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[写作储备] 别再用很土鳖的词汇了

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金币

大家网小学三年级

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发表于 2012-4-17 15:43 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
土鳖词汇,也叫做龌龊词汇,就是大家对于一个中文意思的第一反应。比如:大就是big,想就是think等等。虽然说写作考的不光是单词,但是我们的语言也要稍微华丽一些吧,这样才能锦上添花。


曾经看过一个老外写的中文文章:“我和小明是好朋友,我们一起去看电影,他说电影很好看,我也这么认为。然后我们回家了,我去他家吃饭。他妈妈做的很好吃”~~~很幼稚,但是这样一篇文章的等级是“很好”。这就是我们眼中的外国人文章,换位思考,外国人眼中我们的文章也就是这个样子的吧。通篇都是think,看卷子的人心理素质不好的话,都能一口鲜血吐出来。所以,为了给我们自己加分,为了让判卷的老师多活几年,我们换换词汇吧。


背了那么多红宝应该不难发现,我们学过的每个词在红宝书中都都替换的词,所以,在下吐血整理了这些替换词,帮助大家告别龌龊词汇!
第一类:
巨大: big-colossal/enormous/ immense/ gargantuan/ grandiose/ massive/ monolithic/ prodigious/titanic/ tremendous
小的:small-diminutive/ miniature/ miniscule
快的(副词):fastlyby leaps andbounds
加强:strengthen-bolster/ buttress/ consolidate/ reinforce/ intensify/ fortify (可以用在argument)
强的:strong-brawny/ muscular/ sinewy/ impregnable/ invincible/ potent/ robust/virile/ stalwart/ stout/ sturdy
强人: baron(巨头) magnate/mogul
削弱:weaken-diminish / debilitate/ enervate/ sap/ undermine/perish/wane
弱的: weakfeeble/decrepit/ frail/ flaccid/ impotent/ puny/ tenuous
重要的: important consequential/momentous/ eminent/ prominent/ pivotal/ substantial/ significant/ crucial/essential/ fundamental
重要:importance—core/ hub/ essence/ gist/magnitude
(类似的)
居首位的: leading—foremost/paramount/ overriding /predominant/ prevailing/ preeminent prevalent/ supreme
不重要的: unimportantmarginal/peripheral/ negligible/ trifling/trivial
超过:surpass—eclipse/exceed/override/overwhelming/prevail/transcend/ be superior to/outwit / outweigh / be inferior to(劣于)= be subordinate to
霸权:ascendancy/hegemony/supremacy


初始: beginningdebut/premiere/prime/ genesis/ inception/ onset/ threshold/ lead off/ lead out (to begin with好得多拉 )
(
或者说什么的到来:adventof something)
初始的: beginning--primitive//budding/ fledgling/ embryonic/(古老的意义解时archaic or antiquated or obsolescent or obsolete
开始: begin/startcommence/initiate/ embark/ inaugurate
开始:begin/start=undertake/ embark upon
增长: growmultiply/mushroom/proliferate/sprout/accelerate/ burgeon(慢慢增长)
使其增长:increase--amplify/ magnify/ add-augment/ supplement
加重,升级aggravate (恶化)/ escalate/ exacerbate/ deteriorate/ impair
减少,减弱:decreaseabate/attenuate/detract/ diminish/ slacken/curb/ curtail/ (number)pare/ prune/ slash/ trim/whittle/
减轻decrease---allay/assuage/ mollify/ soothe/mitigate/
变弱decreasedwindle/ ebb/subside/ wane/ weaken/ impair
上升: ascendlift / surge/rocket/ boast/ soar/ boom
达到顶峰 culminate 顶点: peakacme/apex/pinnacle/ climax/ apogee n.远地点/ zenith(nadir最低点 or abyss深渊) (zenith&nadir特别适合用在比喻 强调两者的区别大~两个词的来源大家可以查查~两个对比强烈哦 )
下降: descend/ plummet/plunge/ slump/ tumble (fluctuate波动)


