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[经济学人] [附解析] A great wall of waste 用垃圾铸造我们新的长城

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发表于 2012-2-19 22:10 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 蝶梦舞 于 2012-2-19 22:19 编辑

China's environment
中国的环境


A great wall of waste
用垃圾铸造我们新的长城


China is slowly starting to tackle its huge pollution problems
中国正慢慢开始处理其巨大的污染问题

PLUGGING a cigarette into his mouth, He Shouming runs a nicotine-stained fingernail down a list of registered deaths in Shangba, dubbed “cancer village” by the locals. The Communist Party official in this cluster of tiny hamlets of 3,300 people in northern Guangdong province, he concludes that almost half the 11 deaths among his neighbours this year, and 14 of the 31 last year, were due to cancer
PLUG 堵, 插上, 塞;
dubbed命名的, 配音的, 译制的
嘴里叼着一根烟,当地村官何寿明用熏黄了的手尖顺着上坝村死亡名单注册表滑下,总结道:今年死亡的11人中有一半以上是死于癌症,而去年死亡的31个人中也有14个和癌症有关。上坝村位于广东省北部,由许多小村落组成,人口约3300人,被当地人称为“癌症村”。

Mr He blames Dabaoshan, a nearby mineral mine owned by the Guangdong provincial government, and a host of smaller private mines for spewing toxic waste into the local rivers, raising lead levels to 44 times permitted rates. Walking around the village, the water in the streams is indeed an alarming rust-red. A rice farmer complains of itchy legs from the paddies, and his wife needs a new kettle each month because the water corrodes metal. “Put a duck in this water and it would die in two days,” declares Mr He.
spew 排放
paddy 稻田
corrode腐蚀, 侵蚀, 损害
老何说,上坝村癌症频发都要归功于广东省政府的大宝山矿场和一群规模较小的私人矿场,它们往当地河水中排放的有毒废水使河水铅含量比允许值高出43倍来。绕着村子走走,发现河水的颜色真的是吓人的锈红色。一位稻农抱怨说,从田里出来,腿都发痒;而因为这里的水腐蚀金属,自己的老婆每个月都得买一把新水壶。老何说:“把鸭子放到水里,两天就死了。”

Poisons from the mines are also killing the village's economy, which depends on clean water to irrigate its crops, says Mr He. Rice yields are one-third of the national average and nobody wants to buy the crop. Annual incomes here have been stuck at less than 1,500 yuan ($180) per person for a decade, almost three times lower than the average in Guangdong province. The solution to Shangba's nightmare would be a local reservoir, but that idea was abandoned after various tiers of government squabbled over the 8.4m yuan cost.
stuck at为 ... 迟疑(坚持)
nightmare梦魇
squabble(为琐事)争论, 口角
老何说因为村庄需要干净的水来灌溉农田,所以从矿场那过来污染物也让村里的经济受到破坏。这里稻子的产率只有全国平均水平的三分之一,而且这样的稻子哪有人愿意买?这里的年收入水平停留在1500元以下已经十年了,这个水平只是广东省平均水平的三分之一。而让上坝村从这种恶梦中解脱出来的方法就是在当地建一个水库。但是因为各层官员为水库840万元的花费而争吵不息,后来建水库这个计划被搁置了。

Some 200km (124 miles) farther south and several decades into the future sits the Taihe landfill plant. Built for 540m yuan by Onyx, a waste-management company that is part of Veolia, a French utility, it has handled all of Guangzhou city's solid waste for the past two years. Each hour 140 trucks snake into the site, bringing 7,000 tonnes of rubbish a day from the 9.9m inhabitants of Guangdong's capital. In October delegates from 300 other municipalities will visit Taihe, promoted by central government as a role model of technology.
inhabitant居民
delegate 代表
municipality自治市, 市当局
上坝村南200千米(124公里),有一家泰和填埋场,这里与上坝村相比简直恍如隔世,十分现代。这家填埋场是花五千四百万人民币让一家名为文石的废物管理公司建造的。这家文石公司是法国威立雅水务的一部分,其所建立的这家填埋场在过去两年间一直处理着广州城内所有的固体垃圾。每小时有140两卡车蜿蜒进入这里,这些卡车每天内从九百九十万人口的广州城运来七千吨垃圾。十月份会有从三百个其他城市来的代表访问泰和填埋场,因为这里已经被中央政府评为技术模范。

