大家论坛

 找回密码
 注册
查看: 4364|回复: 15

[金融英语考试动态] 新东方金融英语笔记【文字版02】

[复制链接]

50

主题

107

帖子

650

金币

大家网高中二年级

Rank: 12Rank: 12

积分
604
发表于 2013-8-8 09:21 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
金融英语,FECT论坛,大家论坛,FECT笔记,FECT考试
新东方金融英语笔记【文字版02】

What is Money ?
As the word money is used in everyday conversation, it can mean many things, but to economists it has a very specific meaning. To avoid confusion, we must clarify how economists' use of the
word money differs from conventional usage.

Economists define money as anything that is generally accepted in payment for goods or services or in the repayment of debts.

Currency, consisting of dollar bills and coins, is one type of money. When most people talk about money, they' re talking about currency. However, to define money merely as currency is much too narrow for economists. 汉语

Because checks are also accepted as payment for purchases, checking account deposits are considered money as well. An even broader definition of money is often needed. As you can see, there is no single, precise definition of money or the money supply, even for economists. 汉语

To complicate matters further, the word money is frequently used synonymously with wealth. When people say, "Joe is rich—he has an awful lot of money," they probably mean that Joe not only has a lot of currency and a high balance in his checking account but also has stocks, bonds, four cars, three houses, and a yacht. 汉语

Balance: the amount of money in an account at a particular time 帐户存款的余额
For example: Could you tell me what my balance is please? 你能告诉我的帐户余额吗?

Economists make a distinction between money and wealth. Wealth includes not only money but also other assets such as bonds, common stock, art, land, furniture, cars, and houses.

People also use the word money to describe what economists call income, as in the sentence "Susan would be a wonderful catch; she has a good job and earns a lot of money."

Income is a flow of earnings per unit of time. Money, by contrast, is a stock: It is a certain amount at a given point in time.  收入是某一单位时间内收益的流量, 而货币是一个存量, 即某一时间点上一个特定的金额。

If someone tells you that he has an income of $1 000, you can not tell whether he earned a lot or a little without knowing whether this $1 000 is earned per year, per month, or even per day. But if someone tells you that she has $1 000 in her pocket, you know exactly how much this is.

Keep in mind that the money discussed refers to anything that is generally accepted in payment for goods and services or in the repayment of debts and is distinct from income and wealth.

必须牢牢记住:我们所说的货币是在支付商品和劳务货款或在偿还债务时被普遍接受的任何东西,他与收入和财富是有区别的。

What does money do? In this section, we will talk about the Functions of Money.

Whether money is shells or rocks or gold or paper, it has three primary functions in any economy: as a medium of exchange(交易媒介), a unit of account(计算单位), and a store of value(价值的储藏). Of the three functions, its function as a medium of exchange is what distinguishes money from other assets such as stocks, bonds, and houses.
金融英语,FECT论坛,大家论坛,FECT笔记,FECT考试

回复

使用道具 举报

50

主题

107

帖子

650

金币

大家网高中二年级

Rank: 12Rank: 12

积分
604
 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-8 09:23 | 显示全部楼层
金融英语,FECT论坛,大家论坛,FECT笔记,FECT考试
新东方金融英语笔记【文字版02】

Medium of Exchange


In almost all market transactions in our economy, money in the form of currency or checks is a medium of exchange; it is used to pay for goods and services. The use of money as a medium of exchange promotes economic efficiency by eliminating(节约) much of the time spent in exchanging goods and services. 在我们经济社会所有的市场交易中,以通货和支票形式出现的货币都是交易媒介, 也就是说我们用它来对商品和劳务进行支付。利用货币作为交易媒介省去了商品和劳务交易所需的大量时间,从而提高了经济效率。