gather
聚拢:accumulate/amass/ assemble/ congregate/ garner/ glean/ muster/ rally(为反对或支持而召集)
group
群组:battalion/bevy/ cluster/ drove/ flock/ swarm/ throng
combination
集合:assortment/medley/ mosaic(马赛克)/ motley(五花八门:形容词也可以)
a lot of/ a great many of= manifold
许多 abundant/ ample(充足)/ copious(大量的)/fraught with/ replete with/ numerous/ innumerable(不计其数)/ myriad 很多/ a multitudeof/ multitudes of/ a myriad of 无数的人们/ limitless无限的/ a deluge of/ beaucoup <> adj.非常多的
(
很多同学都喜欢用~alot of~a great number of~这里注意:numerous这里表达的不是无数很多那样~之表示一般的多~这一点从G猫老外改得一篇文章可以看到)
large quantity:
大量:avalanche/spate(比喻意大量的某物)/ exodus大量流出/ 大量流入influx/multitude大量 /plethora 比喻意:大量/profusion 丰富,繁多
拥有大量:boast/abound / deluge(被大量的某物所淹没)/teem到处
散开:spread-dispel(驱散)/ disperse/disseminate
稀少的:scarce/meager/ scant/ scanty/ skimpy/ sparse/ dearth
节俭的:frugal/thrifty/ miserly/
富裕的:rich-affluent/ lavish/ luxurious/ opulent/ sumptuous/ palatial
浪费的:improvident/prodigal son(浪荡子)=improvident/profligate
贫困的:poor=destitute/ impoverished/ impecunious/ indigent (形容人)


困难的:difficult=arduous/ strenuous/ daunting/ formidable/ exacting/ insuperable/ impassable/ onerousissue中大量存在"困难"的表达)
困境:(陷入困难的处境就是困难)difficultsituations= deadlock/ impasse/ stalemate/ dilemma/ predicament/ quandary/ mire泥沼/ morass/swamp/ quagmire/ standstill停止,僵局/ labyrinth迷宫(很好的比喻的说法~可以说什么问题把我们陷入了一个迷宫~僵局等~)
陷入:reduce/ getbogged down/ plunge into
复杂的:complicated/intricate/ complex/(这里介绍一个很好的押韵的方法:complexand perplexed/ complicate and intricate or sophisticated用在表达困难的地方可以显示出词汇的完善更能有一种押运修辞的效果~读起来琅琅上口)
复杂的事情:imbroglio/mesh/ tangle/ labyrinth迷宫= maze
卷入复杂的境地:involve=embroil/ ensnare/ entangle
从复杂境地脱身:escape=extricate
难以理解:abstruse/recondite/ intricate/ arcane只有少数人可以理解=esoteric/ cryptic 简短却令人迷惑/ enigmatic 谜一般的 enigma 形容词形式/ inexplicable无法解释/ inscrutable无法捉摸=unfathomable/mysterious/ supernatural/ mystical/ extraterrestrial
(
这里的词很多都表示 难以理解~ 很多题目学习类~教育类~社会类~历史类~艺术类~只要表示某某问题把我们难倒了都可以用)
mystery-puzzle=enigma/ conundrum/ riddle/迷宫labyrinth/ maze
令人迷惑:puzzle= baffle/ befuddle/ bewilder/ confound/ mystify/ perplex
令人沮丧:depressed=with depression/ frustrating/ daunting/ dismal/
使可以理解:clarify=elucidate/ enlighten启迪教化/explicate阐明/ expoundon/upon /illuminate照亮说清楚
可以理解的:intelligible= explicit/ lucid
阻碍:hindrance名次= fetter/shackle/ trammel枷锁桎梏/onus负担重任
阻碍:动词hamper= encumber造成负担/foil/ stymie/ thwart阻碍或者挫败工作完成/handicap/ hinder/ impede/ retard
压制:smother/stifle 令人窒息,压制约束suppress/ pin down
协助促进:aid= facilitate/ foster/ nurture/ buttress/


著名的:famous =celebrated/ renowned/ reputed/ distinguished/ illustrious/ prestigious/outstanding/ distinctive/ eminent/ notable/ noticeable/ striking/ remarkable/preeminent
be famous for = take pride in
elite= meritocrat (meritocracy n.
知识界精华)(用上的话超级有文采~嘻嘻)
有特色:feature =savor/ 因为什么而闻名可用famous一系列
臭名昭著:disreputable= infamous/ notorious/ nefarious因为极坏而臭名昭著
好的名声:reputation= esteem/ prestige
坏的名声:disgrace/disrepute/ ignominy/ infamy/ odium/ opprobrium/ stigma 不好的声誉,耻辱。
尊重 名次:respect =reverence/ veneration/ homage
高尚的:noble =rarefied/ sublime/ lofty
不尊重 名次:disrespect =scorn蔑视
招人轻视的:contemptible= despicable
尊重:动词idolize/worship/ lionize 对待名人一样的崇拜/revere敬爱,敬畏
不尊重:动词 disrespect/ deride/ scoff嘲笑/ despise/ disdain/ slight/ snub
赞扬:名次praise=accolade赞美,奖项/approbation/ encomium/ eulogy/ panegyric/ plaudit/ tribute/ tribute用来表示赞美的行为或者发言
赞美:动词praise= acclaim/ applaud/ hail欢呼/ commend/ extol/ laud高度的,常常带有美化成分的赞美
应该受到谴责的:形容词reprehensible
谴责:condemn=censure/ denounce/ reprimand/ decry/ deprecate/ deplore叹惋/ lament 叹惋/ remonstrate争辩,申辩
责备:admonish/reproach/ reprove温和的责备
严厉责备:动词berate/ castigate/ chastise/ chide/ excoriate/ inveigh/ rail/ revile/ upbraid
令人讨厌的事物:名次anathema
谩骂的:abusive/vituperative


