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[阅读资料] Nonverbal Communication 非言语交际 汉英对照

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发表于 2009-7-6 13:37 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
摘自:英语泛读教程

The impact of a speech is affected by the way it is delivered. Nonverbal communication is a vital factor in delivery and you can choose to use the right movements of your face and body for the right situation.
话语的影响力受说话的方式影响。在讲话的时候,非言语交际是一个至关重要的因素,你可以在适当的场合使用适当的面部和身体运动。

Imagine you are at a party. During the evening you form impressions about the people around you. Alan seems relaxed and even-tempered. Margaret tense and irritable. Karen seems open and straight forward, Amy hostile and evasive. Eric seems happy to see you; Mark definitely is not.
设想你在参加一个晚会。晚会期间你对周围的人有了种种印象。艾伦看上去悠然自得,性情平和。玛格丽特却是神经紧张,性格暴躁。卡伦落落大方,直言快语;而埃米却是心存芥蒂,言辞含糊。埃里克见到你很高兴,而马克则明显不是。

How do you reach these conclusions? To a surprising extent, you reach them not on the basis of what people say with words, but because of what they say nonverbally - with their postures, gestures, and facial expressions. Suppose you are sitting next to Mark, and he says, "This is a great party. I'm really glad to be here with you." However, his body is turned slightly away from you, and he keeps looking at someone across the room. Despite what he says, you know he is not glad to be there with you.
你是怎样得出这些结论的?令人吃惊的是,你得出这些结论并不是基于人们说了些什么话,而是由于他们以非言语方式,——即通过他们的姿势、手势,和面部表情所表达出来的东西。假设你坐在马克旁边,他说,“这个晚会太棒了。非常高兴今晚能和你在一起。”然而,他的身体却微微 挪到一边,并不断地看屋子对面的某个人。不管他嘴上如何说,你知道那晚他并不高兴和你在一起。

Much the same thing happens in speechmaking. Here is the story of one student's first two classroom speeches and the effect created by his nonverbal actions on each occasion:
在进行演讲时,类似的事情也往往发生。下面一则故事讲的就是一个学生最初两次在教室里所作的演讲,以及每次演讲时他的非言语行为所产生的效果:

Dan O'Connor's first speech did not go very well. Even though he had chosen an interesting topic, researched the speech with care, and practiced it faithfully, he did not take into account the importance of nonverbal communication. When the time came for him to speak, a stricken look crossed his face. He got up from his chair like a condemned man and plodded to the lectern as though going to the guillotine. His vocal delivery was good enough, but all the while his hands were living a life of their own. They fidgeted with his notes, played with the buttons of his shirt, and drummed on the lectern. Throughout the speech Dan kept his head down, and he looked at his watch repeatedly. Regardless of what his words were saying, his body was saying, "I don't want to be here!"
丹·奥康纳的第一次演讲并不很成功。尽管他事先选择了一个很有趣的话题,做过仔细的研究,并非常认真 地练习过,他却没有考虑到非言语交际的重要性。轮到他讲时,他的脸掠过惊恐的神色。他像个死囚犯似的从椅子上站起来,步履沉缓地走上讲台,那样子像是走向断头台。他说的相当不错,可演讲的同时他的那双手却自行其事。他的手一会儿摆弄他的演讲稿,一会儿抚弄衬衫上的扣子,一会儿又在讲台上敲打。整个演讲过程丹低着头,并不断地看表。不管他嘴里在讲什么,他的身体在表明,“我可不想在这儿!”

Finally it was over. Dan rushed to his seat and collapsed into it, looking enormously relieved. Needless to say, his speech was not a great success.
最后终于讲完了。丹跑向他的座位,一下子瘫在位置上,如释重负的样子。不用说,他的演讲不怎么成功。

Fortunately, when Dan's problem with nonverbal communication was pointed out to him, he worked hard to correct it. His next speech was quite a different story. This time he got up from his chair and strode to the lectern confidently. He kept his hands under control and concentrated on making eye contact with his listeners. This was truly an achievement, because Dan was just as nervous as the first time. However, he found that the more he made himself look confident, the more confident he became. After the speech his classmates were enthusiastic. "Great speech," they said. "You really seemed to care about the subject, and you brought this caring to the audience."
幸运的是,人们指出他在非言语交际方面的问题时,丹认真地去改正。他的下一次演讲就完全两样。这次他从座位上站起来,迈着大步很自信地跨上讲台。他控制着双手,集中注意力与听众进行目光接触。这确实是个进步,因为丹和上次一样紧张。不过,他发现自己越是显得自信,就越变得自信。演讲结束后他的同学都非常热情。“讲得真棒,”他们说。“你看上去真正关心你所讲的话题,而且你把这种关心传给了听众。”