Smart cards record each truck's load, since Onyx charges by weight. Unrippable German fabric lines the crater into which the waste is dumped, stopping leachate—a toxic black liquid—from leaking into the groundwater, as it does at almost all Chinese-run sites. Most landfill in China is wet (solid rubbish, such as old TVs, is scavenged), and the Taihe plant collects a full 1,300 tonnes of the black liquid daily. Chemical and filtration systems to neutralise it are its biggest cost. Expensive too is the extraction equipment to gather another by-product, methane gas, which Onyx plans to feed into generators that will supply electricity to the local grid. Finally, the waste is topped off with plastic caps, deodorised and landscaped, while a crystal-clear fountain at the entrance tinkles with the cleaned-up leachate.
crater坑(陨石坑、弹坑等), 凹地,
leachate渗滤液
scavenge到处觅食, (在废物中)寻觅
filtration过滤; 筛选
neutralise中和(使 ... 中立, 使 ... 失效)
extraction抽出, 拔出, 抽出物
methane甲烷; 沼气
is topped off结束, 完成, 装满
deodorise去臭
因为文石公司是根据重量收费的,所以有智能卡片记录着每辆卡车所载垃圾重量。在废物填埋的大山口内部,铺上了一层德国的不破纤维,这样防止浸出液渗入地下水——浸出液是黑色有毒液体。几乎所有的中国式经营填埋场都有这种问题。在中国大部分填埋场是填埋含水的废物(固体垃圾比如旧电视,都被收破烂儿的捡走了),而泰和填埋场每天共收集1300吨这类黑水儿垃圾。填埋过程中为中和酸碱的化学系统和过滤系统是最贵的。而从垃圾中抽取副产物沼气的设配也不便宜,文石公司计划通过发电机使用这些沼气,为当地供应电力。最后,废物被塑料盖封住,除臭并美化,在填埋场入口处有一座清澈的喷泉,里面就是这些清理干净后的浸出液。

The extremes represented by Shangba and Taihe explain why it is difficult to get an accurate picture of China's pollution. In a country where data are untrustworthy, corruption rife and the business climate for foreigners unpredictable, neither the cause of Shangba's problems nor the smooth efficiency of Taihe are necessarily what they seem. As with many other aspects of China's economic development, rapid progress and bold experiments in some areas are balanced by bureaucratic rigidity and stagnation in others.
bureaucratic官僚的, 繁文缛节的
rigidity坚硬, 硬度, 严格, 刻板
stagnation淤塞; 不景气; 停滞
看看上坝村和泰和这两个极端,我们就明白了为什么说想要明白中国污染的准确状况很难。在这样一个数据不可信、腐败蔓生、商业环境让外国人觉得风云难测的国家里,上坝村污染问题的原因抑或泰和处理污染的高效率都不是表面看起来那样。和中国经济发展的许多其他方面一样,环境保护在一些地方的迅速进步和大胆试验也因为官僚的刻板和其他地方环境发展的停滞而使整体趋于平稳。

Certainly, awareness of China's environmental problems is rising among policymakers at the highest level—reflected in a new package of right-sounding initiatives like a “greenGDP” indicator to account for environmental costs. So is the pressure, both internal and international, to fix them. But while all developing economies face this issue, there are historical, political and institutional reasons why it will be a long and complicated process in China. There is some cause for optimism, not least an influx of foreign technology and capital. But progress on pollution is unlikely to be as rapid or uniform as the government and environmentalists desire.
influx流入, 河口,汇集
最高政策制定者对于环境保护的意识也越来越强烈——这个现象反映自一系列冠冕堂皇的政策上,比如统计用来计算环境成本的“绿色GDP”。当然这些行动也是基于国内外要求治理环境的双重压力。其实所有的发展中经济都要面对环境问题,但是中国的环保过程复杂而漫长则是因为历史、政治、政党的原因。不过我们还是可以乐观一些的,最起码有大量外国资金和技术涌入。不过处理污染的过程不可能像政府和环境学家所期望的那样快速且步伐一致。

