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学位英语不定式(Infinitive)讲解、学习方法

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发表于 2016-12-21 10:13 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
不定式(Infinitive)
不定式的功能——有名词、形容词、副词的功能。不定式是学习英语的难点之一,也是构成长句的一个重要因素。不定式有自己的宾语、状语和补足语,组成不定式短语。在分析句子时要把不定式短语看作一个整体。不定式在句中可作主语、表语、宾语、定语、状语和补足语。
下面,华慧学位英语为大家介绍不定式的一些重点句型
I  不定式作主语
核心句型一:  
It is + 形容词 + (for / of  + 名词 / 代词) + to do sth.  
(在这个结构中,for/ of 引出不定式的逻辑主语,说明不定式的动作是谁做的)
For用于客观形容词句。Of 用于主观形容词句。
常用于of 句型的形容词:
brave, careful, clever, considerate (体贴的,考虑周到的), cowardly (胆小的,怯懦的), cruel, foolish, generous (慷慨大方的), good, kind, nice, polite (有礼貌的), http://xueweiyingyu.b2cedu.com(零基础通关攻略) right, rude, selfish, silly, thoughtful (考虑周到的,体贴的), wise, wrong, etc.
核心句型二:
It will take / takes / took sb. some time to do sth.  某人用(花)了。。。时间做某事
II  不定式作宾语
有些动词只可以用不定式做宾语:
afford, agree, ask, cannot help but(禁不住),cannot but(不得不), choose, claim, dare, decide, decline, demand, desire, determine, endeavor(努力), expect, guarantee(担保,保证), hope, long(渴望), manage, offer, pretend, promise, refuse, swear(发誓), threaten, undertake, wish, etc.
核心句型(不定式做宾语)
动词 + it + 形容词+(for sb.)+不定式
例句 They found it necessary to set out early.他们认为有必要早些出发。
常用于这一结构的动词: feel, think, consider, find, make, leave, etc.
III   不定式作宾语补足语: 重点Have 的用法
have sb. do sth. 让某人做某事
My teacher had me rewrite the composition for three times.
相同的结构: make, let
2.Have sth. / sb. done
请别人做某事  I had my house painted yesterday.
遭遇(不好的事)I had my purse / wallet stolen on the bus yesterday.
IV  不定式作状语
核心句型一(表结果)
Too…to…  太…以至于不…
It is too late for the shop to be open.  天太晚了,商店不开门了。
核心句型二(表结果)  Be enough to do sth.  …足以…
核心句型三(表示结果)Only to do sth. 不料 (表示意料之外)
核心句型四:(表目的)
(1)So as to… 为的是
(2)In order to … 为的是
不定式省略to的情况
1.在助动词、情态动词后面
注意:ought,have,be后面的不定式不能省略to。
Ought to = should,
Have to = must。
Be to do sth. 将来时的句型之一。
2.下列短语情态动词后面
Would rather, would sooner, would just as soon(宁愿), may / might just as well(不妨), cannot but(不得不,必然), cannot help but(禁不住)等等
3.不带to的不定式在感官动词、使役动词后面做宾语补足语
感官动词  feel , see,hear,watch, notice, observe
使役动词  make, have, let
但是,这类句子如果变为被动语态,不定式就成为主语补语,这时一定要加上To 。
He is often heard to sing that song.
She was seen to go upstairs just now.
The employees were made to work 10 hours yesterday.
4.在Why / Why not…?结构之后
Why not join us?(= invitation)
5.在except,but 之后,如果前面有do的任何形式,不定式to 省略;否则,不定式要带to。
There is nothing to do except wait till it stops raining. 无事可做,只有等着雨停。
不定式的各种形式及意义
不定式的否定式:not to do
不定式各种形式的意义
1.不定式的一般体to do
不强调时间关系。
2.不定式的进行体to be doing
表示不定式动作现刻正在进行,或与谓语动作同时发生,或一直、始终在进行。
3.不定式的完成体to have done
表示一个先时行为。
4.不定式的被动形式 :表示一个被动的行为。
被动式的一般体to be done
不定式的被动形式 to have been done
(2)被动式的完成体
5.不定式的主动形式表示被动意义
I am not to blame.  不能怪我。
The house is to let.  吉屋出租。
6.疑问词+不定式短语
wh-疑问词包括 who(m), when, whose, where, what, which (除了 why)
疑问词+不定式短语
Every man is a volume, if you know how to read him.  每个人都是一本书,就看你会不会读了。
例题:
1.不定式短语作主语。
To learn English well is important.
学好英语是重要的。(不定式短语To learn English well作主语。)
2.不定式短语作宾语。
He pretended not to see me.
他假装没看见我。(不定式短语not to see me作宾语。)
I haven't decided whether to sell it or not.
我还没有决定是否卖它。(不定式短语whether to sell it or not作宾语。)
I find it difficult to understand him.
我发现很难理解他。(不定式短语to understand him作真正宾语,it是形式宾语。)
3.不定式短语作补语。
My idea is to climb the mountain from the north.
我的意见是从北面爬上山。(不定式短语to climb the mountain from the north作主语补语。)
The teacher asked me to open the window.
老师要我打开窗户。(不定式短语to open the window作宾语补语。)
4.不定式短语作修饰语。【参见不定式在句中的作用】
I have no wish to quarrel with you.
我不想和你吵架。(不定式短语to quarrel with you作名词wish的修饰语。)
He ran to catch the bus.
他跑步去赶公车。(不定式短语to catch the bus作动词ran的修饰语。)
Henry was happy to hear the news.
听到这个消息亨利很高兴。(不定式短语to hear the news作形容词happy的修饰语。)
时态/语态 主动语态 被动语态 一般时 to do to be done 进行时 to be doing 完成时 to have done to have been done 完成进行时 to have been doing

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发表于 2017-9-15 16:47 | 显示全部楼层
Henry was happy to hear the news
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