In fact, the wording of Dan's second speech wasn't much better than that of the first. It was his nonverbal signals that made all the difference. From the time he left his seat until he returned, his actions said, "I'm confident and in control of the situation. I have something worthwhile to say, and I want you to think so too."
事实上,丹第二次演讲的措词并不比第一次特别好。他的非言语信号改变了一切。从他离开座位到又回来,他的行为表明,“我有自信,能稳住阵角。我有些值得一听的话要讲,我想要你们也这样认为。”

Posture, facial expression, gesture, eye contact - all affect the way listeners respond to a speaker. How we use these and other body motions to communicate is the subject of a fascinating area of study called kinesics. One of its founders, Ray Birdwhistell, estimates that more than 700 000 possible physical signals can be sent through bodily movement. Clinical studies have demonstrated that in some situations these signals account for much of the meaning communicated by speakers. Modern research has also confirmed what the Greek historian Herodotus observed more than 2 400 years ago: "Men trust their ears less than their eyes." When a speaker's body language is inconsistent with his or her words, listeners tend to believe the body language rather than the words.
姿势、面部表情、手势、目光接触――这些都影响着听众对演讲者的反应。我们如何运用这些和其它一些身体动作来进行交流,是一个叫做身势学的令人感兴趣的研究领域所要研究的课题。它的创始人之一雷·伯德惠斯特尔估计,身体运动可以传达出超过七十万个可能的身体信号。临床研究证明,在一些情况下,这些信号占了很大一部分说话者要表达的意思。现代研究也证实了希腊历史学家希罗多德在两千四百多年前所讲的:“人们信任自己的眼睛甚于自己的耳朵。”当一个说话者的体势语言与他或她的话不一致时,听者倾向于相信体势语言,而不是说出来的话。

Here are the major aspects of nonverbal communication that will affect the outcome of your speeches.
下面是会影响你说话效果的非言语交际的几个主要方面。

Personal Appearance
个人外表

If you were Cher, you could show up to make an Academy Award presentation speech wearing a bizarre creation that had more headdress than dress. If you were Albert Einstein, you could show up to address an international science conference wearing wrinkled trousers, a sweater, and tennis shoes. While the members of your audience would certainly comment on your attire, your reputation would not be harmed. In fact, it might be enhanced. You would be one of the few, the very few, who live outside the rules, who are expected to be unusual.
如果你是切尔,你可以穿着一身头饰比衣服还要多的奇装怪服,上台做奥斯卡金像奖授奖致辞。如果你是艾伯特·爱因斯坦,你可以穿着一条皱巴巴的裤子、一件运动衫,和一双网球鞋在一个国际科学会议上发表讲话。虽说听众肯定会对你的穿着评头论足,你的声望却不会受到损坏。事实上,它还能提高你的名气。你会成为不受常规约束,人们期望与众不同的极少数人中的一个。

Now imagine what would happen if the president of a corporation showed up to address a stockholders' meeting attired like Cher, or if the President of the United States spoke on national television wearing wrinkled clothes and tennis shoes. Both presidents would soon be looking for work. Barring the occasional eccentric, every speaker is expected by his or her audience to exhibit a personal appearance in keeping with the occasion of the speech.
现在来设想一下,如果一个公司的总裁穿戴得像切尔一样,在股东会议上讲话,或者美国的总统穿着皱巴巴的裤子和一双网球鞋在全国电视节目上讲话,将会有什么样的事情发生。这两位老总很快就会失业的。除去个别的古怪之人,听众期望每一个演讲者应该外表与演讲的场合一致。

The President of the United States can be photographed in golfing clothes or riding clothes for a quick weekend interview at Camp David, but that same President will don a conservative suit and tie to address a joint session of Congress. Similarly, a business executive speaking at a winter sales conference in Acapulco would probably wear slacks and a casual shirt, because a business suit, in this atmosphere, would seem much too formal. But back home in San Francisco, Chicago, or New York, the same executive will be immaculately dressed in a well-tailored suit.
美国总统周末在戴维营接受简短的采访时,可以穿高尔夫球运动服或骑马的装束拍照。但同是这位总统,向国会联席会议发表讲话时却要穿传统的西服,戴领带。同样,一位商业主管在阿卡普尔科的冬季销售会上可能会穿休闲裤和便衫,因为在此氛围中,穿着西服会显得太正式。但是回到旧金山、芝加哥或纽约,同一位商业主管将会穿上光洁而笔挺的西服。