The time spent trying to exchange goods or services is called a transaction cost, In a barter economy, transaction costs are high because people have to satisfy a "double coincidence of wants"(需求的双重巧合)---they have to find someone who has goods or service they want and who also wants the goods or service they have to offer. 在从事商品和劳务交易时所花的时间叫做交易成本。在物物交换的经济中,交易成本很高,因为人们必须满足需求的双重巧合。即他们必须找到某个人拥有自己想要的商品和劳务,而且恰恰需要自己提供的商品和劳务。

Money is therefore essential in an economy it is a lubricant (润滑剂) that allows the economy to run more smoothly by lowering transaction costs, thereby encouraging specialization and the division of labor. 因此,货币在经济社会中,是十分重要的东西;它降低了交易成本,像润滑剂一样,能使经济更为迅捷的运行,并由此鼓励了专业化和劳动分工。


Now let’s come to see the second function of the money.
Unit of Account

The second role of money is to provide a unit of account; that is, it is used to measure value in the economy. We measure the value of goods and services in terms of money, just as we measure weight in terms of pounds or distance in terms of miles. 货币的第二个职能是:计算单位,就是说在经济社会中人们用钱来计算商品和劳务的价值。就像用磅来称重,用英里来测量距离一样。

Money we use nowadays, no matter in the form of banknotes or coin or electronic money, do not have the same value with the goods and services that it exchanged, but it represent a particular value. That is to say, money we use in the market is fiat money. 不管是纸钞、硬币、还是电子货币,它们本身都与要交换的商品价值并不相等. 这是因为它们本身虽然没有什么价值,但却代表了一定的价值。这也就是说,现代货币是一种名义货币。
名义货币,也叫法定货币。英文是 Fiat moneyFiat 是拉丁文,它的意思是法令、许可、批准。
Fiat money has not only no particular value in use; it doesn't even really have a value in exchange except that which is decreed that it would have.
名义货币不仅仅没有什么特别的价值,而且在商品的交换中它本身根本没有价值。它拥有的只是法律所赋予它的价值。

So fiat money is money which is intrinsically worthless. And its value exists by virtue of the fact that it is generally acceptable. And fiat money, needless to say, is one of the most mysterious inventions of the human mind, and no economist has managed to explain exactly why it is that people will generally accept something as valuable when it clearly has no value other than that which it is decreed to have.
因此,名义货币从它的本质来说实际上一钱不值。它的价值只在于它能够获得普遍的接受。毫无疑问,名义货币是人类最神奇的发明之一。任何经济学家都还无法确切解释,为什么人们能够把一种除了法定的价值外显然没有任何价值的东西作为宝贵的东西来普遍接受。

金融英语,FECT论坛,大家论坛,FECT笔记,FECT考试

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

50

主题

107

帖子

650

金币

大家网高中二年级

Rank: 12Rank: 12

积分
604
 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-8 09:24 | 显示全部楼层

金融英语,FECT论坛,大家论坛,FECT笔记,FECT考试
新东方金融英语笔记【文字版02】

Store of Value

Money also functions as a store of value: it is a repository of purchasing power over time. It is an asset. It's something that we can use to store value away to be retrieved at a later point in time. So we can not consume today, we can hold money instead - and transfer that consumption power to some point in the future. 他是一种超越时间的购买力的储藏。 是一种资产。我们可以用它把价值储存起来,在以后的某个时刻再取回。这样我们不必现在就把它用掉,而是可以存着钱,把这种消费能力转移到将来的某个时刻。

Money is not unique as a store of value; any asset, be it moneystocks, bonds, land, houses, art, or jewelry, can be used to store wealth. Many such assets have advantages over money as a store of
value: They often pay the owner a higher interest rate than money, experience price appreciation, and deliver services such as providing a roof over one's head. If these assets are a more desirable store of value than money, why do people hold money at all?

The answer to this question relates to the important economic concept of liquidity, the relative ease and speed with which an asset can be converted into a medium of exchange. Liquidity is highly desirable. Money is the most liquid asset of all because it is the medium of exchange; it does not have to be converted into anything else in order to make purchases. Other assets involve transaction costs when they are converted into money.


