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过程间的联系与交互作用(中英对照)

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发表于 2009-5-11 23:55 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Process Interactions

    过程间的相互联系与交互作用

    Project Management Process Groups are linked by the objectives they produce.The output of one process generally becomes an input to another process or is a deliverable of the project.The Planning Process Group provides the Executing Process Group a documented project management plan and project scope statement,and often updates the project management plan as the project progresses.In addition,the Process Groups are seldom either discrete or one-time events;they are overlapping activities that occur at varying levels of intensity throughout the project.Figure 3-11 illustrates how the Process Groups interact and the level of overlap at varying times within a project.If the project is divided into phases,the Process Groups interact within a project phase and also may cross the project phases.

项目管理过程组之间是以它们所产生的成果相互联系。一个过程的成果一般成为另一过程的依据或成为项目的可交付成果。规划过程组为执行过程组提供正式的项目管理计划和项目范围说明书,并随着项目的绩效经常更新该项目管理计划。此外,过程组极少是孤立或只执行一次的事件:它们是在整个项目生命期内自始至终都以不同的程度互相重香的活动。图3-11形象地说明了过程组如何互相联系和作用,也表示了在各个不同时间互相重叠的水平。若将项目划分为阶段,则过程组不但在阶段内,而且也可能跨越阶段相互影响和相互作用。


    Figure 3-11.Process Groups Interact in a Project


    图3-11 项目过程组间的相互作用

    Among the Process Groups and their processes,the process outputs are related and have an impact on the other Process Groups.For example,closing a design phase requires customer acceptance of the design document.Then,the design document defines the product description for the ensuing Executing Process Group.When a project is divided into phases,the Process Groups are normally repeated within each phase throughout the project's life to effectively drive the project to completion.The Process Groups and their relationships are illustrated in Figure 3-12.

在过程组及其子过程之间,过程的成果互相联系,并影响其他过程组。例如,结束某一设计阶段就要求顾客验收设计文件。然后,设计文件就为执行过程组确定了产品说明书。当项目划分为阶段时,同样的过程组一般在项目生命期的每一阶段都重复,并有效地推动项目完成。过程组及其相互之间的关系表示(见图3-12)。


    Figure 3-12.Project Management Process Group Triangle


    图3-12 项目管理过程组之间的三角关系

    However,just as not all of the processes will be needed on all projects,not all of the interactions will apply to all projects or project phases.For example:

    然而,正如并非所有的项目都需要所有的过程一样,过程间的所有相互作用也并非都在所有的项目或项目阶段中表现出来。例如:

    Projects that are dependent upon unique resources(e.g.,commercial software development and biopharmaceuticals)can define roles and responsibilities prior to scope definition,since what can be done is dependent on who is available to do it.

    依赖于独特资源的项目(如商业软件开发、生物制SS药)可以在确定范围之前确定角色与责任,因为能够做什么取决于谁可以承担这一工作。

    Some process inputs are predefined as constraints.For example,management can specify a target completion date rather than allowing that date to be determined by the planning process.An imposed completion date will often require scheduling backward from that date and can increase project risk,add cost,and compromise quality,or,in extreme cases,require a significant change in scope.

    过程的某些依据实际上是制约因素,因而事先就已经确定了。例如,高层管理人员规定完成时间目标,而不是由规划过程确定完成目期。强加的完成目期经常要求从规定的完成目期开始倒排进度表,并有可能增加项目的风险和费用,损害质量,甚至在极端的情况下要求大规模修改项目的范围。
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