Nor should it necessarily be. China's need to lift so many people out of poverty (the country's average annual income per head has only just breached $1,000), holds the edge over long-term considerations like sustainable development. The priorities of environmental activists, both foreign and Chinese, almost never reflect this. Greenpeace lobbies for China to invest in wind farms, an unrealistic answer to the country's power needs, while environmentalists from rich countries naively tell aspiring Chinese to eschew their new cars and air-conditioners.
breach破坏, 违反; 冲破
eschew避开, 回避,
污染处理也没必要那样。中国还有让许多人脱贫的需要(这个国家平均年收入仅仅刚刚超过1000美元),这点就要比长远考虑(如可持续发展)要优先。国内外环境学家们的关注重点,几乎未反应这个问题。比如绿色组织游说中国投资风力发电,这对于中国的电力需要来说很不现实。富国的环境学者们告诉野心勃勃的中国人,不要用他们新到手的汽车和空调,真是天真。

Nor any drop to drink
也没水喝

That is not to deny the huge scale of China's environmental challenges. Water and waste pollution is the single most serious issue. Pan Yue, deputy head of the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), the country's environmental watchdog ministry, calls it “the bottleneck constraining economic growth in China”. Per head, China's water resources are among the lowest in the world and concentrated in the south, so that the north and west experience regular droughts. Inadequate investments in supply and treatment infrastructure means that even where water is not scarce, it is rarely clean. Around half the population, or 600m people, have water supplies that are contaminated by animal and human waste.
bottleneck瓶颈口, 停滞,
inadequate不充分的; 不适当的
infrastructure下部构造, 基础,
这不是说要中国放弃整治环境污染这个巨大的挑战。因为水和水污染是最最严峻的问题。中国环境监管部门名叫国家环境保护总局(国家环保局)其副局长潘岳把水污染问题称作“限制中国经济发展的瓶颈”。中国人均水资源排名处于世界最低的位置,而且水还集中在南方,所以中国北方时常经历干旱。而缺少供水设施和污水处理设备意味着即使在不缺水的地方,也很难有干净的水。中国有半数人口,约六亿人的水供应系统(这里主要指水源)遭到动物和人类垃圾的污染。

In late July an environmental disaster occurred on the Huai river, one of China's seven big rivers. A 133km-long black and brown plume swept along the river killing millions of fish and devastating wildlife. According to Mr Pan, the catastrophe occurred because too much water had been taken from the river system, reducing its ability to clean itself. Others say that numerous factories dump untreated waste directly into the water.
plume羽毛, 羽毛装饰
catastrophe大灾难, 大祸
在七月下旬,一场环境灾难发生在中国七大河流之一的淮河。一条133千米长得黑褐色长流顺河而下杀死了数十万鱼类并毁灭性地伤害了那里的野生动植物。据潘先生所述,这场浩劫是因为太多这条河水系统的水被取走,导致其失去了自我清洁的能力。其他人则说是因为无数个工厂往河里直接倾倒未处理的废物。

As for used water, with a national daily sewage rate of around 3.7 billion tonnes, China would need 10,000 waste-water treatment plants costing some $48 billion just to achieve a 50% treatment rate, according to Frost & Sullivan, a consultancy. SEPA found over 70% of the water in five of China's seven major river systems was unsuitable for human contact. As more people move into cities, the problem of household waste is becoming severe. Only 20% of China's 168m tonnes of solid waste per year is properly disposed of.
tonne吨, 公吨
consultancy咨询公司
severe 严重的
说到使用过的水,根据一家名为弗若斯特沙利文咨询公司的统计,中国每天排入下水道的水量约370亿吨,这样看来中国需要1万家废水处理厂,这就是说花掉约480亿美元(美元哦)也才只能完成一半的处理量。国家环境局发现超过在中国七大河中,其中五条河里70%的水不宜接触皮肤。随着更多的人进入城镇,家庭垃圾的问题正变得严重。每年中国1亿6千八百万吨固体垃圾中,只有五分之一经过合理处理。

The air is not much better. “If I work in your Beijing, I would shorten my life at least five years,” Zhu Rongji told city officials when he was prime minister in 1999. According to the World Bank, China has 16 of the world's 20 most polluted cities. Estimates suggest that 300,000 people a year die prematurely from respiratory diseases.
respiratory呼吸的,
空气质量也没好到哪去。“我要是在你们北京工作,我得减寿至少5年,”朱镕基在1999年时任国家总理的时候告诉北京城的官员。根据世界银行统计,全世界20个污染最严重的城市,中国有16个。据估计一年因为呼吸疾病而过早死掉的人有三十万。

