一,二十二….二十九) 以下几十几的表达法同“二十一…………….二十九”一样  thirty  forty  fifty  sixty    seventy  eighty  ninety  hundred  thousand  million  billion    zero

eg. 2,222,222,222  two billion, two hundred and twenty-two million, two hundred and twenty-two thousand, two hundred and twenty-two

B.序数词(ordinal numbers)

first  second  third  fourth  fifth  sixth  seventh  eighth  ninth  tenth  eleventh  twelfth  

“thirteen—nineteen+th”    “第十三…第十九“ “twenty—ninety”   “几十”中均把”ty”变成”tieth”即“第二十,第三十……第九十” twenty-first  twenty-second  twenty-third…twenty-nineth  “第二十  一…..九”以下“第几十几”均类似.  hundredth  第一百(个),一百分之一(的)

另:(1)分数表达法 (fraction)

分子用基数词,分母用序数词,分子是2或大于2亦用复数。

eg. 1/2  one half

          4/5  four fifths

数学中分数的简便读法:

          3/5  three over five

     (2)小数表达法(decima)

小数用基数词表示,读小数时小数点后的数字均按部位分开读,遇到“0”时读作zero或o,但整数为“0”时可不读出。

eg. 0.4  point four 或zero point four

         3.1416  three point one four one six

    (3) 百分数表达法 (percentage)

百分数由基数词加percent表示,且percent不用复数形式

eg. 5%  five percent

           0.17%  zero point seventeen percent

    (4)电话,邮政编码均读基数词,“零”读“zero”或“o”

eg. 电码7803 seven eight o three

           邮政编码470235 four seven zero two three five



八.介词 ( prep. )

A. 地点介词 ( The prep. expresses place position )

at  in  on by  under  before  behind  beside  near  front  back  across(from…) next(to…) inside outside below above over  between among around beyond up down

B. 时间介词 ( The prep. Expresses time )

in  at  on (时间)在…..(某年,某月,某日,某点)   for  since  from….to… until  before  after  by  up  to  between  during(in)  by  within  throughout  over

C. 方向性介词 (The prep. Expresses direction )

to  for  toward up down off out of  onto  into  through by against(for) along around at

D.方式、方法、手段介词

by like(as) on(by through) in(with)

H.原因介词

for(as because since) because of(owing to thanks to  as a result of  due to) with(at of to from)

I .其他类介词 (The other prep. )

except( for)(besides)  apart from about(on) without round                      instead of (in place of/take the place of)  according to  including

九.连词 ( conj. )

A.表示联合关系的并列连词 (The compound conj. )

and then both…and… neither…nor… not(only)…but(also)… as well as

B.表示转折关系的并列连词 (The conj. Expresses transition )

or  but  yet  although(though)  however  whereas  nevertheless

C.表示选择关系的并列连词

or  or else  otherwise  either…or…  rather than

D.表示因果关系的并列连词

so  for  then  thus  hence  therefore

E.引导时间状语从句的从属连词

when(while  as)  after  before  since   until/till once(as soon as  the moment/instant   no sooner than  hardly…when…)

F.引导原因状语从句的从属连词

because  for  as  since

G.引导地点状语从句的从属连词

where  wherever

H.引导条件状语从句的从属连词

if  unless  so/as long as                                                                    

I.              引导目的状语从句的从属连词

that  so that  in order that  in case  lest

J.引导结果状语从句的从属连词

so  so that  so/such…that  that

K.引导让步状语从句的从属连词

though/although  as  even if/even though  however  whatever  whoever  no matter how/what/which…  

L.引导方式状语从句的从属连词

as  as if/as though

M.引导比较状语从句的从属连词

as   as…as   not so/as…as   than

十.感叹词 ( interj. )

hello   hi  oh  OK  please  ha  aha  hey  good  well  all right  Mmm  yuck dear hey yeah welcome goodbye

十一.常见缩写词(common abbreviation)

AM(amplitude modulation)   FM(frequency modulation) HP(home page)   DJ(disc Jokey) MBA(Master of Business Administration) UFO(unidentified flying object)  UNICEF(United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund)          WWF(world wildlife fund)   MTV(music television)CVD(China Video Disk) VCD(video compact disk)

