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[阅读资料] Nonverbal Communication 非言语交际 汉英对照









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发表于 2009-7-6 13:37 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

The impact of a speech is affected by the way it is delivered. Nonverbal communication is a vital factor in delivery and you can choose to use the right movements of your face and body for the right situation.

Imagine you are at a party. During the evening you form impressions about the people around you. Alan seems relaxed and even-tempered. Margaret tense and irritable. Karen seems open and straight forward, Amy hostile and evasive. Eric seems happy to see you; Mark definitely is not.

How do you reach these conclusions? To a surprising extent, you reach them not on the basis of what people say with words, but because of what they say nonverbally - with their postures, gestures, and facial expressions. Suppose you are sitting next to Mark, and he says, "This is a great party. I'm really glad to be here with you." However, his body is turned slightly away from you, and he keeps looking at someone across the room. Despite what he says, you know he is not glad to be there with you.
你是怎样得出这些结论的?令人吃惊的是,你得出这些结论并不是基于人们说了些什么话,而是由于他们以非言语方式,——即通过他们的姿势、手势,和面部表情所表达出来的东西。假设你坐在马克旁边,他说,“这个晚会太棒了。非常高兴今晚能和你在一起。”然而,他的身体却微微 挪到一边,并不断地看屋子对面的某个人。不管他嘴上如何说,你知道那晚他并不高兴和你在一起。

Much the same thing happens in speechmaking. Here is the story of one student's first two classroom speeches and the effect created by his nonverbal actions on each occasion:

Dan O'Connor's first speech did not go very well. Even though he had chosen an interesting topic, researched the speech with care, and practiced it faithfully, he did not take into account the importance of nonverbal communication. When the time came for him to speak, a stricken look crossed his face. He got up from his chair like a condemned man and plodded to the lectern as though going to the guillotine. His vocal delivery was good enough, but all the while his hands were living a life of their own. They fidgeted with his notes, played with the buttons of his shirt, and drummed on the lectern. Throughout the speech Dan kept his head down, and he looked at his watch repeatedly. Regardless of what his words were saying, his body was saying, "I don't want to be here!"
丹·奥康纳的第一次演讲并不很成功。尽管他事先选择了一个很有趣的话题,做过仔细的研究,并非常认真 地练习过,他却没有考虑到非言语交际的重要性。轮到他讲时,他的脸掠过惊恐的神色。他像个死囚犯似的从椅子上站起来,步履沉缓地走上讲台,那样子像是走向断头台。他说的相当不错,可演讲的同时他的那双手却自行其事。他的手一会儿摆弄他的演讲稿,一会儿抚弄衬衫上的扣子,一会儿又在讲台上敲打。整个演讲过程丹低着头,并不断地看表。不管他嘴里在讲什么,他的身体在表明,“我可不想在这儿!”

Finally it was over. Dan rushed to his seat and collapsed into it, looking enormously relieved. Needless to say, his speech was not a great success.

Fortunately, when Dan's problem with nonverbal communication was pointed out to him, he worked hard to correct it. His next speech was quite a different story. This time he got up from his chair and strode to the lectern confidently. He kept his hands under control and concentrated on making eye contact with his listeners. This was truly an achievement, because Dan was just as nervous as the first time. However, he found that the more he made himself look confident, the more confident he became. After the speech his classmates were enthusiastic. "Great speech," they said. "You really seemed to care about the subject, and you brought this caring to the audience."

In fact, the wording of Dan's second speech wasn't much better than that of the first. It was his nonverbal signals that made all the difference. From the time he left his seat until he returned, his actions said, "I'm confident and in control of the situation. I have something worthwhile to say, and I want you to think so too."

Posture, facial expression, gesture, eye contact - all affect the way listeners respond to a speaker. How we use these and other body motions to communicate is the subject of a fascinating area of study called kinesics. One of its founders, Ray Birdwhistell, estimates that more than 700 000 possible physical signals can be sent through bodily movement. Clinical studies have demonstrated that in some situations these signals account for much of the meaning communicated by speakers. Modern research has also confirmed what the Greek historian Herodotus observed more than 2 400 years ago: "Men trust their ears less than their eyes." When a speaker's body language is inconsistent with his or her words, listeners tend to believe the body language rather than the words.

Here are the major aspects of nonverbal communication that will affect the outcome of your speeches.

Personal Appearance

If you were Cher, you could show up to make an Academy Award presentation speech wearing a bizarre creation that had more headdress than dress. If you were Albert Einstein, you could show up to address an international science conference wearing wrinkled trousers, a sweater, and tennis shoes. While the members of your audience would certainly comment on your attire, your reputation would not be harmed. In fact, it might be enhanced. You would be one of the few, the very few, who live outside the rules, who are expected to be unusual.

Now imagine what would happen if the president of a corporation showed up to address a stockholders' meeting attired like Cher, or if the President of the United States spoke on national television wearing wrinkled clothes and tennis shoes. Both presidents would soon be looking for work. Barring the occasional eccentric, every speaker is expected by his or her audience to exhibit a personal appearance in keeping with the occasion of the speech.