A number of studies have confirmed that personal appearance plays an important role in speechmaking. Listeners always see you before they hear you. Just as you adapt your language to the audience and the occasion, so should you dress and groom appropriately. Although the force of your speech can sometimes overcome a poor impression created by personal appearance, the odds are against it. (In a survey of top business executives, 84 percent revealed that their companies simply do not hire people who appear at job interviews improperly attired.) No matter what the speaking situation, you should try to evoke favorable first impressions - impressions that are likely to make listeners more receptive to what you say.
许多研究已经证实,个人的外表在做演讲时起着重要的作用。听众总是先看到你,而后再听到你讲话。正如你要使你的语言适应听众和当时的场合,你也应合适地穿戴打扮。尽管你演讲的感染力有时可以克服个人外表所造成的坏印象,但事情往往难遂人愿。(在一项对高级商业主管的调查中,有百分之八十四的人透露说 ,他们的公司干脆不雇用那些在招聘会上穿戴不整的人。)不管在什么情况下演讲,你都应当尽力去留下一个好的第一印象——会使听众对你的演讲更加接受的第一印象。

Bodily Action 身体的动作

Novice speakers are often unsure what to do with their bodies while giving a speech. Some pace nonstop back and forth across the podium, fearing that if they stop, they will forget everything. Others are perpetual-motion machines, constantly shifting their weight from one foot to the other, bobbing their shoulders, fidgeting with their notes, or jingling coins in their pockets. Still others turn into statues, standing rigid and expressionless from beginning to end.
新手们在演讲时往往不知道该拿自己的身体怎么办。有的人在讲台上不停地走来走去,害怕一停下来,就会把什么都忘掉。另外一些人则像一台恒动机,不断地把身子的重力从一只脚移到另一只脚,晃动肩膀,摆弄演稿,或把口袋里的硬币弄得叮当响。还有一些人变成了雕像,自始至终面无表情直挺挺地站着。

Such quirks usually stem from nervousness. If you are prone to distracting mannerisms, your teacher will identify them so you can work on controlling them in later speeches. With a little concentration, these mannerisms should disappear as you become more comfortable speaking in front of an audience.
这些古怪动作通常都是由于紧张。如果你易于慌乱无措,你的教师将会发现这一点,以便你在以后的演讲中努力加以控制。只要稍稍集中精力,这些毛病就会随着你在众面前讲话渐渐从容而消失。

As important as how you act during the speech is what you do just before you begin and after you finish. As you rise to speak, try to appear calm, poised, and confident, despite the butterflies in your stomach. When you reach the lectern, don't lean on it, and don't rush into your speech. Give yourself time to get set. Arrange your notes just the way you want them. Stand quietly as you wait to make sure the audience is paying attention. Establish eye contact with your listeners. Then - and only then - should you start to talk.
在开始演讲前和结束演讲后那一刻怎么做,这与你在演讲中怎么做同等重要。在你站起来演讲时,要尽力显得镇静、从容、自信,虽然你紧张得直恶心。走上讲台时,不要靠在讲台上,也不要慌忙开讲。给自己一点时间先平静下来。把演讲稿按你的需要摆放好。在你等待听众注意的时候,要静静地站好。与你的听众进行一下目光接触。到那时——只有到那时——你才能开始演讲。

When you reach the end of your speech, maintain eye contact for a few moments after you stop talking. This will give your closing line time to sink in. Unless you are staying at the lectern to answer questions, collect your notes and return to your seat. As you do so, maintain your cool, collected demeanor. Whatever you do, don't start to gather your notes before you have finished talking; and don't cap off your speech with a huge sigh of relief or some remark like "Whew! Am I glad that's over!"
到演讲结束时,停止讲话后要与听众保持片刻的目光接触。这会给人一定的时间来理解你的结束语。除非你要留在讲台上回答问题,不然就收起讲稿回到座位上去。这样做时,要保持镇静自若的风度。不管做什么,不要在结束演讲之前就开始整理讲稿;不要以一声如释重负的长叹或像“哟!总算讲完了!”这样的话来结束你的演讲。

All of this advice is common sense, yet you would be surprised how many people need it. When practicing your speeches, spend a little time rehearsing how you will behave at the beginning and at the end. It is probably the easiest - and one of the most effective - things you can do to improve your image with an audience.
所有这些建议都是常识性知识,然而令人惊讶的是太多的人都需要这种知识。在练习演讲时,花一点时间演练一下你在开始和结尾 的表现。这可能是你提高在听众心目中的形象所能做的最容易,也是最有效的事情之一。