W.C.(water closet) CBA(China basketball association) NBA(national basketball association) WTO(world trade organization) DVD(digital video/versatile disk) DOS(disk operation system)VIP(very important person) E-mail(electronic mail) WWW(world wide web) CPU(central processing unit)

十二. 对应词小结(opposite English words)

fat (thick)—thin  new (young)—old  man—woman  boy—girl  white—black   busy—free(relax) hard-working—lazy  cold—hot  cool—warm  wet—dry  clean—dirty  big—little  large— small  wide—narrow deep—shallow  quick (fast)—slow  far—near  curly—straight   first—last  easy—difficult (hard)  soft (easy)—hard  friend—enemy  come—go  front—back  beautiful—ugly  top—bottom  safe—dangerous  left (wrong)—right  true—false  off—on  bitter—sweet  borrow—lend  day—night  in—out  above—below  under—over  before—after add—minus all—none master—servant quality—quantity pity—cruelty majority—minority gain—lose height—depth  sleep—wake hope—despair import—export punish—reward proud—modest unite—divide object—subject prevent—promote inner—outer common—rare relative—absolute order—disorder light—gloom always—never

十三. 同音异义词(words with same pronunciation)

our—hour no—know see—sea I—eye son—sun for—four  here—hear by—buy two—too   new—knew   one—won  so—sew way—weigh  war—wore pear—pair   their—there   weak—week   meat—meet   write—right past—passed hole—whole would—wood steel-—steal  father—farther   weather—whether peace—piece wait—weight tale—tail  not—knot flower—flour die—dye plane—plain sail—sale blue—blew nose—knows scene—seen here—hear warn—worn night—knight mail—male whole—holy heel—heal hall—haul bury—berry rose—rows fair—fare bear—bare through—threw guest—guessed

十四.音译英文词 (English words of transliteration)

beer brandy cigar coffee chocolate cola hamburger pudding pie sandwich salad soda whiskey jacket nylon cartoon club disco jazz waltz heroin nicotine penicillin vitamin card cassette copy motor sofa model humor romantic bus jeep golf marathon tank lemon mango dozen logic typhoon amen hello

十五. 易混英文词(confused English words)

air—hair   along—alone   boy—toy   beer—bear   bed—bad   big—bag   boat—boot   cake—take   cook—book   day—gay   eight—eighty   foot—food   floor—flour   hat—cat   jar—far   jacket—racket   keep—jeep   lab—lap   light—tight   last—fast   match—watch   mouth—month   not—hot   or—on   one—none   pay—play   park—dark   pain—gain   price—prize   quiet—quite   quality—quantity   rise—rice   right—might   sweep—sweet   save—safe   short—shout   take—tape through—thorough  white—write   week—weak wonder—wander weather—wether  you—your   yet—yes

十六.常用语法术语(common grammar terms)

