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发表于 2009-6-30 14:42 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
New Acropolis Museum opens

Milestones
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Jun 25th 2009 | ATHENS
From The Economist print edition


A new tribute to the Parthenon
向帕特农神庙致敬



Reuters

AS GREECE’S first Socialist culture minister in 1981, the late Melina Mercouri, a flamboyant actress best known for playing a golden-hearted prostitute in a film called “Never on Sunday”, decided to make her mark in politics by campaigning for the return of the Elgin marbles from the British Museum (BM).
已故的梅莲娜.梅尔库丽是位美艳的女星,代表作《别在星期天》,她在影片中饰演了一位善良的妓女。1981年,梅尔库丽作为希腊首位社会文化部长决定努力从大英博物馆索回埃尔金大理石雕以此在政界留下美名。

Mercouri’s pleas to officials in London were ignored, but she scored two successes. First, the fifth-century-BC sculptures that Lord Elgin, a British diplomat, removed from the Acropolis temples in 1801-05 and later sold to the BM have become more widely known as the Parthenon marbles—the name chosen by Mercouri to highlight where they came from. More important, her campaign added fuel to an international debate over who owns cultural property, whether ancient Greek or ethnic African, that has burned ever since.
英方对梅尔库丽的诉讼熟视无睹,但她的确有两点做的不错。第一点,1801-05年间,英国外交大臣埃尔金勋爵公元前5世纪的雕像从卫城神殿不翼而飞,随 后被大英博物馆购买,成了大家所熟知的帕特农神庙大理石——梅尔库丽之所以这样命名这些大理石是为了强调它们的出处。更重要的一点是,她的努力为国际社会 对于文化财产所有权的讨论注入了活力。无论是古代希腊还是非洲族裔在文化财产所有权方面都遍体鳞伤。

On June 21st a new museum opened in Athens to display the Parthenon sculptures and other finds from the Acropolis hill, fulfilling Mercouri’s promise that Greece would one day build a suitable home for the Parthenon frieze and other exiled masterpieces of classical art. At the opening ceremony—attended by José Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission, and Koichiro Matsuura, director-general of UNESCO, the UN agency for cultural heritage—Antonis Samaras, the current Greek culture minister, made a point of condemning the 19th-century “looting” of treasures from the Acropolis. Also present were representatives of committees in 17 countries that campaign for the marbles’ return, as well as the deputy chairman of the BM’s board of trustees.
6月21日,雅典新博物馆开馆,馆内展示帕特农神庙的雕塑以及其他来自卫城山的雕塑,梅尔库丽当年的承诺得以兑现。她曾表示希腊有朝一日定会为帕特农雕塑 和其他遗失在外的古典艺术杰作修建一个像样的博物馆。出席博物馆开幕式的有欧盟委员会主席巴罗佐、联合国教科文组织(联合国负责文化遗产的部门)总干事松 浦晃一郎——希腊文化部长安东尼斯∙萨马拉斯在致辞中对19世纪雅典卫城的“掠夺”事件进行了谴责。出席开幕式的还包括来自17个国家委员会的代表,他们 都呼吁大理石能够回归雅典博物馆,此外,大英博物馆董事会副主席也参加了开幕式。

The euro130m ($180.5m) new Acropolis Museum, a stack of glass-and-concrete boxes designed by Bernard Tschumi, a Swiss-born architect based in New York, together with Michael Photiadis, his Greek associate, is uncompromisingly modern. Its glittering bulk, squeezed into a narrow plot beneath the Acropolis hill, contrasts sharply with shabby blocks of flats nearby and the pale-coloured rocky slope. Some Athenians complain it is simply too big for the site. Yet both Greek and foreign visitors seem delighted by the museum’s spacious, daylight-filled interior.
卫城博物馆耗资1.3亿欧元(1.805亿美元),由现居美国的瑞典裔设计师伯纳德•屈米和希腊设计师Michael Photiadis联手完成,博物馆大量运用玻璃与混凝土为原料,现代感十足。博物馆外观耀眼夺目,位于卫城山脚一块狭窄的地基上,与周边破败的一幢幢公 寓和苍白的山脊形成了鲜明的对比。一些雅典人抱怨不该在这么有限的地基上修建这样庞大的博物馆。不过,前来参观的希腊与国外来访者似乎对博物馆内部的宽敞 明亮异常满意。

In the first-floor gallery, free-standing marble statues of men, women and horses glow against a background of grey concrete walls and columns. Floor-to-ceiling windows are made of thick crystalline glass embedded with mineral particles to cut out glare. Mr Tschumi says, “The marble reflects light, but the concrete absorbs it…the use of daylight is fundamental to this museum.”
第一层展馆内,借助灰色水泥墙壁与圆柱的衬托,使得随意摆放的男女以及马匹的大理石雕像熠熠生辉。从地面到天花板的大型晶质玻璃中混合了矿物颗粒以使得光线变得柔和。屈米先生说:“大理石反光,而水泥则吸收光线……阳光的运用对于博物馆而言非常重要。”

Glass floor-panels in connecting spaces illuminate an excavation in the basement of the museum (soon to be opened to visitors) of houses and streets in an Athens neighbourhood dating from early Christian times.
与博物馆地下室(很快就会向游客开放)连接处为玻璃地板,可以看到雅典的房屋与街道,这些地区的历史可以追溯到早期基督教时代。