The main reason is that around 70% of China's mushrooming energy needs are supplied by coal-fired power stations, compared with 50% in America. Combined with the still widespread use of coal burners to heat homes, China has the world's highest emissions of sulphur dioxide and a quarter of the country endures acid rain. In 2002, SEPA found that the air quality in almost two-thirds of 300 cities it tested failed World Health Organisation standards—yet emissions from rocketing car ownership are only just becoming an issue. Hopes that China will “leapfrog” the West with super-green cars are naive, since dirty fuel messes up clean engines and the high cost of new cars keeps old ones on the road. Sun Jian, the second-ranking official at Shanghai's environmental protection bureau, estimates that 70% of Shanghai's 1m cars do not even reach the oldest European emission standards.
sulphur dioxide二氧化硫
leapfrog 跳背,越过
endure忍耐, 忍受;
空气质量差得主要原因是中国猛烈增长的能源需求中有70%是靠燃煤发电,与此相比美国只有50%。加上家庭供暖普遍使用煤炉,中国有着世界最高的二氧化硫排放量并且国内四分之一地区遭受酸雨侵害。2002年,国家环保局发现在其检测的三百座城市中,有将近三分之二不能通过世界卫生组织的标准——当时由数量激增的汽车所带来的排放量还只是刚刚成为一个争论话题。因为恶劣的汽油会搞坏清洁型发动机并且新车的高价也会让旧车仍然留在路上,所以认为中国会越过西方,率先使用超级绿色汽车的希望是天真的。上海环境局的副局长孙建估计上海一百万辆汽车中有70%达不到最老版的欧盟排放标准。

Farmland erosion and desertification resulted in Beijing being hit with 11 sandstorms in 2000, prompting Mr Zhu to wonder whether the advancing desert might force him to relocate the capital. A year later, the yellow dust clouds were so extensive that they raised complaints in South Korea and Japan and travelled as far as America. A partial logging ban and massive replanting appear to have reversed China's deforestation, but its grass and agricultural land continue to shrink.
erosion腐蚀, 侵蚀
reversed使倒退, 使倒转; 彻底改变
deforestation滥伐森林
耕地侵占和荒漠化导致北京在两千年经受了11次沙尘暴,这让老朱考虑是否这不断前进的沙漠会逼他迁都。一年之后,这铺天盖地的黄沙大到连日本和韩国都抱怨了,而且这场沙尘暴甚至到达了美国。一项部分的砍伐禁令和大规模的重植植被好像已经逆转了中国的森林退化,但是中国的绿地和农耕地还是持续减少。

Adding it all up, the World Bank concludes that pollution is costing China an annual 8-12% of its $1.4 trillion GDP in direct damage, such as the impact on crops of acid rain, medical bills, lost work from illness, money spent on disaster relief following floods and the implied costs of resource depletion. With health costs escalating, that figure will increase, giving rise to some grim prognoses that growth itself will be undermined. “Ignored for decades, even centuries, China's environmental problems have the potential to bring the country to its knees economically,” argues Elizabeth Economy, author of “The River Runs Black”, a new book on China's pollution.
depletion消耗, 逐渐耗尽
prognoses预知, 预后, 预测
世界银行把这些加起来,总结说污染的花费将是中国每年1.4万亿GDP的8~12%,这其中包括直接损失如,酸雨对庄稼的影响、药物花费、因病而丢失的工作、在洪水后的灾难救助和资源殆尽这种暗含的损失。随着卫生花费逐步增加,污染花费也随之增长,这导致了一些人预期以后再这样下去,经济增长本身也会被摧毁。一本关于中国污染的新书“河水漆黑地流”的作者伊利莎白伊坷若梅说道“几十年,甚至几个世纪被忽略的环境,有能让这个国家经济崩溃的潜力。”

SEPA's Mr Pan is gloomier still: “Our natural resources will soon be unable to support our population.” His predecessor Qu Geping, the first head of China's National Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA's forerunner) in 1985, believes that while the official goal of quadrupling 2002 GDP by 2020 can be “healthily achieved”, if nothing is done about the environment, economic growth could grind to a halt.
predecessor前任; 原有事物
quadrupling  一式四份
grind压迫, 碾碎
国家环保局的潘先生比伊利莎白还悲观:“我们的自然资源马上就承受不住我们的人口了了。”他的前任曲格平,在1985年时担任中国国家环境保护机构(国家环保局前身)的第一任局长。他认为中国2020年GDP要达到02年时四倍的官方目标即使可以安然完成,再不对环境做些改善,那么经济增长也会慢慢停下来。