notional words 实词 form words虚词  parts of speech词类  the noun名词  common nouns 普通名词 proper nouns专有名词  countable nouns可数名词  uncountable nouns不可数名词  the singular form 单数形式 the plural form 复数形式 the common case普通格  the possessive case所有格  the subjective case主格  the objective case宾格  the article冠词  the definite article定冠词  the indefinite article不定冠词  the pronoun 代词 personal pronouns人称代词  possessive pronouns物主代词  self pronouns 反身代词 demonstrate pronouns指示代词  interrogative pronouns疑问代词  conjunctive pronouns连接代词  relative pronouns关系代词 reciprocal pronouns相互代词  indefinite pronouns不定代词  the numeral 数词 cardinal numerals基数词  ordinal numerals 序数词 the adjective形容词  the adverb副词  the comparative degree 比较级 the superlative degree最高级  adverbs of time(place manner degree frequency)时间(地点方式 程度 频度)副词  relative adverbs关系副词  conjunctive adverbs 连接副词 interrogative adverbs疑问副词  the conjunction连词  coordinating conjunctions并列连词  subordinating conjunctions 从属连词 the preposition 介词 the interjection感叹词  the verb 动词 notional verbs实义动词  link verbs系动词  auxiliary verbs助动词  modal verbs情态动词  transitive verbs 及物动词 intransitive verbs不及物动词  regular verbs 规则动词 irregular verbs不规则动词  the present forms现在时  the past participle过去分词  the present participle 现在分词 the infinitive不定式  the gerund动名词  tense 时态 the present indefinite 一般现在时 the past indefinite一般过去时  the future indefinite 一般将来时 the past future indefinite一般过去将来时  the present continuous 现在进行时 the past continuous 过去进行时 the future continuous将来进行时  the past future continuous 过去将来进行时 the present perfect现在完成时  the past perfect 过去完成时 the future perfect 将来完成时 the past future perfect过去将来完成时  the present perfect continuous现在完成进行时  the past perfect continuous 过去完成进行时 the past future perfect continuous 过去将来完成进行时 voice语态  the active voice主动语态  the passive voice被动语态  mood语气  the indicative mood陈述语气  the imperative mood 祈使语气 the subjunctive mood 虚拟语气 word building 构词法 conversion转化  derivation 派生 composition合成  prefix前缀  suffix后缀 root 词根 compound words 合成词 syntax 句法 the sentence句子  members of the sentence 句子成分 the subject主语  the predicate谓语  the object宾语  the attribute定语  the adverbial 状语 the complement补语  the predicative表语  the appositive 同位语 independent elements独立成分  parenthesis插入语  the direct object直接宾语  the indirect object间接宾语  the complex object 复合宾语 direct speech直接引语  indirect speech 间接引语 absolute constructions独立结构  declarative sentences 陈述句 imperative sentences祈使句  exclamatory sentences感叹句  interrogative sentences 疑问句 general questions一般疑问句  special questions特殊疑问句  alternative questions选择疑问句  disjunctive questions反意疑问句  simple sentences简单句  compound sentences并列句  complex sentences 复合句 compound complex sentences并列复合句  elliptical sentences省略句  main clauses主句  subordinate clauses从句  subject clauses主语从句  object clauses宾语从句  predicative clauses表语从句  attributive clauses 定语从句 restrictive attributive clauses限制性定语从句  non-restrictive attributive clauses 非限制定语从句 adverbial clauses状语从句  adverbial clauses of time(place cause comparison manner concession degree)时间(地点 原因 比较 方式让步 程度)状语  natural word-order 自然语序 inverted word-order/inversion 倒装语序 full inversion完全倒装  partial inversion部分倒装  period(full stop)句号  exclamation mark感叹号  semicolon 分号 dash 破折号 brackets括号  apostrophe省略号  ellipsis省略  question mark 问号 comma 逗号 colon 冒号 hyphen连字号  quotation marks 引号

注:

A.英语单词的记忆方法

1.逻辑记忆法:通过单词本身的内部逻辑关系和词与词之间的外边逻辑关系记忆并推知相关的词汇

2.联想记忆法:又分拟声联想法、形象联想法、词形联想法、同族词联想法、音与形联想法、形义联想法

3.构词记忆法

4.造句记忆法

5.拼读记忆法

6.回忆记忆法

7.间隔重复记忆法

8.分类记忆法

9.卡片记忆法

10.词典记忆法

11.比较记忆法

12.理解记忆法

13.感官记忆法

14.朗读记忆法

15.同义、反义词记忆法

16.字母重组替换记忆法

17.习语、谚语记忆法

18.图示记忆法

19.趣味、游戏记忆法

20.媒体、软件记忆法

B.单词记忆的误区:

1.把“听、说、读、写、译”五种技能的学习变成单一的看懂

2.只背不用

3.过于依赖某一种记忆方法

4.用汉字记音

5.急功近利(速成)

6.重结果不重过程

7.缺乏系统性

8.缺乏恒心和毅力
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发表于 2008-5-3 07:30 | 显示全部楼层

不是吧,感觉天体太大的哟,又没有排版等 恩

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发表于 2008-6-1 15:02 | 显示全部楼层
眼睛都看花了, 不过很不错了,顶一下!!!
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发表于 2008-6-1 20:53 | 显示全部楼层
tou yunle
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