The President of the United States can be photographed in golfing clothes or riding clothes for a quick weekend interview at Camp David, but that same President will don a conservative suit and tie to address a joint session of Congress. Similarly, a business executive speaking at a winter sales conference in Acapulco would probably wear slacks and a casual shirt, because a business suit, in this atmosphere, would seem much too formal. But back home in San Francisco, Chicago, or New York, the same executive will be immaculately dressed in a well-tailored suit.

A number of studies have confirmed that personal appearance plays an important role in speechmaking. Listeners always see you before they hear you. Just as you adapt your language to the audience and the occasion, so should you dress and groom appropriately. Although the force of your speech can sometimes overcome a poor impression created by personal appearance, the odds are against it. (In a survey of top business executives, 84 percent revealed that their companies simply do not hire people who appear at job interviews improperly attired.) No matter what the speaking situation, you should try to evoke favorable first impressions - impressions that are likely to make listeners more receptive to what you say.
许多研究已经证实,个人的外表在做演讲时起着重要的作用。听众总是先看到你,而后再听到你讲话。正如你要使你的语言适应听众和当时的场合,你也应合适地穿戴打扮。尽管你演讲的感染力有时可以克服个人外表所造成的坏印象,但事情往往难遂人愿。(在一项对高级商业主管的调查中,有百分之八十四的人透露说 ,他们的公司干脆不雇用那些在招聘会上穿戴不整的人。)不管在什么情况下演讲,你都应当尽力去留下一个好的第一印象——会使听众对你的演讲更加接受的第一印象。

Bodily Action 身体的动作

Novice speakers are often unsure what to do with their bodies while giving a speech. Some pace nonstop back and forth across the podium, fearing that if they stop, they will forget everything. Others are perpetual-motion machines, constantly shifting their weight from one foot to the other, bobbing their shoulders, fidgeting with their notes, or jingling coins in their pockets. Still others turn into statues, standing rigid and expressionless from beginning to end.

Such quirks usually stem from nervousness. If you are prone to distracting mannerisms, your teacher will identify them so you can work on controlling them in later speeches. With a little concentration, these mannerisms should disappear as you become more comfortable speaking in front of an audience.

As important as how you act during the speech is what you do just before you begin and after you finish. As you rise to speak, try to appear calm, poised, and confident, despite the butterflies in your stomach. When you reach the lectern, don't lean on it, and don't rush into your speech. Give yourself time to get set. Arrange your notes just the way you want them. Stand quietly as you wait to make sure the audience is paying attention. Establish eye contact with your listeners. Then - and only then - should you start to talk.

When you reach the end of your speech, maintain eye contact for a few moments after you stop talking. This will give your closing line time to sink in. Unless you are staying at the lectern to answer questions, collect your notes and return to your seat. As you do so, maintain your cool, collected demeanor. Whatever you do, don't start to gather your notes before you have finished talking; and don't cap off your speech with a huge sigh of relief or some remark like "Whew! Am I glad that's over!"

All of this advice is common sense, yet you would be surprised how many people need it. When practicing your speeches, spend a little time rehearsing how you will behave at the beginning and at the end. It is probably the easiest - and one of the most effective - things you can do to improve your image with an audience.
所有这些建议都是常识性知识,然而令人惊讶的是太多的人都需要这种知识。在练习演讲时,花一点时间演练一下你在开始和结尾 的表现。这可能是你提高在听众心目中的形象所能做的最容易,也是最有效的事情之一。

Gestures 手势

Few aspects of delivery seem to cause students more anguish than deciding what to do with their hands. "Should I clasp them behind my back? Let them hang at my sides? Put them in my pockets? Rest them on the lectern? And what about gesturing? When should I do that - and how?" Even people who normally use their hands expressively in everyday conversation seem to regard them as awkward appendages when speaking before an audience.

Over the years, more nonsense has been written about gesturing than about any other aspect of speech delivery. Adroit gestures can add to the impact of a speech; but there is nothing to the popular notion that public speakers must have a vast repertoire of graceful gestures. Some accomplished speakers gesture frequently; others hardly at all. The primary rule is this: Whatever gestures you make should not draw attention to themselves and distract from your message. They should appear natural and spontaneous, help to clarify or reinforce your ideas, and be suited to the audience and occasion.

At this stage of your speaking career, you have many more important things to concentrate on than how to gesture. Gesturing tends to work itself out as you acquire experience and confidence. In the meantime, make sure your hands do not upstage your ideas. Avoid flailing them about, wringing them together, cracking your knuckles, or toying with your rings. Once you have eliminated these distractions, forget about your hands. Think about communicating with your listeners, and your gestures will probably take care of themselves - just as they do in conversation.