But China's relationship with its environment has long been uneasy. For centuries, the country's rulers subjugated their surroundings rather than attempting to live in harmony with them. Mao declared that man must “conquer nature and thus attain freedom from nature”. In the past two decades, the toll extracted by China's manufacturing-led development and the sheer scale of its 9%-a-year economic expansion has only increased.
subjugated 征服, 抑制,
extracte 抽出
但是中国和环境的关系长期以来一直不和谐。几个世纪以来,中国的统治者征服环境而不是与其共存。老毛头宣称“人类必须征服自然,而后才能从中解放”这无疑对环境没有好处。而在过去的二十年里,因为制造业领导的发展和每年9%GDP的大规模经济扩张,只能使环境破坏进一步扩大。

From conquest to nurture
由征服到滋养

This has spurred the government into belated action. In 1998, Mr Zhu elevated SEPA to ministerial rank and three years later the 10th Five-year Plan for Environmental Protection set ambitious emission-reduction targets and boosted environmental spending to 700 billion yuan ($85 billion) for 2001-05—equivalent to 1.3% of GDP, up from 0.8% in the early 1990s (though still below the 2% suggested by the World Bank). A legal framework has been created. And the rhetoric has changed too, with Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao, the current president and prime minister, now stressing balanced development rather than all-out economic growth.
spur刺激, 鞭策
elevated抬高的, 高层的
rhetoric修辞, 修辞学,华丽虚饰的语言
And the rhetoric has changed too(主句), (with Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao, the current president and prime minister, now stressing balanced development rather than all-out economic growth伴随状语).

这种不断地破坏终于让政府有了他们早该做的行动。在1998年,老朱将国家环境局地位提升到部一级,并在01年的第十个五年计划中为环境局设定野心勃勃的减排计划。除此之外,还将环保花费从1990年代早期占GDP的0.8%增加到01~05年的1.3%,这相当于七千亿人民币(虽然这样还是比世界银行所推荐2%GDP的数字要低)。一系列的法律条款也为此创建。如今由胡锦涛任主席,温家宝任总理,甚至政府的论调都改变了,现在开始强调平衡发展,而不再要求单一经济增长。

Beijing's good intentions, however, have so far had only limited impact, thanks to the vast, decentralised bureaucracy through which it is forced to govern such a huge country. As Ken Lieberthal, a China expert at the University of Michigan, explains: “Much of the environmental energy generated at the national level dissipates(主句) (as it diffuses through the multi-layered state structure原因状语从句), (producing outcomes that have little concrete effect现在分词形式作伴随状语).”
bureaucracy官僚机构; 官僚作风
dissipate散失, 浪费,
diffuse扩散, 散开, 传播
concrete具体的, 实质性的,
因为中国的庞大,导致需要分散官僚权利来管理,这样使得即使北京有保护环境的好意,但是目前的效果十分有限。正如密歇根大学的中国专家肯利伯索尔解释的那样:“在中国高层产生的大部分环境保护的积极性,因为通过多层的国家结构而消散,使得其产生的实质效果少之又少。

SEPA, the government's chosen weapon in the fight against pollution, is under-resourced despite its enhanced status, with little money and just 300 central staff. In the capital, it must battle for influence with other agencies, such as the Construction Ministry that handles water and sewage treatment.Bureaucratic rivalries mean (there is no co-operation and no sharing of the (often patchy) data 宾语从句 )(that are collected with limited funds), observes Bruce Murray, the Asian Development Bank's representative in China. (that are collected with limited funds是data的定语从句)
sewage污水, 污物
bureaucratic官僚政治的
rivalry敌对, 对抗
国家环保局,作为政府选中用来对抗污染的武器,即使地位被提高了,仍然缺乏资源——没有资金,中央员工只有300人。在首都,环保局还必须与其他机构的影响力相对抗,比如掌管水利的建设部。亚洲发展银行的中国代表布鲁斯莫里评价说,这种官僚对抗意味着既没有合作,也不会分享数据(这些数据通过有限资金收集来的,而且质量参差不齐)

