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[阅读资料] 亨利·福特

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发表于 2009-7-6 12:33 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
摘自:英语泛读教程

Although you may not own a car of your own, you must have heard of Ford cars, one of the oldest make in car history and car industry. The text presents a detailed story about the father of Ford cars and the birth of the world-famous automobiles.
你自己也许并没有一部轿车,但你一定听说过福特汽车,那是轿车史与轿车工业领域最悠久的品牌之一。本篇课文将为您详尽介绍福特轿车之父的生平,以及这一闻名世界的汽车是如何问世的。

Henry Ford was born in 1863, on a farm near Detroit. He loved putting machines together as well as taking them apart. He was always dreaming of machines to make his work easier. He could make tools out of odd bits of metal.
亨利·福特于1863年出生于底特律附近的一个农场。他喜欢拆卸机器, 也喜欢把各种零件组装起来。他幻想能拥有种种机器,让工作变得轻松。他能用金属边角余料制造出不同的工具。

Instead of working on the family farm, young Henry went off to Detroit and became an engine-repairer. At the New Year's dance of 1885, Henry met Clara Jane Bryant, and fell in love with her. Henry built Clara Jane a house with his own hands. They were married and stayed together for fifty-nine years.
年轻的亨利没有留在农场,承传父业,而是离家去了底特律,成为了一名发动机修理工。1885年的新年舞会上,亨利遇见了克拉拉·珍妮·布莱恩特,并爱上了她。亨利凭自己的双手为克拉拉·珍妮建造了一幢房屋。他们俩结了婚,并共同生活了五十九年。

At this time, there were a few "horseless carriages" on the roads, but most of them were driven by electricity or steam. Herr Otto had invented an engine which ran on petrol. Thousands of people paid good money to see the model engine working away by itself. Henry saw it too. At once he imagined an engine like that, on wheels, driving a car or bicycle.
那时候,路上有少数“不用马拉的车辆”。不过,其中的大多数是由电力或蒸汽驱动的。此前,奥托先生已经发明出一种靠汽油驱动的引擎。成百上千的人掏出不少的钞票,为的是一睹这台能自行运转的引擎样机。亨利也看到了它。他立刻就想到,如果把这样的引擎安置到轮子上,它就可以驱动一辆轿车或是一部自行车。

He knew that he needed an electric spark to light the petrol and start the engine. But he did not know how to produce one. Henry was not the sort of man to let a thing like that stop him. He tried to work everything out for himself and he had to work at night since he had a full-time job with the Edison Electric Company in Detroit. The night before Christmas, 1893, Henry Ford was working in his shed. His first petrol engine was ready-he hoped-to run. Its cylinder was just an old piece of gas-pipe.
他知道他需要电火花来点燃汽油从而启动引擎。但是他不知道该如何制造电火花。亨利可不是那种在困难面前却步的人。他自己动手解决一切问题。由于在底特律爱迪生电力公司干着一份全职工作,所有的工作只能在夜间进行。1893年圣诞节前夜,他在自家棚子里忙碌着。他研制的第一台汽油引擎已一切就绪,准备发动。他也满心怀抱着成功的希望。这台引擎的汽缸是用一截煤气管改成的。

"Lend me a hand , dear," he said to his wife. Clara was preparing for next day's Christmas party, but she wiped her hands and accepted the tin of petrol which her husband handed her. Henry pushed the starting-wheel while Clara put the petrol in. Nothing happened. "Try again," said Henry. The engine coughed. Flames shot out of it. And it ran.
“来帮我一把,亲爱的,”他对妻子说道。克拉拉正在准备第二天的圣诞聚会,但她马上擦干双手,接过丈夫递来的那罐汽油。克拉拉添加汽油,亨利则手推启动轮盘。却不见任何动静。“再试一次,”亨利说。引擎发出阵阵声响,火苗窜了起来。引擎开始工作了!

At last, in 1896, the first Ford car was completed. It was like a box placed on four big bicycle wheels. It had an engine with two cylinders and no brakes. If you wanted to go backwards, you had to get out and push. Henry sat on a seat on top, like the driver of a horse-drawn carriage, and steered with a sort of bar.
1896年,第一辆福特汽车终于建造完成。看上去就象是一口箱子被放在了四个硕大的自行车轮子上。这辆车有一台引擎,两个汽缸,但没有刹车装置。要倒车的话,就得跳下车来用力推。亨利象马车夫一样坐在车顶的座位上,用简易的操纵杆驾驶这辆车。