Gestures 手势

Few aspects of delivery seem to cause students more anguish than deciding what to do with their hands. "Should I clasp them behind my back? Let them hang at my sides? Put them in my pockets? Rest them on the lectern? And what about gesturing? When should I do that - and how?" Even people who normally use their hands expressively in everyday conversation seem to regard them as awkward appendages when speaking before an audience.
演讲中很少有那些方面比决定手该干什么会给学生们带来更大的苦恼。“我应该把双手紧握起来放到后面?让它们垂放在身体两侧?把它们放进口袋里?放到讲台上?手势怎么办?我该什么时候打手势――怎样打?”即使那些通常在日常会话中能富有表现力地运用手势的人,在听众面前讲话时也觉得双手成了笨拙的附属物。

Over the years, more nonsense has been written about gesturing than about any other aspect of speech delivery. Adroit gestures can add to the impact of a speech; but there is nothing to the popular notion that public speakers must have a vast repertoire of graceful gestures. Some accomplished speakers gesture frequently; others hardly at all. The primary rule is this: Whatever gestures you make should not draw attention to themselves and distract from your message. They should appear natural and spontaneous, help to clarify or reinforce your ideas, and be suited to the audience and occasion.
多年以来,人们写的关于打手势的废话,比演讲的任何其它方面的都要多。熟练的手势能够增加演讲的影响力;但是普遍认为的公众演说家必须掌握一整套优雅的手势这一点却是无稽之谈。有些出色的演说家经常打手势;有些则从来不打。首要的原则是:不管打什么手势都不应把注意力吸引到手势本身上去,从而分散了你要传达的信息。手势应该显得自然,由衷而发,应该帮助阐明或进一步证实你的观点,还应该适合于听众和场合。

At this stage of your speaking career, you have many more important things to concentrate on than how to gesture. Gesturing tends to work itself out as you acquire experience and confidence. In the meantime, make sure your hands do not upstage your ideas. Avoid flailing them about, wringing them together, cracking your knuckles, or toying with your rings. Once you have eliminated these distractions, forget about your hands. Think about communicating with your listeners, and your gestures will probably take care of themselves - just as they do in conversation.
在你从事演讲的这一个阶段,有比如何打手势更重要的事情值得你注意。随着经验的积累和信心的增强,你会自然而然地学会打手势。在这同时,注意不要使打手势和表达思想本末倒置。不要使劲儿地挥动双手,不要把双手绞在一起,不要压指关节,或玩弄指环。一旦你消除掉了这些分神之事,忘掉你的双手。考虑考虑如何和你的听众交流,你的手势可能就会随之而来——就像在谈话中的手势那样。

Eye Contact 目光接触

The eyeball itself expresses no emotion. Yet by manipulating the eyeball and the areas of the face around it - especially the upper eyelids and the eyebrow - we are able to convey an intricate array of nonverbal messages. So revealing are these messages that we think of the eyes as "the windows of the soul." We look to them to help gauge the truthfulness, intelligence, attitudes, and feelings of a speaker.
眼球本身并不表达什么感情。然而通过运动眼球和它周围的面部——尤其是上眼睑和眉毛——我们就能够传达一系列复杂的非言语信息。这些信息是如此地深刻,以至我们把眼睛看成是“心灵的窗户”。我们依靠双眼来判断一个演讲者的真诚、智力、态度和感情。

The quickest way to establish a communicative bond with your listeners is to look them in the eye, personally and pleasantly. Avoiding their gaze is one of the surest ways to lose them. At best, speakers who refuse to establish eye contact are perceived as tentative and ill-at-ease. At worst, they are perceived as insincere or dishonest. No wonder teachers urge students to look at the audience 80 to 90 percent of the time they are talking.
与你的听众建立一个交际纽带的最快的办法,是亲切而愉快地正视他们。避开听众的目光最会失去听众。最好的情况下,不愿同听众进行目光接触的演讲者,会被看成是犹豫不定,心神不安。最坏的时候,他们会被看成是言不由衷或不诚实。难怪教师们要求学生,在演讲中百分这八十到九十的时间都要看着听众。