有害的事物:harmfulthings=
contagion
传染病瘟疫epidemic/ pandemic也有流行的意思/pestilence/plague
疾病:malady 瘴气:miasma比喻意为有害的气氛或者影响 灾患:scourge
不再害怕看到世界中心深处的毒气:unafraidto look deep into the miasma at the heart of the world.
有害的:harmful =deleterious/ detrimental/ noxious/ toxic/ virulent/ monstrous/ murderous
邪恶的:evil/ devil=cruel/ crude/ brutal/ wicked/ vicious/ malicious/ atrocious/ virulent/ venomous/ sinister/ hafarious/ vicious/ pernicious/ destructive/ detrimental
致命的:fatal/ lethal前两个并非贬义/ pernicious极其有害的
有益的:形容词:hygienic/sanitary 广义的卫生的/ salutary/wholesome有益身心的
有害的事物:bane致命的毒药 /blight植物的枯萎病/
损害:harm = blemish/deface/ disfigure/ eviscerate/ impair减损/main mutilate毁伤肢体/ mar/spoil破坏 demolish
有益的事物:antidote解毒药/ remedy药物:纠错/ panacea 万能良药 elixir 炼金药,万能药(有贬义含义)/ boon赐福blessing /tonic 补药
改善:improve =ameliorate/ amend/ 对法律的修改/rectify/ redress/
毁坏,毁灭:destroy/annihilate彻底消灭/exterminate终结/eliminate/ eradicate/ decimate/ demolish/ dismantle/ raze 彻底摧毁夷为平地/ devastate/ravage/ wreck遭受重创,严重破坏/ obliterate擦去/ pulverize 磨成粉末状/ subvert 颠覆
可怕的:awful =horrible/ terrible/ tragic/ wretched / dire
复苏,复兴 动词:revive=rejuvenate/ resurrect/ resuscitate/ revive
动荡的,混乱的 形容词:tumultuous/turbulent/
混乱:名词:chaos/confusion/ disorder / mayhem/ disarray/ havoc大面积的破坏-混乱pandemonium 撒旦居住的地方,比喻嘈杂,混乱的地方/ shambles废墟/ turmoil 混乱,动荡/ upheaval突发的巨变
灾难:calamity/cataclysm/ catastrophe
危险 名词:danger/hazard/ peril
危险的:hazardous/perilous/ precarious/ treacherous
危及:动词endanger/ compromise/ imperil/ jeopardize
保护:protect =safeguard
表示进步,提高的动词:
improve ameliorate better develop remedy revise enhance enrichupgrade
refine
重要,关键:
important significant consequential momentous considerableessential
valuable distinctive great weighty major serious grave vitalcapital
substantial material; 稍微扯得远一点的还有conspicuous striking prominent
eminent noticeable
正确的,无误的:
correct rectify accurate precise proper undistorted rightimpeccable
增长和减少(这个超级常用!)
increase rise extend magnify decrease reduce fall amplifyaggrandize
elongate intensify enhance prolong strengthen curtail shrinkterminate
lessen abate raise boost intense(intensify) expand augment enlargediminish
dwindleswindle是诈骗的意思) slump
和证明相关的:
justify warrant assert claim contend argue validate substantiateverify
accuse assign indict allege affirm
论题:
statement claim declaration assertion opinion belief viewconviction
persuasion
要求
request demand needs requisition
撤销
to cancel; to revoke; to countermand; [Law] to rescind; to quash
建立
to build up; to establish; to set up; to found; to take root; tostrike
root
消除
to eliminate; to clear; to remove; to clear up; to take away; tosmooth
away
推理
1.[Logic] inference; reasoning; deduction; ratiocination
2.to reason
3.to put two and two together
相应
1.corresponding; relevant; relative; fitting; appropriate
2.accordingly; correspondingly; by the same token; in acorresponding way
3.to correspond to; to act in responses; to work in concert with;to
support each other
导致
1.to lead to; to bring about (or on); to result in; to cause; tospark off;
t
o conduce to; to procure; to induce; to generate
后果
a consequence; an aftermath; an outcome
检查
to inspect; to check; to examine; to look over; to put to thetest; to keep
a check on
发(奖品)
prize reward award grant assign confer(on) honor fame creditcontribution
acknowledgement recognition
表示程度的副词
very strikingly greatly highly insatiably exceedingly dreadfullyremarkably
drastically dramatically
足够
sufficient adequate enough
剩下几个也是常用的
