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[经济学人] [2011.10.08] Drugs in Venezuela: By the planeload 委内瑞拉官员涉嫌贩毒

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发表于 2011-10-13 15:55 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Drugs in Venezuela
委内瑞拉毒品问题


By the planeload
飞机运毒


Hugo Chávez seems unperturbed by claims of official complicity in crime
委内瑞拉官员被指控参与非法贩毒,但查韦斯似乎对此无动于衷


OPPONENTS of Venezuela’s president, Hugo Chávez, are eagerly awaiting the trial of Walid Makled, a businessman extradited from Colombia five months ago. Before he was sent home to face drug-trafficking charges, Mr Makled boasted that he had 15 Venezuelan generals, the interior minister’s brother and five pro-government legislators on his million-dollar monthly payroll. Described by a United States attorney as a “king among kingpins”, Mr Makled is wanted in New York for allegedly shipping tonnes of cocaine from Venezuela. As a prisoner of Mr Chávez’s security service, Mr Makled has now fallen silent. The trial, due to begin soon, may or may not offer more revelations.

委内瑞拉总统查韦斯的反对者们正迫切地等待对商人瓦利德・马克莱德(Walid Makled)的审判,5个月前他被哥伦比亚方面引渡回国。在被引渡回国面临贩毒指控之前,马克莱德炫耀自己每月都向15名委内瑞拉将军、内政部长的兄弟和5名亲政府立法者行贿百万美元。马克莱德因涉嫌从委内瑞拉贩运数公吨可卡因而被纽约警方通缉,一名美国律师称他是“毒王之王”。现在他受到查韦斯安全部队的监禁,所以发表不了什么言论了。即将开始的审判能否揭露更多的事实还是个未知数。

The president says Mr Makled’s accusations form part of a plot by the United States to undermine him. Since he kicked out America’s Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) in 2005, Mr Chávez’s government insists it is intercepting more drugs than before. But its own figures show a drop of almost half in the cocaine seized between 2005 and 2010. The United Nations says that Venezuela is the source of more than half the cocaine seized at sea en route to Europe. American officials say that over 90% of aircraft carrying Colombian cocaine take off from Venezuela.

查韦斯称对马克莱德的指控是美国意图破坏他形象这一阴谋的一部分。理由是2005年他把美国药品管理局赶出委内瑞拉之后,还坚称他们截获的毒品比以前要多。然而该国自己的数据显示,2005年到2010年间截获的可卡因数量降低了近一半。联合国称经海路运到欧洲的被截获的可卡因一半以上来自委内瑞拉。美国官员表示运载着哥伦比亚可卡因的飞机中90%是从委内瑞拉起飞的。

Venezuelan officials blame all this on geography, pointing out that their country lies next to Colombia, the world’s biggest cocaine producer. Tarek el Aissami, the interior minister, says that since the DEA left Venezuela has arrested and handed over to other countries 69 high-level traffickers, many to the United States. Nonetheless, the business continues to boom.

委内瑞拉官员则把这一切归罪于地理位置上,因为他们毗邻哥伦比亚这个世界最大的可卡因出产国。内政部长塔雷克•埃尔•艾萨米(Tarek el Aissami)称自从美国药品管理局离开后,委逮捕并移交给其他国家的资深毒贩达69名,很多都是移交给了美国。尽管如此,贩毒业仍然欣欣向荣。

As in other transit countries, drug consumption and gang warfare are both increasing in Venezuela. But there is no equivalent of the drugs war raging in Mexico between the mobs and the state. Some experts suggest this is because the two have established a modus vivendi.

同其他过境国的情况一样,内毒品消费和帮派火并事件日益猖獗。但是墨西哥的黑帮和政府之间的毒品战争之激烈程度却绝无仅有。专家指出原因可能是委、墨之间建立了一项过渡协定。

Mr Makled accused the armed forces of operating four or five drug flights a day from the Colombian border to Central America. The generals he named as his accomplices include the senior armed forces’ commander, the head of military intelligence and the director of the anti-drugs office. Two were already on the US Treasury Department’s blacklist for allegedly colluding with Colombian guerrillas in drug-trafficking. This month a third general, also named by Mr Makled, joined them: Clíver Alcalá, head of the big garrison at Valencia. Venezuela dismissed this as “one more expression of the imperial and arrogant character” of the United States.