Around the country, SEPA's branches, known as Environmental Protection Bureaus, are supposed to monitor pollution, enforce standards and collect fines. But they are more in thrall to local governments—whose priorities are to maintain growth and employment in their jurisdiction—than to head office in Beijing. It is no rarity, therefore, to find a bureau imposing a fine on a dirty local enterprise (thus fulfilling its duty), but then passing the money on to the local administration, which refunds it to the company via a tax break. “The environmental management system needs real reform,” says Ma Jun, an environmental scholar. “The bureaus depend on the local government for their salaries and pensions. How can they enforce regulations against the local government?” Mr Pan complains that SEPA cannot effectively push through central edicts because it does not directly employ environmental personnel at the local level. Mr Sun at the Shanghai bureau says that SEPA has given him only 300 people with which to police 20,000 factories.
thrall奴隶, 束缚
jurisdiction司法权, 管辖权,
refund偿还, 退还
via经由, 通过,
而从全国来看,国家环保局的分支,被称作环境保护办事处,应当负责的是监视污染、施加环保标准并对违规者罚款。但是他们比起北京的环保总局,更依赖的是当地政府,而当地政府的首要目标实却是在他们的管辖范围内维持经济增长和就业。因此,环保办事处对一家环保违规的当地企业罚款(执行其环保职责),并将罚款交到当地政府,但是当地政府随之通过减税优惠又把罚款归还违规企业。一位环境学者马俊说:“环境管理系统需要真正的改革,”“环保办事处的薪水和退休金都要当地政府给。这样他们怎么能实施对抗政府的条例呢。”潘先生抱怨说国家环保局不能有效推行法令是因为它不能直接在当地征用环保员工。在上海环保办事处的孙先生说全国环保局让他监管两万工厂却只给他300人。


Make polluters pay
让污染环境的人掏钱

SEPA's impotence is one reason why penalties, even when it can impose them, remain laughably light. Mr Sun says the maximum he can fine a polluting company in Shanghai—a model city when it comes to the environment—is 100,000 yuan or about $12,000. But just as fundamental is that China lacks an understanding of the concept that the polluter should pay. “The legacy of the old, centrally planned economy is that electricity and water are treated as free goods or goods to be provided at minimal cost,” says the ADB's Mr Murray. Since the utilities cannot pass on the costs of cleaner water or lower power-station emissions to consumers, they fight any drive for higher standards and conservation tooth and nail. Even the central government is unwilling to impose price rises in basic services that could spark public unrest.
penalty处罚, 惩罚,
minimal最小的, 最小限度的
utility 效用, 实用,
fighttooth and nail猛烈作战; 拼命打
国家环保局缺乏权利就是为什么罚款、即使能罚也少的可笑的原因之一。孙先生说在上海他处罚污染超标公司最高也只有十万块(约一万两千刀)——上海还是环境模范城市。但同样重要的是,中国没有污染者该赔偿这个概念。亚发展银行的莫里说“老式中央计划经济的遗留问题是水电被认为是免费商品或者说是只交最少花费的商品,”因为水务电务等部门不能因为水更清,电厂更少排放而加收消费者的费用,因此他们全力对抗高标准和环保。即使中央政府也不愿意在基础服务上加收费,因为这样会引起群众不满。

Water is an example. While customer tariffs have been raised in showcase cities, such as Beijing and Dalian in the north-east, water remains stunningly cheap in China. According to the World Bank, water for agriculture, which makes up three-quarters of the total used, is priced at 0.03 yuan (0.4 cents) per cubic metre, or about 40% of cost. More than half is lost in leaky irrigation systems. Meanwhile, the cost of more modern services, such as Guangzhou's solid-waste disposal, is entirely borne by the government.
showcase陈列
stunningly惊人地, 令人目瞪口呆地
leaky出现裂缝的, 泄漏的
irrigation灌溉; 冲洗
disposal处理, 处置,
水就是个例子。当水电费在一些试点城市如北京和东北的大连已经被提高了,但是水费在中国还是便宜的要命。根据中国银行统计,农业用水占全国用水的四分之三,价格是3分钱(0.4美分)每立方米,占农业生产成本的40%。而大多半的灌溉用水因为泄露的灌溉系统而被浪费掉。同时,更多现代服务的成本,如广东的固体垃圾处理,完全是由政府承担。