Different Types of Money
Now, let’s clarify the meaning of some words that are related to “money”. Please look at the following words.

These are all different forms of money,
Money, Cash, Currency, Reserves, Salary, Wages, Income, Loan, Pension, Fund, Capital, Instalments, Debt, Subsidy, rebate, Deposit, Aid. Stake.

What are the exact meaning of these words in English? Now, let’s do some exercises, after that you will have a very clear idea of what they are.

Choose the correct alternative to complete each sentence:
1.  Money in notes(banknotes) and coins is called
     a. cash                   b. capital                    c. reserves
2.  The dollar, the mark and the yen are all
     a. currencies             b. funds                      c. monies
3.  Money borrowed from a bank is a
     a. deposit                b. income                    c. loan
4.  Borrowed money that has to be paid back constitutes a
     a. debt                  b. fund                     c. subsidy
5.  All the money received by a person or a company is known as
a. aid                    b. income                    c. wages

Number 1 the answer should be:     a    cash. 纸币或者银币形式的钱,我们称之为:现金。
Number 2 the answer should be:     a   currency 美元,马克,和日元都是:通货 或 货币
Number 3 the answer should be:     c   loan  从银行借来的钱称之为:贷款
Number 4 the answer should be:     a    debt  借来的但必须要还回的钱称之为:债务
Number 5 the answer should be:    b    income 个人或公司所得到的所有的钱称之为:收入

6.  The money earned for a week's manual work is called
     a. income                b. salary                     c. wages
7.  The money paid for a month's (professional) work is a
     a. loan                   b. salary                     c. wages
8.  Money placed in banks and other savings institutions constitutes
     a. capital                  b. deposits                    c finance
9.  Money paid by the government or a company to a retired person is a
     a. pension                b. rebate                     c. subsidy
10. The money that will ultimately be used to pay pensions is kept in a
     a. budget                 b. deposit                         c. fund

Number 6 the answer should be:     c    wages  一个星期的劳动所得称之为:wages
Number 7 the answer should be:     b    salary  一个月的工作所得称之为:salary
由此我们可以看出,汉语里“公资”这个词在英文中根据工作时间的长短是有区分的。salary wage. 英文中按月支付的是salary, 按小时、每天、或每周支付的是 wage. 请大家注意区分。

Now, let’s look at the follow sentence which will tell you the history of salary.

Money's got a very colourful history, because a number of things have been used in the place of what we use as money. Feathers, shells, cloth ...salt. In Roman times when the Roman soldiers were paid in salt and that's how we get the word salary, from the Latin sal for salt.

历史上的货币五花八门。古时候,羽毛、贝壳、布料甚至盐都曾是交换工具。古罗马士兵得到的军饷就是盐。盐这个词也是英文工资这个词的起源。拉丁文Sal的意思是盐,英文中工资Salary就是从它演变而来的。
金融英语,FECT论坛,大家论坛,FECT笔记,FECT考试

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

50

主题

107

帖子

650

金币

大家网高中二年级

Rank: 12Rank: 12

积分
604
 楼主| 发表于 2013-8-8 09:25 | 显示全部楼层
金融英语,FECT论坛,大家论坛,FECT笔记,FECT考试
新东方金融英语笔记【文字版02】


Number 8 the answer should be:     b    deposit     
存在银行或其他储蓄机构钱称之为:存款
Number 9 the answer should be:     a    pension    有政府或公司支付给退休人员的钱称之为:养老金
Number 10 the answer should be:   c    fund          最终用来支付养老金的钱是已基金的形式储存的


11. The money needed to start a company is called
     a. aid                    b. capital                     c. debt_
12. The money paid to lawyers, architects, private schools, etc. is called
     a. fees                    b. instalments                c. wages
13. Regular part payments of debts are called
     a. deposits                b. loans                      c. instalments
14. Part of a payment that is officially given back is called a
     a. gift                   b. instalment                c. rebate
15. Estimated expenditure and income is written in a
     a. budget                 b. reserve                    c. statement