At last the great moment came. Clara watched as Henry knocked down part of the shed wall and drove off into the rainy night. It was two o'clock in the morning and Henry had been working for forty-eight hours. He drove his quadricycle, with more noise than speed, through the empty streets. It worked! Indeed, it ran well for several years. But Henry soon lost interest. Already he was planning a bigger and better car.
伟大的时刻终于到来了。克拉拉在一旁观看,亨利撞倒了试验棚的墙板,驱车驶入了雨夜之中。时间已是凌晨两点,亨利也已连续工作了四十八个钟头。他开着他那辆速度有限、噪音很大的四轮车,穿行在空荡荡的街道上。实验成功了!这辆车还真的正常运行了好几年。不过,亨利很快就对它失去了兴致。他已经在计划着要生产一种更大更好的汽车了。

In 1898 his new car was finished. The motor car was starting to attract attention and people were beginning to see that "horseless carriages" were not just a joke. Henry Ford accepted a job with the Automobile Company. But the company failed and he started motor racing.
1898年,他的新车造好了。当时,机动车已经开始引起广泛关注。人们开始明白“不用马拉的车”不只是说着玩的。亨利·福特接受了“汽车公司”的一份职位,不过该公司生意告败,他开始参加赛车活动。

Racing cars were just becoming popular, and there was money to be made-if you won. For Henry, it was not the money that attracted him, but the chance to test his cars-really test them-in difficult conditions.
当时,赛车刚刚流行起来。如果能一举夺冠,还可以赚大钱。对亨利来说,吸引他的倒不是金钱,而是这样他就有机会在严峻条件下检测---也可以说考验---自己研发的汽车。

There were new problems all the time, but Henry found answers to them all. For example, he decided he wanted a plug in a porcelain jacket to send the spark through the cylinders of his engine. Who, in Detroit in 1900, could make that? Henry found a helpful dentist, who was used to working with porcelain, making false teeth. The result was the spark-plug as we know it today.
新问题不停出现,而亨利总能找到症结,一一予以解决。举例而言,他需要一个置于瓷制外套中的塞子,以便火花导入汽缸。在1900年的底特律,谁能制造这样一个东西呢?亨利找到了一个牙医帮忙。此人用陶瓷作假牙,因而熟知陶瓷制作。结果便发明了我们今天熟知的火花塞。

Henry was determined to get his car ready for Detroit's first motor race on 10 October, 1901. Everyone expected a driver called Alexander Winton to win the race, who had driven his automobile in France, as well as all over the USA. But Henry Ford's lighter car was faster on the corners, and soon Winton was only a short distance ahead. Then Winton's engine began to smoke badly, and Henry went out in front-and stayed there, winning the race.
亨利决心把车造好,来参加 1910年10月举行的底特律首届汽车竞赛。大家都看好一个名叫亚历山大·温顿的车手,因为他不仅曾驾车畅游全美,还在法国开过车。不过亨利·福特的汽车自重更轻,弯道处的速度更快。不大工夫,亨利就紧紧追在温顿后面了。这时,温顿的引擎开始冒浓烟,亨利则赶超过去,并一路领先,赢得了这场比赛。

In 1904 he went on to beat the world speed record, which at that time was 77.13 miles an hour. The conditions he did it in were not exactly perfect. He chose a frozen lake, from which farmers swept away the snow to make a track. They put ashes on the track, to stop the wheels from slipping. It was a very cold day, but as usual Henry had no windscreen. He was forty years old-old enough to know better. As the car picked up speed, it slid about on the ice. Sometimes it hit the piles of snow which stood like a wall on either side of the track. But he broke the record at 91.37 miles an hour.
1904年,他打破了当时一小时77.13英里的世界速度纪录。当天的行车条件并不十分理想。他选了一个封冻的湖作为赛址。农夫们扫清冰上的积雪,开辟出一条赛道,又在上面铺上灰,以防止车轮打滑。那是个非常寒冷的日子,但亨利一如既往,没用挡风玻璃。他已年届40---应该是不再冒险行事的年龄了。随着速度加快,汽车在冰面上四下打滑,好几次撞在墙壁般立在通道两侧的雪堆上。不过他仍以每小时91.37公里的速度打破了纪录。

By now, businessmen were very keen to put their money into building Henry Ford's cars. A company called the Henry Ford Company was started in this way. But Henry himself did not much care about money. He soon dropped out of the business, and opened a car factory himself, with his own staff. He found a man called James Couzens, and together they worked out how to get the parts made in other factories, so that they could just do the actual building of the cars. They sold their first car in 1903. By 1904 the company was doing very well indeed with its Model A Ford.
到了这个时候,已有很多商人热衷于投资福特的汽车。于是,一个名为“亨利·福特”的公司便挂牌成立了。亨利本人对金钱并不很在意。不久,他便脱离了这家公司,自己开办了一个汽车制造厂,招聘了自己的一批人马。他找到了一个名叫詹姆斯·库岑斯的人。二人共同努力,摸索出种种办法来在其他工厂加工零部件。这样,他们就可以专门组装汽车了。1903年,他们卖出了自己制造的第一部轿车。到了1904年,A型福特轿车销量极好,公司的业务也因此蒸蒸日上。