The caryatids, five larger-than-life-size female statues that supported a porch on the Erechtheum temple on the Acropolis, survey the museum’s lobby from an internal balcony. An empty space has been left for the sixth, which is in London.
五座比女性真人略大的女像柱被安放在内部的阳台,审视着整个博物馆大厅,这些女像柱曾支撑着伊瑞克提翁神庙的门廊。还有一个雕像的位置空缺着,等待着伦敦方面物归原主。

Mr Tschumi’s showpiece is the top-floor Parthenon gallery, a cool glass box with a spectacular view that mirrors the dimensions and orientation of the temple itself. Below, projected on the wall, is a digitised video animation of elegant korai statues (pictured above).
屈米先生最经典的设计就是顶层的帕特农神庙馆,在这个完全由玻璃建造的展厅里,你可以通过反射看到神庙本身的构造和方向,景观壮丽。在下面的墙壁上,有数字投影的生动图像,影像中呈现优雅的希腊女孩雕像。(见上图)

The frieze, a mix of honey-coloured marble panels and glaring white plaster casts of pieces in the BM, shows a procession of worshippers carrying offerings to Athena, the temple goddess. It is mounted at eye level on a grey concrete wall, an arresting display that could almost be an installation in a contemporary art show.
中楣由蜜色的大理石面板和耀眼的白色石膏(部分仍在大英博物馆的艺术品的复制品)构成,雕刻的是一行礼拜者向女神雅典娜进献供品的画面。映衬着灰色水泥墙背景,与视线平行,如同当代艺术展上展品般引人注目。

Dimitrios Pandermalis, the museum’s director, says, “We thought about leaving gaps for pieces that are in London, but we eventually decided that the casts would give continuity while making it quite clear how the frieze has been divided.”
博物馆主管Dimitrios Pandermalis说:“我们最初的想法是将未归还的艺术品的位置空出来,但最终决定既保留其内容完整性,又要对其实际的‘不完整’一目了然。”

By comparison with Athens, the BM’s display, which amounts to half the remaining frieze, and which was improved in 1998, now looks a little tired. Alexandros Mantis, a Greek expert on the ancient Acropolis temples, also points out that the frieze, which ran around the exterior of the Parthenon, is arranged in London around the interior of a gallery, which is architecturally and aesthetically wrong.
如今展示在大英博物馆的另一半中楣,尽管1998年翻修过,但与新博物馆中楣比较起来就显得有些老旧了。希腊卫城古代神庙专家Alexandros Mantis也指出,这些中楣是帕特农神庙的外部装饰,而大英博物馆则将其在馆内展示,无论从建筑学角度还是审美角度都不合理。

For the Greeks, criticised in the past for not having a suitable place to display the Acropolis sculptures, the inauguration of the new museum is the strongest possible argument for repatriating the marbles.
若过去批评希腊没有适当的地方来展示这些卫城雕塑的话,那么现在新博物馆的落成必将成为声讨归还文物的最有力的筹码。

Moreover, it fulfils a widespread belief that architectural sculpture should be displayed as close as possible to the building it once decorated. Atmospheric pollution rules out placing the sculptures back on the temple itself. But the Parthenon gallery in the new museum is 300 metres and a single glance away from the temple.
此外,广泛的看法是用于建筑物的雕塑应该尽可能的靠近其最初的展区,这个愿望也得以实现。虽然由于大气污染不可能再将这些雕塑放回原神庙,但新博物馆的帕特农展馆距离神庙只有300米,瞥一眼就可以看到了。

However, Neil MacGregor, the BM director, is as passionate (and as eloquent) about keeping the marbles in London as the Greeks are about getting them back. Mr MacGregor argues that they have belonged to a unique collection for more than 200 years, in a museum that attracts more visitors than any other in the world, rather than just to one nation’s history.
尽管如此,大英博物馆的馆长Neil MacGregor想要保住这些雕塑的热情(与辩才)也丝毫不逊色于想要寻回它们的希腊人。MacGregor先生说,这些雕塑在大英博物馆已有200年 的历史了,早已被编入了特别的展别,况且大英博物馆吸引的游客人数为世界之最,它展示的也并非一个民族的历史。

An eventual solution—though probably not one that will happen on Mr MacGregor’s watch—would be to send the marbles back to Athens on loan and accept the Greek offer to provide a series of temporary exhibitions of classical art to fill the gallery. But that would require the Greeks to recognise British ownership of the sculptures in London, something Mr Samaras says would be “impossible”.
最终的解决方案——或许和MacGregor先生的预期不同——就是雅典可以通过借代的方式运回这些大理石雕塑,并且可以按照他们的意思在一系列的古典艺术展上展出这些雕塑,但先决条件是希腊认可伦敦对于这些雕塑的所有权。希腊文化部长萨马拉斯先生表示这是“痴人说梦”。

With mutual prickliness running high, the stand-off looks set to continue. In the meantime, though, Athenians and their visitors can be proud of their stunning new piece of architecture, filled with indisputably great art.
双边在此敏感问题上针锋相对,僵局还会持续下去。但与此同时,雅典人和他们的游客尽可对这令人叹为观止的新博物馆感到自豪,这里无疑汇集了最伟大的艺术。
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