Eye Contact 目光接触

The eyeball itself expresses no emotion. Yet by manipulating the eyeball and the areas of the face around it - especially the upper eyelids and the eyebrow - we are able to convey an intricate array of nonverbal messages. So revealing are these messages that we think of the eyes as "the windows of the soul." We look to them to help gauge the truthfulness, intelligence, attitudes, and feelings of a speaker.

The quickest way to establish a communicative bond with your listeners is to look them in the eye, personally and pleasantly. Avoiding their gaze is one of the surest ways to lose them. At best, speakers who refuse to establish eye contact are perceived as tentative and ill-at-ease. At worst, they are perceived as insincere or dishonest. No wonder teachers urge students to look at the audience 80 to 90 percent of the time they are talking.

You may find this disconcerting at first. But after one or two speeches, you should be able to meet the gaze of your listeners as comfortably as you do in casual conversation. As you look at your listeners, be alert for their reactions. Can they hear you? Do they understand you? Are they awake? Your eyes will help you answer these questions.

It isn't enough just to look at your listeners; how you look at them also counts. A blank stare is almost as bad as no eye contact at all. So is a fierce, hostile glower or a series of frightened, bewildered glances. Also beware of the tendency to gaze intently at one part of the audience while ignoring the rest. In speech class some students look only at the section of the room where the teacher is setting. Others avoid looking anywhere near the teacher and focus on one or two sympathetic friends. You should try to establish eye contact with your whole audience. When addressing a small group (such as your class), you can usually look briefly from one person to another. For a larger group, you will probably scan the audience rather than trying to engage the eyes of each person individually. No matter what the size of your audience, you want your eyes to convey confidence, sincerity, and conviction. They should say, "I am pleased to be able to talk with you. I believe deeply in what I am saying, and I want you to believe in it too."
仅仅看着你的听众还是不够的;你如何看他们也很重要。目光呆滞地盯着看,几乎和不进行目光接触一样糟糕。恶狠狠地瞪着眼睛或一连串受惊吓的、迷惑的瞟视也是如此。同时也要警惕死盯着听众的某一部分看而忽略其余的人的倾向。在演讲课上有些学生只看老师所在的那一处。另外一些人则避着不看靠近老师的地方,而是把目光盯着看一两个有同情心的朋友。你的目光应与所有的听众接触。当在一小群人(比方在班里)面前演讲时,你通常可以很快地从一个人看到另一个人。对于很大一群人来说,你可能要扫视听众,而不是竭力与每个人都进行目光接触。不管你的听众的规模有多大,都要让你的眼睛传达自信、真诚和 信念。它们应该表达出这样的意思:“很高兴能和你们在一块儿谈话。我深信我所说的话,我希望你们也能相信这些话。” 

(2067 words)

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 楼主| 发表于 2009-7-6 13:38 | 显示全部楼层

Nonverbal Communication 非言语交际 汉英对照

Information related to the text

1) More about Nonverbal Communication:

  Definition of nonverbal communication: Nonverbal communication is the process by which nonverbal behaviors are used, either singly or in combination with verbal behaviors, in the exchange and interpretation of messages within a given situation or context.

  Classes of Nonverbal Communication

  1. Facial expression and eye behavior
  2. Body movement and gestures
  3. Touching behavior
  4. Voice characteristics and qualities
  5. Culture and time
  6. Environment
  7. Body types, shapes, and sizes
  8. Clothing and personal artifacts.

  Functions of Nonverbal Communication

  1. Complementing: adding extra information to the verbal message
  2. Contradicting: when our nonverbal messages contradict our verbal messages
  3. Repeating: used in order to emphasize or clarify the verbal message
  4. Regulating: serves to coordinate the verbal dialogue between people
  5. Substituting: occurs when a nonverbal message is transmitted in place of a verbal message
  6. Accenting: emphasizing a particular point in a verbal message


2) Language notes:

1. Alan seems relaxed and even-tempered.

Even-tempered: not excitable.


2. If you were Cher, you could show up to make an Academy Award presentation speech wearing a bizarre creation that had more headdress than dress.

Cher(1946-), Cherilyn Sarkisian La Piere . American actress, won the Academy Award for Best Actress for her role in Moonstruck.

3. Both presidents would soon be looking for work.

Be looking for work: lose their job and have to look for a new one.


4. Although the force of your speech can sometimes overcome a poor impression created by personal appearance, the odds are against it.

Odds: the probability that one thing is so or will happen rather than another; chances.


5. As you rise to speak, try to appear calm, poised, and confident, despite the butterflies in your stomach.

Butterfly in the stomach: (pl) a feeling of hollowness or queasiness caused esp. by emotional or nervous tension or anxious anticipation.


6. This will give your closing line time to sink in.

Sink in: be completely understood; be fully realized or felt.
  e.g. When he heard that war had started, it didn't sink in for a long time until his father was drafted into the army.


7. The quickest way to establish a communicative bond with your listeners is to look them in the eye, personally and pleasantly.

Look sb/sth in the eye: look boldly and steadily at (a person, danger, an opponent, enemy, etc).
  e.g. He is a person of high principles, who can look anyone straight in the eye.
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