present justify practicable hence consequently examination
accountable responsible
twist and turn 迂回曲折
might and main 尽全力
part and parcel 重要部分
safe and sound 安然无恙
spick and span 崭新的,极干净的
time and tide 岁月,时光
go to rack and ruin 陷于毁灭
slow and sure 慢而稳,稳妥
hale and hearty 老当益壮
chop and change 变幻莫测(尤指观点,计划等)
fair and foul 在任何情况下
weal and woe 福祸
sum and subs tance 主要情况,要点(尤指讲话的主要部分)
forgive and forget 不念旧恶
wax and wane (月的)盈亏圆缺;盛衰
1        inferno  地狱,可与幸福生活形成强烈对比   the inferno of war
2        inky    用于个人在生活上或科研道路上的迷茫   the inky darkness of one’s pursuit of owndestiny
3        promulgate   公布,颁布法令,新法律   promulgate a belief, and idea, a theory,etc            the promulgation of atreaty
4        latency    如作者主张尚未表现出的危险或其主张的长远作用     latent---latent ability , a latentinfection        after a carefulexamination, it is no need to go too far to sense that the author’s claimunderlies a latency of peril to both personal and even societal degree./ lurksa latency of profound implication.
5        Connotation      内涵,言外之意―――  Hollywood always holds connotation of romanceand glittering success.     贬义词  derogatory connotation
6        Motivate/ ignite    用于深究心理方面深层的原因,或者内因    be motivated by greed, fear, love       a teacher who can motive her pupils
7        Nectar      在描写艺术方面的享受时有用,甘露,
8        Emulate    仿效,主要用于名人的作用   emulative 好胜的
9        责任   obligation , responsibility, liability
10     重要  paramount   the reduction of unemployment should be paramount in the government’seconomic policy
11     Ponder1  深思  pondering on the meaning of life
12     Delvein/ into 探索,钻研,起源     a writer delving in medieval French literature                delve into the origins of the custom
13     Blood 根源  of the same blood
14     演绎推理    deduce 追溯源头
15     Augment增加提高   continuing rainsaugment the flood waters.   
16     混乱   turmoil uproar pandemonium chaos                                        thecountry was in a turmoil during the strike.   There was uproar over the tax increases.     Left in a state of chaos
17     Rotelearning 死记硬背的方法
18     Reminisce    缅怀美好的往事   reminiscence 怀旧  reminiscence of my youth
19     Halcyon太平盛世   halcyon times    the halcyon days of youth
20     Quietude平静寂静   equability 平和宁静
21     Equanimity镇静     she maintained herequanimity throughout her long ordeal.     
22     Impassivity  泰然自若
23     Equilibrium平衡均势    disturb theequilibrium of the chains of natural environment.
24     Balance-----try to achieve a better balance between work and play.           This newspaper maintains a goodbalance in its presentation of different opinions.
25     Placidity平静   the placidity of histemperament
26     Deformity畸形,用于形容教育中重视一方面忽视另一方面
27     Lapse   小错失足   a lapse from grace   失宠   lapse into 陷入   lapse back into bad habits        lapse into a coma     时间流逝   after a lapse of several decades
28     Peccadillo小过失  guilty of some mildpeccadillo
29     Falsity    谬误错误
30     Menace威胁,危害  nuclear weapons are amenace to world peace
31     Jeopardize  破坏危害   jeopardous
32     Imperil    危害    the security of the country had been imperiled
33     Transient   转瞬即失的      transient success     transience   transient years is not enough to make theconclusion
34     Ephemeral    短暂的   ephemeral pleasure
35     Permanent    permanence    permanency
36     Angle      角度   try looking at the affair from a differentangle
37     Facet    方面角度   there are many facets to this question
38     Dissimilitude    不同不同之处