Number 11 the answer should be:         b    capital 用于开办公司的钱称之为:资本
Number 12 the answer should be:         a    fee       支付给律师、建筑师和私立学校的钱是:费用
Number 13 the answer should be:         c    instalment 定期偿还的部分债务称之为:分期付款
Number 14 the answer should be:         c    rebate  反还的部分已付款称之为:退款

美国流行一种销售商品的方式叫rebate,意思是购物可获得大部分甚至全部退款。如果说商家承诺退还一部分购物款,无非是借此激励消费者多买自己商品而已,但在许多情况下,退款可以是百分之百,那就有点动机不明了。其实,商家聪明得很。他们事先就预期消费者购买时受到退款的诱惑,事后又不积极寻求退款,那商家不就大赚而特赚了吗?事实的确如此。据消费调查,购买rebate商品的消费者中,有70%以上事后懒得申请退款,余下30%申请了并且获得了退款的消费者,只是商家促销术的一点点微不足道的成本而已。促销的商家只需在申请退款的手续上面稍微制造一点麻烦(当然这些手续要求都是事先言明的),意在提高要求退款的交易费用,就足可以保持退款数额在有利可图的范围内。

Number 15 the answer should be:         a    budget 预计的支出和消费通常被写在预算里。

16. A person's money in a business is known as his or her
     a. deposit               b. fund                     c. stake
17. Money given to producers to allow them to sell cheaply is called a
     a. loan                  b. rebate                    c. subsidy
18. Money given to developing countries by richer ones is known as
     a. aid                   b. debt                     c. subsidy

Number 16 the answer should be:         c    stake   人们投入在生意上的钱叫做:股份
Number 17 the answer should be:         c    subsidy     (政府)给生产某种产品的生产商一些钱从而让厂商低价销售产品。这部分钱叫做:津贴、或补贴
Number 18 the answer should be:         a    aid      发达国家赠送给发展中国家的:援助款


Ok, now we have a very clear idea of different forms of money in English.

Financial System and Financial Market The Financial System
金融体系
在英国,每个人都与金融体系有着某种联系。银行、房屋互助协会以及保险公司等金融机构以它们各自的活动为我们的日常生活服务,例如,通过银行可以进行便捷的储蓄,房屋互助协会可以提供住房贷款,保险公司可以提供汽车、房屋、生命保险,等等。

Everyone has some contact with the financial system. We are all aware of financial institutions like banks, building societies, and insurance companies, each providing in its own way for some of our everyday needs. For example, payments facilities through banks, convenient savings and access to home loans from building societies, and car, house, or life insurance.  Other financial institutions, such as investment trusts, venture capital companies, and discount houses-to name only a few-are less well-known and carry out more specialized functions.  Most people also know something about financial markets, like the Stock Exchange where securities are bought and sold, though comparatively few are directly concerned with their activities. Again, there are other important but less familiar financial markets, like the money market in which large sums are borrowed and lent for very short periods, and the foreign exchange market in which dealings in foreign currencies take place. All these financial institutions and markets fit together into a network which comprises the financial system.

Read this paragraph and then tell me what does this paragraph tell us?
Everyone has some contact with the financial system. 每个人或多或少都与金融部门有着联系,
We are all aware of financial institutions like banks, building societies, and insurance companies, each providing in its own way for some of our everyday needs. 我们都了解银行,房屋互助协会和保险公司这样的金融机构,它们都通过自己特有的方式为我们日常生活的需求提供帮助.
be aware of 了解
for example, payments facilities through banks, convenient savings and access to home loans from building societies, and car, house, or life insurance.  例如:银行提供的付款工具、房屋互助协会提供便利储蓄和住房信贷,以及保险公司的汽车、房屋或人寿保险。access to home loans:可以得到住房信贷
Other financial institutions, such as investment trusts, venture capital companies, and discount houses-----to name only a few-----are less well-known and carry out more specialized functions.  其他的一些金融机构,如信托投资公司、风险资本公司、贴现银行——这只是其中的一部分——并不为大众所熟知但发挥着更为具体的职能。