You may find this disconcerting at first. But after one or two speeches, you should be able to meet the gaze of your listeners as comfortably as you do in casual conversation. As you look at your listeners, be alert for their reactions. Can they hear you? Do they understand you? Are they awake? Your eyes will help you answer these questions.
起初,你会觉得这样令人惊惶不安。不过经过一两次的演讲,你就应该能像在随便的谈话中那样比较自在的迎接听众的目光了。在看你的听众时,要注意他们的反应。他们能听见你吗?听懂你的话了吗?他们是否醒着?你的眼睛会帮你回答这些问题。

It isn't enough just to look at your listeners; how you look at them also counts. A blank stare is almost as bad as no eye contact at all. So is a fierce, hostile glower or a series of frightened, bewildered glances. Also beware of the tendency to gaze intently at one part of the audience while ignoring the rest. In speech class some students look only at the section of the room where the teacher is setting. Others avoid looking anywhere near the teacher and focus on one or two sympathetic friends. You should try to establish eye contact with your whole audience. When addressing a small group (such as your class), you can usually look briefly from one person to another. For a larger group, you will probably scan the audience rather than trying to engage the eyes of each person individually. No matter what the size of your audience, you want your eyes to convey confidence, sincerity, and conviction. They should say, "I am pleased to be able to talk with you. I believe deeply in what I am saying, and I want you to believe in it too."
仅仅看着你的听众还是不够的;你如何看他们也很重要。目光呆滞地盯着看,几乎和不进行目光接触一样糟糕。恶狠狠地瞪着眼睛或一连串受惊吓的、迷惑的瞟视也是如此。同时也要警惕死盯着听众的某一部分看而忽略其余的人的倾向。在演讲课上有些学生只看老师所在的那一处。另外一些人则避着不看靠近老师的地方,而是把目光盯着看一两个有同情心的朋友。你的目光应与所有的听众接触。当在一小群人(比方在班里)面前演讲时,你通常可以很快地从一个人看到另一个人。对于很大一群人来说,你可能要扫视听众,而不是竭力与每个人都进行目光接触。不管你的听众的规模有多大,都要让你的眼睛传达自信、真诚和 信念。它们应该表达出这样的意思:“很高兴能和你们在一块儿谈话。我深信我所说的话,我希望你们也能相信这些话。” 

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 楼主| 发表于 2009-7-6 13:38 | 显示全部楼层

Nonverbal Communication 非言语交际 汉英对照

Information related to the text


1) More about Nonverbal Communication:


  Definition of nonverbal communication: Nonverbal communication is the process by which nonverbal behaviors are used, either singly or in combination with verbal behaviors, in the exchange and interpretation of messages within a given situation or context.


  Classes of Nonverbal Communication


  1. Facial expression and eye behavior
  2. Body movement and gestures
  3. Touching behavior
  4. Voice characteristics and qualities
  5. Culture and time
  6. Environment
  7. Body types, shapes, and sizes
  8. Clothing and personal artifacts.


  Functions of Nonverbal Communication


  1. Complementing: adding extra information to the verbal message
  2. Contradicting: when our nonverbal messages contradict our verbal messages
  3. Repeating: used in order to emphasize or clarify the verbal message
  4. Regulating: serves to coordinate the verbal dialogue between people
  5. Substituting: occurs when a nonverbal message is transmitted in place of a verbal message
  6. Accenting: emphasizing a particular point in a verbal message

 

2) Language notes:


1. Alan seems relaxed and even-tempered.

Even-tempered: not excitable.

 

2. If you were Cher, you could show up to make an Academy Award presentation speech wearing a bizarre creation that had more headdress than dress.

Cher(1946-), Cherilyn Sarkisian La Piere . American actress, won the Academy Award for Best Actress for her role in Moonstruck.
 

3. Both presidents would soon be looking for work.

Be looking for work: lose their job and have to look for a new one.

 

4. Although the force of your speech can sometimes overcome a poor impression created by personal appearance, the odds are against it.


Odds: the probability that one thing is so or will happen rather than another; chances.

 

5. As you rise to speak, try to appear calm, poised, and confident, despite the butterflies in your stomach.


Butterfly in the stomach: (pl) a feeling of hollowness or queasiness caused esp. by emotional or nervous tension or anxious anticipation.

 

6. This will give your closing line time to sink in.


Sink in: be completely understood; be fully realized or felt.
  e.g. When he heard that war had started, it didn't sink in for a long time until his father was drafted into the army.

 

7. The quickest way to establish a communicative bond with your listeners is to look them in the eye, personally and pleasantly.


Look sb/sth in the eye: look boldly and steadily at (a person, danger, an opponent, enemy, etc).
  e.g. He is a person of high principles, who can look anyone straight in the eye.
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