39     表示实用的功利的    utilitarian function    pragmatic utilitarianism     pragmatism
40     神话(用于艺术类的issue 中)   mythology   神化  apotheosis    apotheosize    寓言  allegory  fable  圣歌    psalm    anthem  hymn   亵渎的  profane   圣乐和俗乐    scared and profane music   神灵saint
41     Didactic  教诲的,说教的    教诲  edification inculcate
42     Elicit
43     表示竞争极其后果的词   良性竞争  good-natures rivalry 恶性竞争、循环   vicious circle    憎恨  antipathy
44     Salvation拯救(描写精神,崇高事业时)redemption
45     Mundane  世俗的
46     Ethnocentrism民主优越感    racialism    racism 种族主义     nationalism 民族主义   chauvinism  沙文主义    patriotism  patriotic 爱国主义
47     Ingrained根深蒂固的
48     注定   predestine destine   foreordain
49     Populace   平民
50     描写文化差异/ 相同的词语   cultural shock    设身处地的vicarious    vicariously         vicarious pleasure, satisfaction    be acclimatized to       assimilation culturalhomogenization   文化适应   acculturation
51     Emblem象征    the dove is an emblemof peace
52     修辞手法     metaphor     onomatopoeia    rhetoric
53     Crusade(为争取好的或反对坏的事物的)斗争或运动   a crusade against corruption
54     Transatlantic大西洋彼岸的,横越大西洋的   transatlantic flight, voyage, telephone call        a transatlantic trade agreement
55     Tottering蹒跚的
56     Recidivism    累犯
57     Spacecrunch    空间紧缩   crunch
58     表示渠道的词   channel vehicle  
59     Melancholy忧郁
60     Epithet     绰号
61     Pernicious    有害的
62     Proclivity倾向
63     家谱   genealogy  pedigree  
64     政府行为   stipulation of a poverty line
环境:
delicate balance upon whichanimals—including human—depend    ecosystem生态平衡
the depletion of the atmospheric ozone 臭氧空洞
extinct species, serious pollution of water, excessive cutting ofjungles and rainforests
consumption of the earth’s finite natural resources
社会问题
rely on labor force,equipment, and raw materials of developing countries  企业的需求
increased crime, unemployment, insurrection, hunger, plague, andso forth
vicious competition, vicious circle, monopoly 经济问题 恶性竞争,垄断
科技:
1. impact on daily life/ saturated every aspects in our dailyroutine 科技深入生活
2. we need to control the development and use of technologicalinnovation so that they benefit all aspects of community 防止科技危害生活:
Although scientific discoveries and technological advances haveproduced tremendous improvement in the quality of human life, they also havenegative consequences.
nuclear power, chemical plants,  à    threaten our life
教育:
education always plays a key role in determining a person’ssuccess 教育决定成功
we must be conscious of our obligations to help those who aretruly infirm, aged or incapable of providing for themselves   公民的责任,帮助困难人员
教育的目的
the primary purpose for education is to transmit democratic values, innovative ideas and so that it canprepare new generations of citizens in society, rather than simply instillinginformation and knowledge.
儿童社会化行为:negotiate, bargain, cajole, compromise, conflict, deceive.
领导教育 value the input of subordinates, by involving them in decisionsabout matters or strategies 接受下属意见
a leader’s effectiveness as a competitor is not necessarilyinconsistent/ exclusive with his or her ability to cooperate with subordinatesor competitors. 合作与竞争不矛盾
冷门热门学科
Students often fail to see the practicality of studyingShakespeare as preparation for a career in business
成功vs失败
success and failure are not opposites, they are both products ofthe same process
an activity which produces a hit also produce a miss
压力
economic pressure, parental pressure, peer pressure, self-inducedpressure
艺术:
例子