There were people in the business, who had lent Henry their money. They felt that Ford should be building the bigger and more expensive automobiles which were then in fashion. But Henry Ford was not interested in fashion. He dreamed about a car for the ordinary man. What he wanted to do was to produce cars in large quantities, all exactly the same, so that a part from one car would fit all the others. That would keep down the cost. As Henry Ford saw it, cheaper cars would lead to more people buying cars, which would lead to better roads. This, in turn, would lead to more people buying cars, which would lead to cheaper cars. He used to say to his workmen, "One day, you will be able to afford a car of your own."
公司的一些投资方认为,福特应该制造当时正走俏的较大、较昂贵的汽车。但是,亨利·福特对时髦不感兴趣。他追求的是面向普通人的轿车。他想要做到的是大批量生产一模一样的轿车。如此一来,一辆车上的零部件就可以适用于所有其他的车子,这样可以降低车的价格。依亨利·福特之见,轿车价格便宜些,会使得更多的人购买轿车。有车的人多了,又会促使道路建设的完善,而改善了的道路状况又会促使更多的人买轿车,从而使轿车的价格更为便宜。他常对他的工人们说:“总有一天,你会买得起属于你自己的轿车。”

Henry and Couzens got control of the whole company, to Henry's joy, and in 1908 the first Model T Ford rolled off the production line. It was an ugly little car, but so simple that a child could drive it.
令亨利高兴的是,他和库岑斯逐渐获得了对整个公司的控制权。第一辆T型福特车也于1908年驶下了生产线。这种车型体积小,样子难看,但易于驾驶。就连小孩子开都没问题。

Roads in those days were really rough; the Model T was built to go on those roads. The roads improved and the Model T remained popular, At first it cost 850 dollars, later only 260 dollars. This was at a time when most cars cost as much as a house and garden.
那个年月的道路着实不平,而T型轿车就是针对这种路况设计的。路况改善后,T型轿车仍然畅俏不衰。最初它的售价为850美元,后来只卖260美元。要知道,当时大多数轿车的定价相当于一幢花园洋房。

Fifteen million Model T Fords were sold all over the world. It made Ford's fortune. But Henry Ford just put all the money back into the business. He was not anxious to get rich; what he wanted was to build automobiles.
在世界各地共售出一千五百万辆T型福特车。这为福特带来了滚滚财富。不过亨利·福特把所有的钱又重新投资到他的汽车企业中。他并不急于发财致富,他心里惦记的是制造汽车。

Henry Ford was the first man to organize the work of the assembly-line and in an efficient way. More and more Model Ts rolled off the production line. Henry was worried. He was making too much money. He actually said, "My profits are awful." He cut the price of his cars, but they sold in greater numbers than ever, and profits rose again.
亨利·福特是利用生产装配线高效率地组织生产活动的始作俑者。越来越多的T型车在生产线上装配完成。亨利着急起来--他赚的钱太多了。他甚至说过:“我的利润太大了。”他削减汽车价格。如此一来,销售量益发空前,利润又上升了。

Then Henry Ford did something which was very unusual in those days. He increased his men's wages and improved their working conditions. Wages at the Ford factories rose from two dollars a day to five, and working hours were shortened from twelve hours a day to eight. The newspapers were full of this news and people crowded into Detroit in search of a job with the Ford Company.
于是,亨利·福特做了一件在当时极为稀罕的事:他为员工增加薪金并改善他们的工作条件。福特属下各工厂的工资待遇从每日两美元增加到五美元,工作时数则从一天十二小时减少到八小时。各家报纸竞相报道这一新闻。人们纷纷涌入底特律,想在福特的工厂里谋得一份工作。

"We want to make men in this factory, as well as automobiles," said Henry Ford. "I believe I can do the world no greater service than to make jobs for more men, at higher rates of pay."
“在这家工厂里,我们既要制造汽车,也要造就人,”亨利·福特说,“我相信,我能为这个世界提供的最好服务,莫过于为更多的人提供报酬更高的工作。”

Meanwhile, the Model T was selling all over the world. By 1919, the Ford factories were turning out 86 000 cars a month. By November 1922, the figure was 240 000. And he started to buy other businesses too.
与此同时,T型轿车行销全球。到了1919年,福特工厂月产轿车八万六千辆。到了1922年11月,数字增至二十四万辆。福特开始并购其他产业。