Without the introduction of realistic pricing, China will not be able to afford to clean up its pollution, particularly the cost of enough foreign technology. Yet a system allocating the costs to the polluter will be hard to introduce and enforce. Even in Hong Kong, the territory's environment minister Sarah Liao concedes there is no tradition of having consumers bear the full costs of environmental regulations.
allocating分派, 分配
concede给予, 让步
不能引进真实定价,中国就付不起清理污染的钱,特别是付不起钱来买足够的外国技术。但是把清理污染的开销转加到污染者身上也很难推行和实施。即使在香港,这个地方的环境部长廖萨拉承认香港没有让消费者承担全部环境管理费用的先例。


Ms Liao can also testify to the mainland's ambivalent attitude when it comes to letting outsiders help. She started looking into how the Pearl River delta's pollution was affecting Hong Kong back in 1999, but her requests to start monitoring emissions were repeatedly rebuffed even when she offered to pay for the equipment. Data collection finally started this year. For Thames Water, a British utility that is now a part of Germany's RWE, the experience was much worse. In June, Thames pulled out of a $73m advanced waste-water treatment plant it had built and was running in Shanghai, after the central government ruled that the fixed annual 15% return it had negotiated was now illegal.
ambivalent有矛盾情绪的
Pearl River delta珠江三角洲
rebuff断然拒绝, 漠不关心
(In June时间状语), Thames pulled out of a $73m advanced waste-water treatment plant( it had built and was running in Shanghai定语从句), (after the central government ruled that the fixed annual 15% return( it had negotiated定语从句) was now illegal).
横线部分是主句,after the central 是时间状语从句
廖女士也是中国大陆对外国帮助矛盾态度的证人。在99年,她开始调查珠江三角洲污染如何影响香港。但是从那年开始,他对监控污染排放的请求不断被粗暴拒绝,即使当她愿意自己付设备钱时也不行。直到今年其数据收集才终于开始。英国的泰晤士水务,其现在为德国莱茵集团的一部分,它的经历更糟。在六月,泰晤士离开了一家在上海建造运营价值七千三百万的高级废水处理场,因为中央政府认定其过去商定的年15%的回报如今是违法的。

There is no need to be unremittingly gloomy about China's environment, nevertheless. As developing countries get richer, they tend to pollute less. Nationally in China, discharges of chemical oxygen have declined over the past three years, those of industrial dust have stabilised and sulphur-dioxide emissions had been on the downtrend until 2003 when energy shortages increased demand for sulphurous coal (see charts). Most east-coast cities are enjoying more sunny days and the pollution load in the rivers is falling. Environmentally, in many places, China may have passed its nadir.
unremittingly不间断地, 不松懈地
stabilised稳定的, 稳固的
sulphur-dioxide二氧化硫
downtrend下降趋势
nadir最低点
(Nationally in China地点状语), discharges of chemical oxygen have declined over the past three years, those of industrial dust have stabilised and sulphur-dioxide emissions had been on the downtrend until 2003 when energy shortages increased demand for sulphurous coal (see charts)时间状语从句).
划线部分是主句,由and连接的三个并列关系的句子组成
尽管如此,对中国环境没必要这么悲观。随着发展中国家变得富有,他们会倾向于减少污染。中国全国化学氧(神马是化学氧?二氧化碳吧)的排放量在过去三年已经下降,而工业粉尘和二氧化硫的排放在03年之前一直都是下降趋势的。03年则是因为能源短缺,增加了含硫煤的需求因此排放量有所上升。大多数东海岸城市现在正享受着更多的艳阳天,河水污染负荷也正在消退。在中国许多地方,环境问题已经从最谷底走出来了。


The government is increasing environmental spending and the more concerned attitude of the top leadership could filter down the hierarchy if the performance of officials starts being measured partly on environmental criteria, as Mr Qu hints it might. But the bigger incentive is that Beijing is under pressure to do more, partly from domestic public opinion. As urban Chinese see their material wealth increase, more are caring about the environment, while the concerns of the poor are increasingly being channelled by green non-governmental organisations. Though these remain extremely weak—few have more than a handful of members and all need government affiliation—Mr Wen said recently he suspended plans for the construction of 13 dams along the Nu river in Yunnan province partly because of the concerns outlined by such groups.
filter过滤, 渗透
hierarchy等级制度, 统治集团,
affiliation加入, 入会
outlined概述, 画出轮廓
(As urban Chinese see their material wealth increase伴随状语), more are caring about the environment(主句), (while the concerns of the poor are increasingly being channelled by green non-governmental organisations时间状语从句).
政府不断增加环境开销,而且如果把环境标准算入官员表现一部分的话,那么高层领导对环境越来越关心的态度是可以透过层层的官僚体制的。曲先生暗示说,国家很可能让官员表现与环境状况挂钩。但是要求北京做出更多行动来保护环境的动力来自于压力,而这一部分是来自国内公众观点。随着中国城市居民的物质资产增加,更多人开始关心环境问题,同时,原来专注于脱贫的担忧也不断被绿色非政府组织所转移。尽管这些绿色组织还非常弱——基本都是只有一小搓会员并且还都需要联合政府——宝哥说最近他最近搁置在云南怒江建设13个大坝的计划,一部分原因就是因为由这些绿色组织所描绘的担忧。