人格






honesty


Abe Lincoln


walk three miles to return 6 cents


persistence


Columbus


voyage


civil rights




the Declaration of Independence


Innovation


Michael Dell


Personal selling of computers







政治,经济名人例子





结论


Churchill


WWII, lecturer


政治leader


Jack Welch


CEO of General Electric Company


经济leader


Eisenhower


Commander


军事leader


Copernicus


Heliocentric system


挑战权威成功


Aristotle


Geocentric theory


权威


Plato


Spiritual Love


柏拉图

a critic’s evaluation of an art work serves as a filter, whichhelps us to determine which art is worth our time and attention  评论家的作用
a critic’s assessment is limited by the narrow confines of old andestablished parameters of evaluation  评论家有限眼光扼杀艺术
例子

艺术家


专业


作品


评论家


赞助人


Michelangelo








The Pope


Mozart


Music






European Monarchs


Mark Twain


Best-selling writer






Contemporary citizen


Sigmund Freud


The founder of psyche








Leonardo da Vinci


Painting


Mona Lisa


创新以模仿为基础




Victor Hugo


Romantic author


Les Miserable 悲惨世界






Margaret Mitchell




Gone With the wind






Shakespeare




Hamlet






Vincent van Gogh


Expression, Early Abstraction


Sunflower





写作常用短语
continuing controversy 长久未解决的问题
anything but决不是
run contrary to common sense and daily experience 与常理相悖
Any government, which is blind to this point, will pay a heavyprice. 政府职责
spare no effort to 不遗余力
even if; even assuming 即使
常用难拼的学科及学家
anthropologist 人类, archeologist 考古, biochemist 生物化学, geologist 地质, linguist 语言, astronomer 天文, psychoanalyst 精神分析, philosopher 哲学家
1.       counterproductive adj.产生相反效果(结果)的e.g. It is counterproductive tobe too tough: it just makes the staff resentful.
e.g. Althoughthe speaker overlooks certain circumstances in which undue skepticism might becounterproductive, and even harmful, on balance I agree that weshould not passively accept whatever is passed off as fact; otherwise,human knowledge would never advance.
2.       seminal  adj.萌芽的,潜在的;开创性的;有重大影响的e.g. in the seminal state (在萌芽状态)|| seminal thoughts || seminal principle(基本原则)
e.g. a seminal book/poet  || Thisexperiment was to have a seminal influence on his own political development.
3.      forgo  v.放弃 (The choice to forgo his security is always available, althoughit might carry unpleasant consequence)
4.      intuition  n.直觉 (I will trust my strong intuition that free will is anessential part of our being as humans.)
5.      satisfy     v.证明是正当的,公证的;为寻找正当理由e.g. Such action can be justified onthe grounds of greater efficiency.
e.g. In the finalanalysis, government cannot philosophically justify assisting large cities forthe purpose of either promoting or preserving the nation's cultural traditions;nor is government assistance necessary toward these ends.
6.      resort to …  诉诸
e.g. no necessity to resort to violentactions such as demonstration, riot or rebel.
conduce
7.       hinge on … 为转移,靠转动e.g. The claim that society’s destinyhinges on how children are socialized, while appealing in some respects, is anover-statement at best.
8.       at best  最多,充其量;以最乐观的观点来看
9.       collaborate to …
e.g. For example, scientists,researchers, and even computer programmers must collaborate to establishcommon goals, coordinate efforts, and meet time lines.
10.    lend some credence to … 提供支持e.g. While our everyday experience might lendcredence to this assertion.
e.g. Recent advances in molecular biology and genetics lend some credence tothis position, by suggesting that these determining physical forces include ourown individual genetic makeup.
11.    dimension  n.大小;体积;程度;范围e.g. a creature of huge dimensions.|| I did not realize the dimensions of the problem.
e.g. There is a dimension to the problem that we have not discussed. ||various dimensions of human experience.
12.    detractor  n.损毁者;贬低者
13.    amount to … 相当于;等于e.g. What you say amounts to adirect accusation.
e.g. Even where a fiction work amounts to pure fantasy, with nohistorical context, it can still hold more lasting significance than a factualaccount.
14.  fruit       ion    n.享用, 结果实, 成就, 实现e.g. It is the famous few that providevision of the future, visions which groups then bring to fruition.
e.g. bring one's plans to fruition || After years of hard work, his hopes cameto fruition.
reap  v.收获;收割 (The consumer reaps rich rewards from this competitivespirit.)
15.    inspire  v.激励或鼓舞e.g. To begin with, learning about keyhistorical figures inspires us to achieve great things ourselves --- farmore so than learning about the conditions of groups of people.
16.    provide necessary impetus for … 给与动力e.g. It is almost always a keyindividual who provide the necessary imputes for what otherwise might bea group effort, as discussed below.
17.    favor  v.赐予;给与e.g. He was favored with greatintelligence. || adduce facts to favor one’s contention.
18.    paradigm  n.样式;典范;范例 (educational paradigms)
19.    obscure  v.使阴暗;使朦胧e.g. Generally speaking, then, undueattention to the efforts and contributions of various groups tends to obscurethe cause and effect relationship with which the study of history is chieflyconcerned.
20.    take steps to … (take step to help alleviate social problems)
21.    serve useful purposes for …
e.g. I agree insofar as some commoncore curriculum would serve useful purposes for any nation
e.g. immediate disclosure would have served no useful purpose and mighteven have resulted in mass hysteria.