In 1927 the new Model A came on the scene. Crowds rushed to see it. Then, two years later, at the age of sixty-eight, when most men are enjoying a well-earned rest, Henry Ford did it again. He built the big V8 Ford. This powerful car, with its eight-cylinder engine, made sports-car racing popular again.
1927年,新的A型轿车问世。人们蜂拥而至,一睹其风采。两年之后,亨利·福特以六十八岁的高龄---大多数人到了这个年纪,便一心安享早年奋斗创就的舒适闲逸了---又一次一展身手。他造出了大车身的V8福特车。轿车的引擎有八只汽缸,马力强劲。在它的影响下,赛车运动卷土重来,再次风靡一时。

Some people say he was the richest man in history. Some say he was the richest man in the world then. But Henry Ford made it possible for ordinary people to go from place to place easily and cheaply.
有人说福特是历史上最富有的人,有人说他是那个年代最富有的人。但正是因为亨利· 福特,普通人的出行才变得如此轻松、便捷、又花费不多。

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 楼主| 发表于 2009-7-6 12:33 | 显示全部楼层

亨利·福特

About Henry Ford

Henry Ford(1863-1947) was a well-known American industrialist. He was born and also died in Dearborn, Michigan. For five years he served as a machine-shop apprentice in Detroit, built his first car there in 1890-1893 and organized the Ford Motor Company ten years later. In 1909 he perfected the assembly-line technique that enabled the company to mass-produce the first cheap and standardized car, thus revolutionizing the motorcar industry which was now able to expand rapidly. Ford was a social pioneer for he introduced, as early as 1914, an eight-hour day with a minimum daily wage equivalent to one pound and a profit-sharing scheme for all his employees.


About Herr Otto

Herr is the German word for Mr in English. Nikolas August Otto(1832-1891) was the German engineer who invented the four-stroke cycle (四冲程) used in most petrol and gas engines today. It was the first practical technique that replaced the steam engine. In the Expo Paris 1867 it won, with further improvement, a gold medal.


About the first assembly line

In his efforts to make cars for "the multitude", Henry Ford realized that he would need a more efficient way to produce the car in order to lower the price. He found four principles that would further his goal: interchangeable parts, continuous flow, division of labor, and reducing wasted effort. To improve the flow of the work, it needed to be arranged so that as one task was finished, another began, with minimum time spent in set-up. Inspired by the meat-packing houses of Chicago and a grain mill conveyor belt he had seen, and after making certain study and research , Henry Ford divided the labor by breaking the assembly of the Model T into 84 distinct steps. Each worker was trained to do just one of these steps. In 1913, Ford had the first moving assembly line ever used for large-scale manufacturing put to action, with workers spent less time moving about, the work done in a much more streamlined way, and cars being produced at a record-breaking rate.

Language notes


1. He loved putting machines together as well as taking them apart.


(他喜欢拆卸机器, 也喜欢把各种零件组装起来。)


Take something apart means to break something into parts.
A as well as B means not only B but also A.


2. He drove his quadricycle, with more noise than speed, through the empty streets.

 

(他驾着他那辆速度有限、噪音很大的四轮车,穿行在空荡荡的街道上.)

 

quadricycle : a four-wheeled vehicle. quadri-: four .


3. He was forty years old ---old enough to know better .


(他已年届不惑——应该到了不再这样冒险行事的年龄。)


Know better (than to do sth ) is an idiomatic structure meaning having adequate knowledge and experience so as not to be green or foolish enough to do something. In this sentence, than to take risks after better is omitted.


4. The result was the plug-spark as we know it today.


(结果便发明了我们今天所熟知的那种火花塞。)


It here refers back to the plug-spark, while as is a conjunction with the meaning of "一如" ,"如同"。


5. This, in turn, would lead to more people buying cars, which would lead to cheaper cars.


(这反过来会促使更多的人购买轿车,从而导致轿车更大幅度的降价。)


In turn means in proper sequence or when it is time for the certain subject to show its effects.
Lead to means cause, or bring about.
More people buying is a less formal way of saying more people's buying.
e. g. Better training make people more equipped for the market , which in turn will lead to greater job satisfaction.


6. In 1927 the new Model A came on the scene.


(一九二七年,新型A型汽车问世。)


Come on the scene means to come into being, appear, or start to exist.


7. …, when most men are enjoying a well-earned rest, …


(…, 当大多数人正安享通过辛勤工作而挣得的安逸之时,…)


Well-earned means obtained through hard work; it is close in meaning to well-deserved. Something well-deserved is something with hard-work and due efforts behind it.
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