Most people also know something about financial markets, like the Stock Exchange where securities are bought and sold, though comparatively few are directly concerned with their activities. Again, there are other important but less familiar financial markets, like the money market in which large sums are borrowed and lent for very short periods, and the foreign exchange market in which dealings in foreign currencies take place. All these financial institutions and markets fit together into a network which comprises the financial system.

Most people also know something about financial markets, like the Stock Exchange where securities are bought and sold, though comparatively few are directly concerned with their activities.大多数人还会对金融市场有些许了解,比如证券交易所——买卖证券的地方,尽管相对比较少的人会真正直接关注其活动。
Again, there are other important but less familiar financial markets, like the money market in which large sums are borrowed and lent for very short periods, and the foreign exchange market in which dealings in foreign currencies take place. 此外,还有其他一些同样很重要,但人们并不熟悉的金融市场,像货币市场——那里发生着大额的极短期借贷,还有外汇市场——那里进行着一笔笔外汇交易。
All these financial institutions and markets fit together into a network which comprises the financial system. 所有的这些金融机构和金融市场会聚在一起交织成网便构成了金融体系.

All right, this paragraph tells us what comprises a financial system.
     The quality of the services provided by the financial system affects the performance of the economy as a whole. The most basic function of any financial system is to facilitate payments in the economy.  Normally the responsibility for providing the necessary facilities falls on the note-issuing authority-the government or the central bank-and the commercial banking system. Satisfactory payments facilities are something which we are inclined nowadays to take for granted, but productive economic activity is dependent on their existence, and indeed on traders having reasonable access to short-term credit facilities.
The quality of the services provided by the financial system affects the performance of the economy as a whole. 金融系统的服务质量影响着一国经济总体的运行状况。
The most basic function of any financial system is to facilitate payments in the economy. 金融系统最基本的职能是使经济生活中的支付活动更便利。

金融英语,FECT论坛,大家论坛,FECT笔记,FECT考试

回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

79

主题

194

帖子

1422

金币

大家网大学二年级

Rank: 15Rank: 15Rank: 15

积分
1444

社区建设奖英语达人

发表于 2013-8-9 09:46 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢楼主
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

58

主题

112

帖子

524

金币

大家网初中三年级

Rank: 10Rank: 10

积分
484
发表于 2013-8-9 14:15 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢楼主
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

62

主题

140

帖子

980

金币

大家网大学一年级

Rank: 14Rank: 14Rank: 14Rank: 14

积分
999
发表于 2013-8-12 16:23 | 显示全部楼层
楼主辛苦了
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

54

主题

116

帖子

798

金币

大家网大学一年级

Rank: 14Rank: 14Rank: 14Rank: 14

积分
919
发表于 2013-8-13 10:50 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢楼主
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

7

主题

37

帖子

276

金币

大家网小学六年级

Rank: 7Rank: 7Rank: 7

积分
284
发表于 2013-8-13 15:00 | 显示全部楼层
楼主好人 谢谢
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

52

主题

112

帖子

726

金币

大家网高中三年级

Rank: 13Rank: 13Rank: 13

积分
717
发表于 2013-8-15 10:16 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢分享
回复 支持 反对

使用道具 举报

您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册

本版积分规则



诚聘英才|移动端|Archiver|版权声明|大家论坛 ( 京ICP备06071611号,京公网安备11010802018363号 )

GMT+8, 2020-9-24 03:36 , Processed in 0.124729 second(s), 14 queries , Redis On.

Powered by Discuz!

© Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表