22.    nascent  adj.初生的 (in a nascentcondition/stage/state || a nascent industry/ literature/art)
23.    reach a fully informed consensus as to …对于达成共识
24.    unfettered  adj.除去脚镣的;自由而不受约束的
25.    irrespective of whether … 无论如何e.g. While we must invest in research irrespectiveof whether the results might be controversial.
26.    draw a distinction between … (One useful approachis to draw a distinction between personal morality and public morality)
27.    catalyst  n.催化剂;刺激因素e.g. circumstance often serves as acatalyst for heroism.
28.    account for …解释原因e.g. This combination of very highdensity of population, goods and services, and machines, allincreasing withalmost brutal speed, does account for some really antisocialtendencies in modernurban growth.
29.   proviso  n.限制性条款;(附带)条件e.g. Thecarpenter agreed to do the work, with the proviso that he was paid inadvance.
e.g. Aside from the two forgoing provisos, however, I fundamentally disagreewith the speaker’s claim.
30.   conversely  adv.相反的 (They hold converse opinion || Without knowledge, we can hardly survivethrough abominable conditions, depending solely on the admiration of the beingsderived from imagination. Conversely, without imagination, we can as well notpossible to get through due to the impediment of knowledge and the depletion ofspiritual asylums.)
31.  core values upon which any (democratic ) society depends to thrive. 一个社会赖以繁荣的价值核心
32.  be superior (in …) to … 比更好,更优秀e.g. this engineis superior in every respect to that. || whenever moving images are central toan event the video camera is superior to a written word.
33.  proceeding   n.行动, 进行,会议录, 学报 (legal proceeding || governmental proceedings)
34.  thwart v.反对;妨碍;挫败e.g. thegovernment’s strategies for thwarting specific plans of an internationalterrorist or a drug trafficker.
35.  public panic 公众恐慌
36.  unprecedented  adj.空前的,史无前例的 (the society is changing at a speed which is quite unprecedented)
37.  inexorable  adj.不可阻挡的;坚持不懈的;无情的 (Facts are inexorable || the inexorablemarch of science)
38.  Science is on the march. || the marchof science/events/time
39.  make great effort 努力; make every effort 尽一切努力;overcome a myriad of politicalimpediments克服政治障碍
40.  a myriad of 无数,数不清 (Each galaxy contains myriad of stars)
41.  while parochial social problems gounsolved. || mitigate(缓和) the problems || address pressingsocial problems
42.  take precedence over …
e.g. This interest might takeprecedence over the historic value of an old structure that stands in theway of a parking structure.
43.   strike a balance among competing interest
44.   serve as asubstitute for        …取代
be superseded by  
代替;取代
e.g. Pragmatic behavior guarantees survival, whereas idealistic views tend to besuperseded by simpler, more immediate options.
45.   源自于:emerge from … (in every age andculture some worthwhile art and literature emerges from the mediocrity.)
stem from …
(prevailing attitudes about sexualmorality stem from the ideas of key religious leaders)
spring from…
e.g. this desire toidentify oneself with an exclusive social group seems to spring fromsome innate psychological need to define one's self through one's personalassociations.
46.  坏影响;负面影响:
detrimental effects of … (In politics, the detrimentaleffects of competition are blatant.)
negative/adverse effects on/to
47.   名人notablefigures
celebrity
elite
personality
(television personalities)
48.   普遍;普及prevailing  adj.普遍的;流行的;占优势的 (the prevailing view in Westerncorporate culture || prevailing principle)
popular  adj.
prevalent     adj.
(The habit of traveling by aircraft is becoming more prevalent eachyear.)
49.  灌输;教育instill     v. (Courtesy must be instilled inchildhood || Morality may be instilled into their minds)
inculcate  v. (inculcate the young with a sense of duty.)
impart     v. (A good teacher imparts wisdomto his pupils.)
foster    v.养育, 抚育, 培养, 鼓励(Frequent cultural exchange willcertainly help foster friendly relations between our two universities.|| detect and foster artistic talent. || to foster an interest inmusic)
nurture  v.养育, 给与营养物, 教养 (While the speaker might overlook thebenefits of nurturing certain emotions and feels, on balance I agreethat …)
50.   充满;装满be ladenwith … (History is laden with unusualclaims || be laden with responsibility)
be replete with …     (Modern politics is replete with examples of what most people wouldconsider personal ethical fallings)
be fraught with …     (a complexissue that is fraught with the problems of defining ethics, morality,and successful leadership)
51.   癖性;偏好idiosyncratic       adj.特性的;癖性的 (Given a choice they will pursue theirown idiosyncratic area of interest.)
inclination  n. (follow one's own inclination || I have no inclination to be a doctor.)
52.   若干重;若干刃
a double-edged sword  
双刃剑e.g. This type ofadvertisement can be a doubt-edged sword, when the product does not make theperson “be like” the person in the advertisement, there can be disappointmentand disillusionment with the product.
a two-edged weapon  双重武器e.g. As is sooften pointed out, knowledge is a two-edged weapon which can be used equallyfor good or evil.
twofold/threefold/manifold  adj.双重/三重/多种e.g. We have toask ourselves very seriously what will happen is this twofold use of knowledge,with its ever-increasing power, continues.
e.g. The City Council has a manifold plan to beautify the city.
53.   have little bearing on …  无关e.g. Moreover,assisting large cities would have little bearing on our distinctcultural traditions, which abide elsewhere.