External pressure is even greater. Despite reservations, foreign companies are flocking to China, scenting a fast-growing market for their environmental technologies and skills. International agencies are tying funds to environmental criteria, while foreign governments are beginning to complain about China's dust storms and greenhouse-gas emissions. All this will help spread best practices. Beijing is fast cleaning up ahead of the 2008 Olympics, moving out factories and introducing clean-vehicle technology: a new premium is being placed on global respectability.
reservation保留, 预约,
scenting发觉, 充满
criteria标准; 规范;
来自外部的压力甚至更大。因为嗅到一个自己环境技术有一个快速增长的市场,即使有所保留,外国公司还是大量涌入中国。国际机构将资金和环境条款相联系,同时外国政府也开始抱怨中国沙尘暴和温室气体排放。所有的这些将帮助普及环境治理的最优方法。北京在08年奥运前正快速清理环境,将工厂搬出去并引入清洁交通工具技术:对受到全球尊重有了新的重视。

Of course, environmental problems and their huge costs will dog China for many years. In a country where the public is not free to speak, too many courts are toothless and environmental groups remain on a tight leash, it will be hard to know if the government's avowedly green policies are being implemented. But China deserves credit for its attempts to clean itself up. The balance between sustainable development and economic growth will have to be continuously adjusted in the future. Right now, China is probably moving in the right direction.
dog缠住, 跟踪
leash束缚
avowedly公然地; 明确地
implemented  实现, 执行, 使生效
当然,环境问题和他们的巨大开销会跟着中国好多年。在这个没有言论自由的国家里,太多的法庭没有实权,环境小组也仍被严格看管。很难弄清楚中国政府公开的环保政策是否被实施。但是其想要清理环境的意图值得肯定。在未来,可持续发展和经济增长的平衡将会不断调整。眼前来看,中国很可能正朝着正确的方向前进。
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发表于 2012-2-19 23:58 | 显示全部楼层
每篇必读,谢了
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-2-20 18:02 | 显示全部楼层
aaasssqw 发表于 2012-2-19 23:58
每篇必读,谢了

多谢您的捧场!
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发表于 2012-2-20 19:02 | 显示全部楼层
牛啊!
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发表于 2012-2-22 14:45 | 显示全部楼层
A great wall of waste用垃圾铸造我们新的长城
中心名词是垃圾 中文题目的中心词成了 长城了


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发表于 2012-2-22 14:51 | 显示全部楼层
“万里垃圾”
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-2-22 20:37 | 显示全部楼层
wwwmissy 发表于 2012-2-22 14:51
“万里垃圾”

我觉得不应该完全照着原文翻译,有的时候技巧性地处理下效果会更好。
虽然说译成中文的中心词变了,但是我认为把waste这个名词动作化,翻译成“用垃圾铸造我们新的长城”更形象生动些。
英语中比较喜欢用静态的词, 而汉语却倾向于动态的词。所以一般英语语境中的名词译成中文的时候,都会适当转换一下词性,变成动词,这样更符合中国人的阅读习惯。你觉得呢?




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发表于 2012-2-22 21:37 | 显示全部楼层
如果直接翻成“垃圾长城”似乎更好,楼主借用国歌的歌词来翻译可能符合外国人反讽的心态,但我们不能拿庄严的国歌开无意的玩笑。一点看法。
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 楼主| 发表于 2012-2-24 18:31 | 显示全部楼层
aaasssqw 发表于 2012-2-22 21:37
如果直接翻成“垃圾长城”似乎更好,楼主借用国歌的歌词来翻译可能符合外国人反讽的心态,但我们不能拿庄严 ...

呵呵,感谢这位亲的建议。
我绝对没有拿国歌开玩笑哦,只是自嘲而已,反讽手法外国有,中国也有啊!
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