Makled指责军队每天从哥伦比亚边界到中美地段空运4、5次毒品。被他点名的与其合谋的将军包括高级军队司令、军情机构首长以及反毒品办公室总指挥。其中两人已经因涉嫌与哥伦比亚游击队共同贩毒而登上了美国财政部的黑名单。本月,另一位恰好也姓马克莱德的将军也上榜了,他就是巴伦西亚警卫部队的队长Clíver Alcalá。委内瑞拉方面驳斥这种言论“再次表明美国目空一切、自以为是的特点”。

Suspicion of high-level government complicity in the drugs trade has deepened because of official confusion over an incident in August in which a light plane landed on a coastal road in the western state of Falcón. When found, it had more than a tonne of cocaine aboard. Its
arrival was followed by a shoot-out between state police and dozens of cops from the national detective corps, known as the CICPC.

8月,一架轻型飞机降落于法尔孔省西部的沿海公路上,被发现时机上载有一公吨的可卡因,飞机降落后警察部队和国家犯罪调查局(CICPC)之间就发生了一起枪战。官方对这起事件态度含混不清,这导致对政府官员涉嫌毒品交易的怀疑甚嚣直上。

The head of the Falcón police, who says his men answered an emergency call and were ambushed by the CICPC, was forced to resign. At first national officials said the seizure was an intelligence coup. After two weeks of contradictory official statements, Mr Chávez admitted the plane had taken off from the military airport in Caracas, the capital. The operation, he said, had been a “controlled delivery”, meaning agents had posed as traffickers to entrap the real criminals. But who are they?

法尔孔警方负责人被迫辞职,却说他的手下是接到了紧急报警电话,在执行任务中中了国家犯罪调查局的埋伏。最初,政府官员称这次截获毒品是一次出其不意的情报活动。官方的声明随后陷入矛盾的境地,两周后,查韦斯承认那架飞机是从位于首都加拉加斯(Caracas)的军事机场起飞的。他说那次行动是“控制下的运毒”,即特工人员假扮成毒贩以诱捕真正的犯罪分子。但是真正的犯罪分子究竟是谁呢?

Wilmer Flores, the head of the CICPC, insisted it was “one of the best drugs cases” the police had ever been involved in. A few weeks later Mr Flores was decorated—and then sacked, along with almost every other high-ranking member of his force. No explanation was given.

国家犯罪调查局总局长Wilmer Flores坚称那是警察参与过的“最出色的毒品案件之一”。几周后,Flores被授勋——之后,连同他所在部门的几乎所有其他高级官员一并被解雇了。官方没有做出解释。

The only people arrested over the affair are five local policemen, three civilians (bystanders, say their lawyers) and a national-guard sergeant. The Venezuelan media have revealed that the Falcón police were indeed responding to an emergency call, and that none of the policemen arrested has a lifestyle which would suggest income from the drugs trade.

在这起事件中被逮捕的人只有5名当地警察、3名平民(他们的律师说他们只是路人)以及一名国民警卫队军士。委内瑞拉媒体披露法尔孔警方确实是去回应一个紧急报警电话,而被捕警察中没有谁的生活方式暗示其收入来自毒品交易。

Meanwhile, none of the high-ranking officials named by Mr Makled is under investigation. The Venezuelan authorities now have two separate opportunities to display in court their commitment to curbing the drugs trade without fear or favour. They seem unlikely to take them.

同时,马克莱德揭露的高级官员都没接受调查。委内瑞拉当局现在有两个不同的机会在法庭上展示他们承诺要无畏无私地遏制毒品交易,但似乎这两次机会他们都不会利用。
Time can both ruin everything and build everything-It depends on you
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