with respect to…   关于e.g. Personaleconomic success might be due either to one's investment strategy or to one'swork or career. With respect to the former, non-conformists with enoughrisk tolerance and patience invariably achieve more success than conformists. Withrespect to the latter, while non-conformists are more likely to succeed innewer industries where markets and technology are in constant flux, conformistsare more likely to succeed in traditional service industries ensconced insystems and regulations.
54.    先天的,天生的innate    adj.先天的, 天生的 (Correct ideas are not innate in the mind, but come fromsocial practice.)
[O] acquired        adj.后天习得的
inborn   adj.天生的 (an inborn sense ofthe appropriate || inborn intelligence)
55.  利用;有益于conduce to  有助于e.g. encouraging students to questionand criticize is conducing to the development of democratic spirits.
be beneficial to …
e.g. A national core curriculum would be beneficial to a nation in anumber of respects.
harness  v.利用e.g. The dilemma facing leadersin all areas of life is how to best assess these individuals to determine howto best harness heir capabilities to reach their ultimate productivecapabilities.
take advantage of …
make its contribution to …
56.  消除;减轻
eliminate  v.
排除,消除(eliminate the false and retain the true || eliminate thepossibility of= preclude the possibility of)
diminish       v.
使减小,使变少(diminish one’s reputation || diminish the cost of production)
undermine   v.破坏,削弱 (formal study of thepresent culture at the expanse of studying past cultures can underminethe function of higher education, and ultimately provide a disservice tostudents and to society.)
57.  恶化;加剧
exacerbate  v.
恶化, 增剧, 激怒, 使加剧, 使烦恼e.g. Thisproblems would only be exacerbated were these decisions left exclusivelyto federal regulators.
e.g. a speech that exacerbated racial tensions || a heavy rainfall that exacerbatedthe flood problems.
aggravate  v.
58.  过度;过分
exorbitant   adj.
过度的;过高的 (exorbitant rents || exorbitantly expensive || exorbitant amount of money)
undue    adj.过度的;过分的 (apply undue pressure to make s.b. change his mind)
overemphasize v.
59.   导致、造成pose 引起某事物,造成,提出e.g. Winter posesparticular difficulties for the elderly.
e.g. However, a common curriculum that is also an exclusive one would posecertain problems.
render  v.致使,造成e.g. Your actionhas rendered our contract invalid.e.g. This trend renders a society’s members more vulnerable todemagoguery.
breed  v.
导致;造成e.g. The speakerunfairly suggests that large cities serve as the primary breeding groundand sanctuaries for a nation’s cultural traditions.
e.g. Dirt breeds disease. || Unemployment breeds social unrest ( 社会不安定 ) .
burgeon  v.迅速发展;发芽 (burgeoning cities || burgeoning Internet commerce)
outgrowth  n.
长出, 派出, 结果, 副产物e.g. A thirduniquely contemporary problem is an outgrowth of the inexorable advancement ofscientific knowledge.
e.g. Inflation is an outgrowth of war.
60.    探求、努力:
seek to …
探求,寻求
e.g. One compelling argument in favor of a global university has to do with thefact that its faculty and students would bring diverse cultural and educationalperspectives to the problems they seek to solve.
strive to …努力e.g. studentsshould strive to excel in the specific requirements of their major course ofstudy
probe    v./n.探求,探查
e.g. probe a matter to the bottom
e.g. Does his/her cultural background allows him/her to freely probe theintricacy of the work?
e.g. Even in his philosophical probinghe cannot go behind these stereotypes; his veryconcepts of the true and the false will still have reference to his particulartraditional customs.
61.   资助、赞助:subsidize      v.资助, 津贴 (Subsidizing cultural traditions is not a proper role of government.)
patron     n.资助人;赞助人 (cultural patron)
on the patronage of …
e.g. culture has always depended primarily on the patronage ofprivate individuals and businesses.
under the auspices of …
e.g. During this period, on significant scientific advances occurred underthe auspices of the government.
62.   增强、提高escalate       v.增强提高 (the escalating cost of addressingthese problems)
enhance/ promote/ augment / elevate             v.
  (… was elevating their notion about …)
63.   方法、途径:
avenue  n.
大街, 方法, 途径, (an avenue to success)
approach      n.
64.   ostensible  adj.表面上的e.g. Today'shigh-tech firms seem compelled to boldly go to what effort is required todevise increasingly complex products, for the ostensible purpose ofstaying ahead of their
65.   获得;达到 ||||角度;方面 ||| 短暂/长远 ||| 危险;危害 |||| 分配 ||||最后地;最终地
acquire/gain/attain/achieve |||| angles/aspect/facet/side/respect ||||transient, ephemeral / enduring, permanent |||| menace, jeopardize, imperil,endanger |||| allocate/ distribute/ assign |||| eventually/ultimately

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发表于 2012-4-17 20:33 | 显示全部楼层
好东西
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thank you for sharing
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辛苦了
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Very good ,thank you very much!
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看了这个帖子才知道自己的英文有多菜
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这个也太。。。
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非常感谢分享!
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嗯!应该学以致用的!
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不错的东东啊 。
假如时光可以倒流,世界上有一半的人都能成为伟人!
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